Document 13310863

advertisement
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Research Article Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Bones, and Brains of Some Aquatic Species at the Northwestern Part of Suez Gulf *
E. A. Omayma , E. Mona, A. F. Nazik Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. *Corresponding author’s E‐mail: [email protected] Accepted on: 08‐01‐2016; Finalized on: 31‐01‐2016.
ABSTRACT Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focused on fishbone and brain as a tool to detect bioaccumulation of metals, so ten fish species were collected from Suez Gulf to evaluate if toxicant elements has an effect on bone and brain which suffered negative effects due to trace element levels, detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of Hg, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Cr, Co, and Ca were determined in the bone and brain of Sauridaundo squamis; Euthynnus affinis; Rhabdosargus haffara; Argyrops spinifer; Nemipterus japonicus; Oreochromis niloticus; Trachurus indicus; Peneus japonicas; Scomber japonicus and Pomadasys stridens. The results show total concentrations for metals in order of decreasing content was as follows Ca>Fe>Co>Cr>Zn>Cu>V>Mn>Al>Pb>Ni. However, mercury ranged from 0.0069 to 0.2095 μg/g wet wt. (mean value 0.1040 μg/g wet wt.), which is lower than the prescribed limits (0.4 μg/g wet wt.). Species‐specific and spatially heterogeneous patterns of tissues metals loads were apparent within the pelagic and demersal fish species for the area of study. Metal selectivity index (MSI) obtained for all the metals except Hg and Ca showed that both pelagic and demersal fish species have almost same kind of affinity towards the metals, irrespective of their feeding habit. The MSI values also indicate that the fishes have the potential to accumulate metals. High tissue selectivity index (TSI) values were reported for bone and brain for all metals suggests that the metal concentration in these tissues can serve as an indication of metal polluted environment. Fishes like Nemipterus japonicus being a favorite's food of people in this region; the high consumption of it can lead to chronic disorders as this fish has high concentration of metals. Keywords: Suez Gulf, metals, Fish, bone and brain, Feeding habits, TSI. INTRODUCTION A harmful class of aquatic pollutants is represented by trace elements owing to their toxicity, carcinogenicity, persistence, together with their bioaccumulative and non‐biodegradable properties in food chains. Trace element pollution in marine ecosystems has increased, principally due to numerous anthropogenic inputs, direct consequence of mining, industrial, urban and agricultural activities1. Fish represent a sensitive group to trace element pollution especially they belong to high trophic levels of food webs. Indeed, they tend to bioaccumulate trace elements especially in tissues with high fat content, which becoming good bioindicators of trace element availability and potential stress to marine ecosystems2. At the same time, as fish represent an important food source, human consumption of fish tissues exceeding trace element acceptable levels poses a severe risk to human health3. Moreover, fish exposed to high contamination levels can suffer from major alterations of biochemical pathways4. Although the damages of pollutant exposure have been analyzed in several fish tissues, such as muscle, gill, brain and liver5 among others, to our knowledge, the effect of trace element pollution on fish bone and brain has received relatively little attention6. Nevertheless, bones may be used as proxies for evaluating contamination levels in fish. Previous insights obtained in mammals suggest a clear relationship between bone mineralogical features and environmental pollution7. Bone is one of the most sophisticated biological structures developed by nature8. The major constituent of bone is a calcium phosphate mineral that is similar in composition and structure to minerals within the apatite group, which are naturally formed in the Earth’s crust9. In particular, the inorganic components of both bone and enamel have been likened to the mineral hydroxylapatite (HAP)10, which is an OH‐containing mineral with a very specific structure and composition. There is an increasing interest in medical and toxicological research related to the factors altering bone mineralization11. Some others12 have reviewed the effects of Hg accumulation in the fish brain, describing “reduced neurosecretory material, hypothalamic neuron degeneration, and alterations