Conservation & Recycling Recycling Notes 1. Resources: Materials from the natural environment that humans use. Ex) plants, animals, metals, oil & gases 2. Renewable Resources: Materials replenished by natural processes. (If we don’t use them too fast.) Ex) fresh air and water, plants & animals 3. Nonrenewable Resources: Materials that cannot be replenished. Ex) metals, natural gas, coal & petroleum 4. The US accounts for 5% of the world’s population and uses 50% of the world’s resources. The average US citizen uses 25 tons of resources withdrawn from the Earth each year. In a lifetime a typical US citizen uses: 26 million gallons of water 21,000 gallons of gasoline 52 tons of iron & steel 50 tons of food 6.5 tons of paper 5 tons of fertilizer 1200 barrels of petroleum 5. We must conserve our nonrenewable resources. 6. Using or obtaining resources and using products often produces new unwanted material and pollution: burning coal generates corrosive gases chewing gum – throw away the wrapper drink coffee – old coffee maker breaks - discard read paper – discard eating quick – uses a lot of overpackaged food and products 7. Land Fills: Garbage can be resources out of place. The average US citizen “throws away” 4 lbs of garbage per day. 2 lbs of this is paper. 80% of land fills will be filled within 20 years! Time to decompose in a landfill can be very long. US disposes of 1.1 million tons of paper plates/cups per year US disposes of 250 million tires per year How long does it take for a glass bottle to decompose? • • • • • napkin – 1 year newspaper – 5 years plastic bag – 20 years nylon fabric – 40 years tin cans – 50 years plastic rings – 100 years plastic cup – 250 years Al cans – 500 years glass bottle – 1 million years • Which of these are renewable? 8. Five R’s of Conservation: Replace – use something different instead Reuse – repair/refurbish - use longer Recycle – reprocess to use again Rethink – how we act/habits in conserving (buy in bulk) Reduce – use less of each resource 9. Benefits of Recycling More: decrease waste storage problem (landfill space) lower demand for nonrenewable resources lower price for nonrenewable resources lower pollution save energy/$ more jobs 10. Recycling Materials Examples: Paper renewable resource (25 years). Average US citizen uses 8.5 trees per year. ½ the energy required to process recycled paper. Only 20% of our paper is recycled. B. Aluminum nonrenewable resource. US imports 85% of our Al. Recycling Al takes only 5-10% of the energy needed to produce Aluminum from its ore. 50% of our Aluminum cans are recycled. C. Glass nonrenewable resource made from sand. 20-25% of our glass is made from recycled glass. D. Plastic nonrenewable resource made from petroleum. The number inside the chasing arrows symbol on the bottom of the plastic is the key to the type of plastic. The lower the number – the easier it is to recycle. Polyethylene Terephalate – tough and lightweight. Accounts for 48% of all plastic. Used for 2-L soda bottles and many other foods. Can be recycled into fabric for clothing, athletic shoes, luggage, upholstery, furniture, carpet, fiberfill for sleeping bags and winter coats, luggage racks, bumpers, and grilles. High Density Polyethylene – tough and stiff. Accounts for 47% of all plastic. Used for milk containers and many other foods. Can be recycled into drainage pipe, liquid laundry detergent bottles, oil bottles, pens, benches, doghouses, recycling containers, floor tile, picnic tables, fencing, lumber, and mailbox posts. Therefore 95% of all plastic is #1 and #2 which can be recycled easily! Polyvinylchloride (PVC) – tough and grease resistant. Used for window cleaner bottles, cooking oil bottles, detergent bottles and siding. Can be recycled into binders, decking, paneling, mud flaps, roadway gutters, flooring, cables, speed bumps, and mats. Low density polyethylene – flexible and transparent. Used for squeezable bottles, bread bags, frozen food bags, tote bags, clothing, furniture, dry cleaning bags, and carpet. Can be recycled into floor tile, garbage can liners, shipping envelopes, furniture, compost bins, paneling, trash cans, lumber, and landscaping ties. Polypropylene – tough and low density. Very heat resistant – can be used for yogurt containers, syrup bottles, ketchup bottles, caps, straws and medicine bottles. Can be recycled into signal lights, battery cables, brooms, brushes, auto battery cases, ice scrapers, landscape borders, bicycle racks, rakes, bins, pallets, and trays. Polystyrene – good insulator, low melting point. Used for plastics &, cups, cutlery, meat trays, egg cartons, carryout containers, aspirin bottles, and compact disc jackets. Can be recycled into insulation, light switch plates, egg cartons, vents, rulers, foam packing, and carry-out containers. Other – can be a combination of any of the 6 types of plastic or an unnumbered container. Can be used for three and five gallon water bottles, and certain food product bottles. It is recycled into plastic lumber, and other custom-made products. Materials D.4: Combinations of Elements – page 160 11. Alloy: a solid combination of atoms of 2 or more metals. Zn & Cu = brass Cu & Sn = bronze Sn, Cu & Bi = pewter Fe & C = steel Au, Cu & Ag = 14 kt gold Au & Pd = white gold Hg, Ag, Sn, Cu, Zn = amalgam (silver fillings) C.4: % Composition Notes 1. History of US Penny: A. pre 1943 – made almost 99% copper B. 1943 – “white cents” – zinc coated steel C. 1944 – back to 99% copper D. Since August 1982 – 97.5% zinc coated with 2.5% copper.