in parameters of monoaminergic neurotransmission”. The potential neurotoxic effects of Hg can be assessed by comparing brain Hg concentrations of fish to levels that can affect the central nervous system (CNS). Despite that, we do not have studies of fish‐brain Hg concentrations. There is a scarcity of knowledge about fish biomarkers of MeHg neurotoxicity for use in aquatic environment studies. We need to learn fish neurotoxin thresholds. With the largest diversity of fresh‐water fish in the planet, there is a lack of data regarding Hg concentrations in brain of fish from Amazonian tropical rivers. Various toxicological studies have proved how many toxicants, like trace elements and organochlorines, may cause skeletal damages and malformations, inducing alterations 13
in bone formation and composition . During the last International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 209
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X century, this system has been particularly deteriorated by direct discharge of industrial contaminants as well as by navigation and dredging of polluted sediments, which presumably spread xenobiotics, especially Hg, along the entire coastal area and in the surrounding offshore system. Here, several skeletal malformations of fishbone, such as scoliosis, abnormal thickening, y‐shaped column, and fin deformities have been documented in two fish species (Sarda sarda and Pagellus erythrinus), and are presumably correlated with the elevated Cd and Zn 14
concentrations measured in their tissues . Suez Gulf is recognized as a chronically polluted marine area, especially due to a heavy industrialization (chemical and petrochemical plants together with oil refineries), with resulting risks to ecosystem and human health15. The aims of the present study are (i) analysis the chemical content in fish bone and brain of ten fish species collected from Suez Gulf, (ii) assessment the trace element concentrations (Hg, Al, Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Cr, Co, and Ca) in fishbone and brain and (iii) Evaluation any possible a response to pollution in fishbone and brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study area The Gulf of Suez is a large semi‐closed area. Its length reaches 346 km, with an average width of 54.2 km, and average depth of 40 m16. It has a total surface area of about 10,510 km2. For this study, ten stations were selected at the North western part of Suez Gulf Fig.(1), they are exposed to the different sources of pollution including, domestic drainage, oil refineries and ship’s effluents, and coastal oil pollution in the vicinity of the SUMED pipeline company terminals. Localized pollution problems are mainly due to increasing coastal development activities including large urbanization, tourist centers and industrial development. Figure 1: Study area showing sampling locations. Sample collection and preservation Ten fish species Fig. (2) Were collected from the coastal waters of the Suez Gulf by using cast or throw fishing net from different water bodies and geographical regions. The general characteristics and morphometric data of the fish species collected are shown in Table (1). They were first identified, and the number of individual fish species, total lengths (cm) and the body‐wet weights (g) were determined, labeled, stored in ice at ‐ 20°C in polyethylene bags into isolated container of polystyrene box. In laboratory, bone and brain organs were separated, weighed, and then deep frozen. Subsequently, dissected tissues of the fish specimens were dried in an oven at 105°C and stored in vacuum desiccators. Digestion and analytical procedures Dried tissues were ground, sieved and weighed accurately to the fourth decimal in a digestion vessel of 15 ml capacity kjldahl digestion tubes. 4 c.c. of concentrated HNO3 was added to the samples. The vessel was placed in a digestion block on a hot plate at 120C for two hours. The block was then left over night for cooling17. It was insured that the digestion conditions were followed exactly; this is being achieved when the solution was being clear after cooling. The solution was filtered using Wattman No. 42 filters paper and kept in a polyethylene bottle previously cleaned with nitric acid and rinsed with deionized water. The contents of each tube was then transferred to a measuring flask and diluted with deionized water. Concentrations of heavy metals were analyzed in the studied samples by atomic absorption spectrometry according to ASTMD4961 using atomic absorption spectrometer ZEEnit 700P, Germany. Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, Ca, Mn, and Zn were determined by flame absorption using acetylene/air flame, at 248.8 nm, 324.8nm, 217 nm, 357.9 nm, 240.7 nm, 232 nm, 422.7 nm, 279.5 nm, and 213.9 nm, respectively. Al and V were determined by flame absorption using acetylene/nitrous flame, at 309.3 nm, and 318.5 nm, respectively. Hg was analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer (CV‐AAS) attached to hydride system. This system is usually used for quantitative determination of mercury in liquid samples due to its high sensitivity and selectivity as well as its extremely low detection limits (1 μg/L). Briefly, Hg was reduced using Na B H4 in presence of argon as a carrier gas, moved through a gas liquid separator. The gaseous mercury is enriched on a gold collector, and then heated to release elemental mercury which was re‐carried out to a quartz cell inside the atomic measurement unit where the concentration of elemental mercury is measured. All experiments were measured in triplicate and average values were calculated. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 210
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Table 1: General characteristics and morphometric data of some Aquatic Species collected along Suez Gulf. Code Sites Scientific name Common name Feeding habits( Main food) Habitat type ( Environment) No. Fish length Fish wet. (cm) wt (g) 1 AL‐ Nasr Oil Company (NPC) Sauridaundo squamis Brushtooth lizard fish Carnivore (small fish) Demersal, (benthic). 7 14 400 2 Outlet of Suez Oil Euthynnus affinis Petroleum Company (SOPC) Kawakawa Feeds on small fish, squids, and Found in open waters but 1 sometimes zooplankton (Omnivore). always close to the shoreline. 40 350 3 Old Al‐Kabanon Rhabdosargus haffara Haffara sea bream Feeds on benthic invertebrates. Inhabits shallow waters, 4 Consumed fresh (Predator). mainly around coral reefs, and over sandy or mud‐sandy bottoms. 13.5 420 4 New Al‐Kabanon Argyrops spinifer Porgies Feeds on benthic invertebrates, Inhabits a wide range of 4 mainly mollusks, important food fish bottoms. Young fish occur in very shallow waters of (Predator). sheltered bays; larger individuals in deeper water. 15 480 5 Inlet of Suez Oil Nemipterus japonicus Petroleum Company (SOPC) Japanese threadfin bream Carnivore on small fish, invertebrate's polychates (Predator). 18 425 6 Atakah Harbor Oreochromis niloticus Nile Tilapia Herbivorous, feed on phytoplankton Benthic and pelagic due to air 3 (Omnivore). bladder. 14.5 389 7 Adabiya Harbor Trachurus indicus Horse Mackerel Carnivore (invertebrates and fish) Pelagic. (Predator). 24 431 8 Suez Beach Peneus japonicas Red mullets Prey of small fish and crustaceans Inhabit the inshore area and 8 (Predator). coral reefs, can be found on a range of sea beds including sand, mud and coarse gravel. 11.5 450 9 El‐ Sukhna of Loloha Scomber japonicus Beach Chub mackerel, Pacific Feed on copepods and other A coastal pelagic species, to a 4 mackerel or blue crustacean, fishes and squids lesser extent epipelagic to mackerel (Predator). mesopelagic over the continental slope. 21 470 10 Beach of oil pipeline Striped piggy 13.5 495 Pomadasys stridens Demersal. 5 4 Feeding on a variety of crustaceans, Living in the reef environment 3 mollusks and small juvenile fishes, and sandy. called a predator (Predator). No: number of sample
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 211
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Sauridaundo squamis/ Brushtooth lizard fish Euthynnus affinis/ Kawakawa Rhabdosargus haffara/ Haffara Sea bream Argyrops spinifer / Porgies Nemipterus japonicus/ Japanese Threadfin bream /Oreochromis niloticus Nile tilapia Trachurus indicus/ Horse mackerel /Peneus japonicas Red mullets Scomber japonicus/ Chub Mackerel, Pacific mackerel or Blue mackerel Pomadasys stridens/ Striped piggy Figure 2: Photographs of ten Aquatic Species collected along the Suez Gulf. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 212
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Table 2: Accumulation of T Hg (μg /g wet wt.) in bone and brain of fishes along Suez Gulf Fish species↓ Element→ Hg T Hg Sauridaundo squamis Bone Brain 0.0337 Bone Brain 0.0540 Bone Brain 0.0409 Bone Brain 0.0776 Bone Brain 0.0843 Bone Brain 0.0043 Bone Brain 0.0458 Bone Brain 0.0229 Bone Brain 0.0126 Bone Brain 0.0299 Range of Bone Mean 0.0043‐0.0843 Range of Brain Mean Euthynnus affinis Rhabdosargus haffara Argyrops spinifer Nemipterus japonicus Oreochromis niloticus Trachurus indicus Peneus japonicas Scomber japonicas Pomadasys stridens 0.1217 0.0460 0.1081 0.1283 0.0837 0.0026 0.0570 0.0303 0.0372 0.0192 0.0406 0.0026‐0.1283 0.0634 0.1554 0.1000 0.1490 0.2095 0.1680 0.0069 0.1028 0.0532 0.0498 0.0491 T.R =0.0069‐0.2095 T.M = 0.1040 Hg: Mercury; T Hg; Total mercury; T.R = Total range; T.M = Total mean. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Accumulation of metals in bone and brain of aquatic species comparable with reported literature values The concentration of accumulated heavy metals in bones, and brain of selected fishes are given in Tables (2) & (3). All results are expressed as μg/g wet wt. using converting factor 0.3; since the moisture is usually about 70%18. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment19. Exposure to high levels of metallic, inorganic, or organic mercury can permanently damage bone, brain and developing fetus20. The results Table (2) indicated that the concentration of Hg in bone ranged from 0.0043 to 0.0843 μg/g wet wt, and in brain from 0.0026 to 0.1283 μg/g wet wt, respectively. Argyrols spinifer and Predatory Nemipterus japonicus recorded 0.2095 μg/g wet wt and 0.1680 μg/g wet wt, the highest levels of total mercury than the other species. Total Hg ranged from 0.0069 to 0.2095 μg/g wet wt. (mean value 0.1040 μg/g wet wt. i.e. 0.350 μg/g dry wt.), which are lower than those reported from other marine areas, 21
varying from N.D‐0.925 and N.D‐1.236μg/g dry wt. in Southwest India for bone and brain respectively; 1.400‐
7.176μg/g wet wt. in illegal fish farm in Al‐Minufiya Province, Egypt22; 0.23‐1.2 μg/g dry wt. in North Sea coast23; 0.46‐3.4 μg/g wet wt.24 in Mediterranean, Scotland, United Kingdom. Data obtained from this study are consistent with those reported from the Madeira River; Brazilian Amazon 0.03‐
0.37μg/g wet wt.12 and with previous findings in the USA, 0.09 μg/g wet wt.25; 0.2537μg/g wet wt.26; in Ivory Coast and Comparable Hg levels found in Brazil 0.02 μg/g wet wt.27; and in Italy 0.16 μg/g wet wt.28; Lake Mead, USA 0.08 μg/g wet wt.29. Mercury also occurs naturally in seawater, and coastal waters receive mercury runoff from land, input from rivers, and airborne deposition. Regarding the existing law for Hg, the European Community, Canada, and the FDA establish a total Hg level of 1 μg/g wet wt.30‐32; Japan sets forth limit values of 0.4 μg/g wet wt.33 whereas, in Brazil limit values are 0.5 μg/g wet wt. for non predator fishes and 1.0 μg/g for predator ones34. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 213
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Aluminum despite some reports for a role of Al in physiological processes, there is no clear evidence that it plays an essential function in organisms35. Moreover it is well known that Al can be potentially neurotoxic and there have been concerns in recent years that dietary and environmental exposure to this element could cause developmental toxicity in organisms. Indeed, there is unequivocal evidence that Al induces neurofibrillary degeneration in animal brains following intracerebral 36
Ainjections and systemic Al exposure . Normally, Suez fish maintain low Al concentrations in their bones ranged from N.D to 2.199 μg/g wet wt. compared to the brain from N.D to 14.63 μg/g wet wt. as indicated in Table (3). However, it is now recognized that toxicity can occur, either if accumulation is markedly increased or renal clearance is impaired. We found a high variability in Al concentrations; in particular, Nemipterus japonicus showed low Al level in the bone 1.513 μg/g wet wt. compared to the brain level 14.639 μg/g wet wt. beside, Oreochromis niloticus and Scomber japonicus recorded high levels in bone 2.199, 0.909 μg/g wet wt. but low in the brain 1.331 & 0.4006 μg/g wet wt. respectively. As shown in Table (3), the mean values of Aluminum are 1.117 and 1.720 μg/g wet wt. for bone and brain respectively. The concentration of Al can be ordered in bone as follows: Oreochromis niloticus> Peneus japonicas> Argyrops spinifer> Nemipterus japonicus> Trachurus indicus> Rhabdosargus haffara> Scomber japonicus> Euthynnus affinis> Sauridaundo squamis μg/g wet wt. and Pomadasys stridens was under the limit of detection and In brain as follows: Nemipterus japonicus>Oreochromis niloticus> Pomadasys stridens> Scomber japonicus> Sauridaundo squamis=Euthynnus affinis = Rhabdosargus haffara = Argyrops spinifer = Trachurus indicus=Peneus japonicas. Al levels have been reported in the range of 4.098‐8.339μg/g wet wt. in Al‐
21
Minufiyah Province, Egypt ; N.D‐12.61 μg/g wet wt. in bone at Mediterranean, Scotland, United Kingdom23; and 1.38‐ 2.73 μg/g wet wt. in brain fish at Adriatic coast of Southern Italy37, levels in analyzed samples were found to be higher than those reported in the literatures. High levels of Al are toxic to fish, so that bio‐concentration generally is not significant38. In another study revealed that Al exposure disturbs osmoregulation in fish39. The freshwater criterion to protect aquatic life is 87μg/L chronic and 750 μg/L acute40. Zinc being a heavy metal has a tendency to get bioaccumulation in the fatty tissues of aquatic organisms, including fish and is known as a reproductive physiology effect in fishes41. Some authors reported that chronic exposure to Zn and Cu is associated with Parkinson’s disease42 and these elements might act alone or together over time to induce the disease43. Fishes are known to have a high threshold level of Zn. From Table (3), there was a great variation in Zn concentrations among the studied tissues, ranged from 5.963 to 17.246, and from 10.197 to 286.872 in bone and brain respectively. The brain of all the fishes showed considerable amount of Zn accumulation, Nemipterus japonicus contain the highest amount of zinc in its brain 286.872 μg/g wet wt. and the lowest Zn in Pomadasys stridens 10.197 μg/g wet wt. among the ten species of fish. The high levels of Zn are likely attributed to the high Zn levels in the local habitat, as industrial and anthropogenic input of metals from Suez 17
City and the maritime activities through the Suez Canal . The concentration of Zn in bone can be ordered as follows: Oreochromis niloticus> Rhabdosargus haffara> Trachurus indicus> Peneus japonicas> Euthynnus affinis> Scomber japonicus> Sauridaundo squamis>Pomadasys stridens> Argyrops spinifer> Nemipterus japonicus. Whereas, in brain as follows: Nemipterus japonicus> Oreochromis niloticus> Sauridaundo squamis>Scomber japonicus> Rhabdosargus haffara>Trachurus indicus> Peneus japonicas> Euthynnus affinis> Argyrops spinifer> Pomadasys stridens. Zn levels have been reported in the range of 97.6 ‐ 98.4 and 53.7 μg/g dry wt. at North Sea 22
coast for bone and brain respectively; 13.88‐24.12 μg/g wet wt. in bone23; 14.23 ‐ 16.52 μg/g wet wt.37 in brain fish at Adriatic coast of Southern Italy; in addition to that 0.800±0.037μg/g wet wt. at Tajan River, Iran44; 8.29±0.38 μg/g wet wt. in Caspian Sea45; 56.01‐109.9&185.55‐
415.52 μg/g dry wt.20 in bone and brain respectively; 44.43 μg/g dry wt.46 for bone in Augusta Bay Italy, Central Mediterranean; and 6.06&6.63 μg/g wet wt.47 for bone and brain respectively in Eastern Mediterranean, Italy. In our study the amount of Zn determined in the fish samples were far below the standard of 1000 μg/g set by ANHMRC48 and WHO49. Lead is a non‐essential element and it is well documented that Pb can cause neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and many others adverse health effects50. The details of lead concentration detected for individual fish of both bone and brain were given in Table (3). Among individual fish species, Sauridaundo squamis contains the highest lead concentration whereas; Pomadasys stridens was under the limit of detection in brain, and recorded 1.204μg/g wet wt. for bone. Concentration of Pb in bone in decreasing order was as follows: Scomber japonicus>Trachurus indicus> Pomadasys stridens> Rhabdosargus haffara>Euthynnus affinis> Oreochromis niloticus> Peneus japonicas>Sauridaundo squamis = Argyrops spinifer = Nemipterus japonicus. However, in brain as follows: Sauridaundo squamis>Argyrops spinifer> Rhabdosargus haffara>Euthynnus affinis>Nemipterus japonicus> Trachurus indicus>Peneus japonicas> Oreochromis niloticus> Scomber japonicus and Pomadasys stridens below the detection limit. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 214
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Table 3: Accumulation of metals (μg /g wet wt.) in bone and brain of different fishes along Suez Gulf Elements Fish species Al Zn Pb Cu Fe Mn Ni V Cr Co Ca Bone Brain 0.0206 11.885 N.D. 0.5861 11.652 1.398 N.D. N.D. 0.9321 3.612 9197.157 N.D. 30.501 5.430 17.011 33.216 N.D. 0.9582 N.D. 8.144 N.D. 14640.689 Bone Brain 0.8470 12.960 0.5784 7.696 40.266 0.5784 0.5785 N.D. 1.736 3.939 10565.026 N.D. 12.00i 2.021 0.0112 0.6135 N.D. 0.2245 N.D. 3.929 N.D. 4533.787 Bone Brain 1.015 16.537 1.0123 0.3127 10.462 2.925 0.5625 N.D. 1.913 5.625 10461.976 N.D. 19.085 2.508 0.0414 15.595 0.2181 0.2181 1.016 5.346 N.D. 9337.647 Bone Brain 1.514 6.393 N.D. 0.1639 18.975 0.8136 0.9299 N.D. 2.557 6.509 13378.535 N.D. 11.841 2.723 0. 6749 24.866 N.D. 0.4736 3.529 5.565 N.D. 7675.245 Bone Brain 1.513 5.963 N.D. 1.137 10.468 7.023 1.060 N.D. 6.095 8.746 17557.42 14.639 286.872 0.9006 1.659 18.111 4.603 1.4008 11.407 9.005 N.D. 24094.456 Bone Brain 2.199 17.246 0.5187 1.273 14.004 3.761 N.D. 6.613 2.982 9.336 12149.896 1.331 32.712 0.1128 0.7197 30.681 0.1128 0.4512 N.D. 1.466 N.D. 6986.021 Bone Brain 1.283 14.537 1.179 2.120 27.501 1.310 0.7858 N.D. 3.536 9.167 12334.992 N.D. 18.390 0.7755 1.601 16.023 N.D. 0.4431 N.D. 5.317 N.D. 10578.982 Bone Brain 1.865 13.948 0.3984 0.002 12.752 2.391 1.395 N.D. 4.384 11.955 15308.846 N.D. 15.845 0.3685 11.980 22.601 N.D. 0.9826 8.684 6.633 N.D. 11042.417 Scomber japonicas Bone Brain 0.9099 12.311 1.204 0.047 15.254 2.141 0.8029 5.888 3.479 10.169 11185.102 0.4006 20.134 0.1060 1.090 13.458 0.2120 0.5298 N.D. 2.861 1.696 9158.954 Pomadasys stridens Bone Brain N.D. 9.504 1.071 0.3213 10.709 2.142 0.6693 13.613 5.622 11.110 11909.244 Sauridaundo squamis Euthynnus affinis Rhabdosargus haffara Argyrops spinifer Nemipterus japonicas Oreochromis niloticus Trachurus indicus Peneus japonicas 0.8280 10.197 N.D. 7.020 19.884 0.5100 0.1020 N.D. 1.224 2.855 5537.050 Total conc. (bone + brain) 28.37 57.89 20.92 55.46 367.09 30.14 12.57 50.75 82.73 84.72 227636.43 Bone Range Mean N.D‐
2.199 5.963‐
17.246 N.D‐1.204 0.002‐7.696 10.462‐ 40.266 0.5784‐
7.023 N.D.‐
1.395 N.D.‐
13.613 0.9321‐
6.095 3.612‐
11.110 9197.157‐
17557.42 1.117 12.1284 0.5962 1.3659 17.2043 2.4483 0.6784 2.6114 3.3236 8.0168 12404.819 Brain Range Mean N.D‐
14.639 10.197‐
286.872 N.D‐5.430 0.0112‐
17.011 0.6135‐
33.216 N.D‐ 4.603 0.1020‐
1.401 N.D.‐
11.407 1.224‐
9.005 N.D‐
2.855 4533.787‐
24094.46 1.720 45.7582 1.4945 4.1803 19.5049 0.5656 0.5784 2.4636 4.949 0.4551 10358.824 N.D: Under the limit of detection; Total conc.: Total concentrations; Al: Aluminum; Zn: Zinc, Pb: Lead; Cu: Copper; Fe: Iron; Mn: Manganese; Ni: Nickel; V: Vanadium; Cr: Chromium; Co: Cobalt; Ca: Calcium.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 215
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Pb contents in the literature have been reported in the range of 1.842‐10.359 μg/g dry wt. from illegal fish farm in Al‐Minufiya Province, Egypt21; 0.112‐0.116&0.015 μg/g dry wt. for bone and brain respectively at North Sea coast22; N.D ‐0.66 µg/g wet wt. in Mediterranean, Scotland, United Kingdom23; Another similar study also shown results, 3.450±0.132 μg /g wet wt.44; 3.96 ±2.16μg /g dry wt.51; 3.73±0.18 μg/g wet wt.45 in brain; in addition to 1.29 ± 0.28 μg/g dry wt.46; and 1.775‐22.52 µg/g dry wt.20at Augusta Bay, Italy, Central Mediterranean and Southwest India. In general, Pb bioaccumulation levels in bone and brain in this study agreed well with the findings in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates in hard tissues such as bone and teeth52. The Brazilian legislation53 recommends a maximum Pb level of 2.0 μg/g and the European Community (EC) regulates 0.2 μg/g as maximum limit in this study the determined values were found to be higher than the maximum limit. The present observation showed that level of Pb in Sauridaundo squamis among the ten species was beyond the proposed not acceptable limit for human consumption. From the literature survey, it was apparent that Sauridaundo squamis was Demersal, (benthic) bottom living and therefore, sediments could be the major sources of Pb contamination in that fish. Moreover, lead is a ubiquitous pollutant which could finds its way into the Gulf through discharge of industrial effluents from various industries such as printing, dyeing, oil refineries, textile, and other sources. Copper is an essential part of several enzymes. It is 54
essential for hemoglobin synthesis . However, accumulation of Cu has been recognized to cause adverse health problems which leads to death of neurons and resulting neurological symptoms in brain41. As indicated in Table (3), Cu concentration in bone of Euthynnus affinis was significantly higher than all other species followed by Trachurus indicus while, in brain, Sauridaundo squamis has the highest Cu concentration followed by Peneus japonicas. In brain, the pattern of the Cu concentration in decreasing order was as follows: Sauridaundo squamis> Peneus japonicas> Pomadasys stridens>Nemipterus japonicus> Trachurus indicus>Scomber japonicus> Oreochromis niloticus>Argyrops spinifer>Rhabdosargus haffara> Euthynnus affinis. Whereas, in bone was as follows: Euthynnus affinis>Trachurus indicus>Oreochromis niloticus> Nemipterus japonicus>Sauridaundo squamis> Pomadasys stridens>Rhabdosargus haffara>Argyrops spinifer> Scomber japonicus>Peneus japonicas. In the literature, Cu levels in fish samples have been reported in 22
the range of 0.941‐1.08 &18.1μg/g dry wt. in bone and brain respectively; N.D ‐ 0.35 μg/g wet wt. in bone fish at Mediterranean, Scotland, United Kingdom23; 4.470‐
127.2&15.77‐88.31μg/g dry wt. in bone and brain respectively for fish species from Southwest India20. In another studies also results ranged 2.43‐2.64 μg/g wet wt.37; 2.940 ± 0.138 μg /g wet wt.44; 5.15 ± 0.25 μg /g wet wt.45; and 1.64 & 2.91 µg/g wet wt.47 for bone and brain respectively. FAO/WHO put a limit of Cu (30 μg/g wet wt.), and the UK and Saudi Arabia have a limit of 20 μg/g wet wt. Iron is the most abundant element examined in the tissues of the various fishes. Fish is a major source for iron in adults and children, iron deficiency causes anemia. Table (3), shows large interspecific variation in metal iron for all species and ranged from 10.462 to 40.266 and from 0.6135 to 33.216 μg/g wet wt. for bone and brain, respectively. The maximum Fe content was observed in Euthynnus affinis and minimum in Rhabdosargus haffara of fishbone, while Saurida squamous exhibited a maximum Fe content in brain and minimum value of Euthynnus affinis. Fe concentration had the highest values in all the species studied. In fish brain, the decreasing order was as follows: Sauridaundo squamis>Oreochromis niloticus>Argyrops spinifer>Peneus japonicas> Pomadasys stridens>Nemipterus japonicus> Trachurus indicus> Rhabdosargus haffara> Scomber japonicus> Euthynnus affinis, while in bone was as follows: Euthynnus affinis> Trachurus indicus>Argyrops spinifer> Scomber japonicus> Oreochromis niloticus> Peneus japonicas> Sauridaundo squamis>Rhabdosargus haffara. Fe contents in the literature have been reported 23
in the range of 6.71‐21.78 μg/g wet wt. ; 44.68‐
37
56.57μg/g wet wt. for bone and brain respectively, in another similar study concentration of 15.20 ± 0.5945 and 9.200 ± 0.404 μg/L wet wt.44 for bone and brain respectively. Generally Fe levels in the studied samples were found to be in agreement with levels reported. Manganese is an element of low toxicity, it has considerable biological significance. The concentration of Mn in the analyzed samples ranged from 0.57843 to 7.023 and from N.D to 4.603 μg/g wet wt. in bone and brain respectively, Table (3). Nemipterus japonicus exhibited the maximum Mn concentration for bone and brain, and Euthynnus affinis showed the minimum for bone. Mn contents in the literature have been reported in 46
the range of 10.48 to 27.32 μg/g dry wt. ; 0.653‐
22
0.716μg/g dry wt. for bone. Also some authors reported concentrations for brain 0.260±0.009 μg/g wet wt.44; 0.44 ± 0.02 μg/g wet wt.45; 0.38‐0.56 μg/g wet wt.37 at Adriatic coast of Southern Italy; and 0.12 µg/g wet wt.47 at Eastern Mediterranean, Italy. Another studies reported showed that fish's hard tissues had consistently higher accumulations of Mn than soft tissues55. Normally, water contains low level 0.05 μg/g of Mn56, but the studied fishes contained higher concentration of Mn might be due to the tendency of various species of fish to concentrate certain elements in their tissues more than the surrounding medium. Manganese is used in dry battery cells, iron alloys, glass ceramics, and electric coils that could be considered as the major sources of Mn pollution. Nickel normally occurs at very low levels in the environment and it can cause variety of pulmonary adverse health effects, such as lung inflammation, 57
fibrosis, emphysema and tumors . The present study, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 216
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X investigates the highest amount of nickel in bone fish of Peneus japonicas but Oreochromis niloticus was under the limit of detection. However, in brain fish, the highest value at Nemipterus japonicus and the lowest value at Pomadasys stridens Table (3).The results showed that there was a considerable variation in the concentration of the Ni from one sample to another, ranged from N.D to 1.395 and from 0.1020 to 1.4008 for bone and brain, respectively. The elevated nickel content might be attributed to the extensive upwelling occurring in the area, which brings nickel rich subsurface waters to the 58
surface . Ni contents in the literature have been reported in the range of 2.105‐8.646 μg/g wet wt.21; 0.6‐
0.97 μg/g wet wt.37 from illegal bone fish farm in Al‐
Minufiya Province, Egypt and Mediterranean, Scotland, United Kingdom respectively. However, according with some literature in brain as; 0.02‐0.04 μg/g wet wt.23; 3.300 ± 0.153μg/g wet wt.44; 7.99 ± 1.94 µg/g dry wt.51; and 3.66 ± 0.18 μg/g wet wt.45. Ni concentrations in Suez water fishes were below the established safe level of 5.5 μg/g by Western Australian Food and Drug Regulations48. Nickel and its salts are used in several industrial applications such as in electroplating, storage batteries, auto‐mobiles, aircraft parts, spark, electrodes, cooking utensils, pigments, lacquer cosmetics, water and printing fabrics. The industrial effluents were the main sources of nickel contamination of the aquatic environment in the Gulf. While, the present study depicted that the examined fish species were not contaminated by Ni, a long term discharge of untreated industrial wastes could pollute the marine organisms. Since, nickel is a cumulative body poison so its concentration should remain as low as possible. Vanadium was detectable in Suez fish, and ranged from N.D to 13.613 and from N.D to 11.407, for bone and brain respectively. The concentration of V in bone can be ordered as follows: Peneus japonicas>Scomber japonicus> Trachurus indicus> Pomadasys stridens> Sauridaundo squamis = Euthynnus affinis = Rhabdosargus haffara = Argyrops spinifer = Nemipterus japonicus and in brain: Nemipterus japonicus> Peneus japonicas> Argyrops spinifer> Rhabdosargus haffara> Sauridaundo squamis = Euthynnus affinis = Oreochromis niloticus = Trachurus indicus = Scomber japonicus = Pomadasys stridens and the results were shown in Table (3). V levels have been reported in the range of 0.043‐0.1& 0.04‐2.75 μg/g wet 22,23
22,37
wt. for bone fish and 0.012&0.01‐0.02μg/g dry wt. for brain. Similar results for vanadium as were found in seafood from Kuwait59. Vanadium is an uncommon constituent of the Earth’s crust (about 100 μg /g) both natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the levels of vanadium in water, and it occurs at trace levels in many foods, particularly seafood60. V is found in a wide variety of vertebrate bone and brain in variable concentrations, related to different dietary and background levels. Acute ingestion of vanadium compounds has caused nausea, diarrhea, and stomach cramps at doses of about 13 μg/g vanadium/day. High dose oral studies in rodents have caused anemia, hypertension, and neurotoxicity60. Chromium accumulated in fish species Table (3) and the highest level of Cr were detected in bone and brain of Nemipterus japonicus and the lowest in Sauridaundo squamis and Pomadasys stridens. Cr levels determined in bone were as follows: Nemipterus japonicus>Pomadasys stridens>Peneus japonicas>Trachurus indicus>Scomber japonicus>Oreochromis niloticus>Argyrops spinifer> Rhabdosargus haffara>Euthynnus affinis>Sauridaundo squamis, and in brain as follows: Nemipterus japonicus> Sauridaundo squamis> Peneus japonicas> Argyrops spinifer> Rhabdosargus haffara>Trachurus indicus> Euthynnus affinis> Scomber japonicus> Oreochromis niloticus> Pomadasys stridens. Cr contents in the literature have been reported in the range of 0.088‐0.10 22
46
μg/g dry wt. ; 1.81± 0.35 μg/g dry wt. ; and 0.05‐
23
0.11μg/g wet wt. in bonefish. Another similar study also showed concentrations of 0.01‐0.02 μg/g wet wt.37; 0.37μg/g wet wt.22; and 0.260± 0.009 μg/g dry wt.44 for brain. In Brazil, the maximum Cr level recommended by the legislation is 0.1 μg /g while in the United States there is no tolerable level for Cr according to the Washington Medicine Institute in New York1, which was lower than our values. The higher level of Cr in Nemipterus japonicus than others due to its living close to the floor61 in contact with sediment, so sediments may be the major sources of Cr contamination. In this study, high Cr levels may be attributed to the chromites deposits62 beside, the wastewater coming from various industries such as tanning industries, photography, textile, manufacturing green varnish, paints and river run‐off from upstream agricultural fields. Exposure to chromium occurs by intake of contaminated food and water and breathing contaminated air. It leads to various disorders, including cancer, allergic disease, liver damage and lung irritation. Cobalt is beneficial for humans because it is a part of vitamin B12, however, exposure to high levels of cobalt 63
can result in lung and heart defects and dermatitis Table (3), shows that Cobalt concentration in brain is under the limit of detection in all fish species except of Pomadasys stridens and Scomber japonicus, whereas in bone ranged from 3.612 to 11.110, can be ordered as follows: Peneus japonicas> Pomadasys stridens>Scomber japonicus> Oreochromis niloticus>Trachurus indicus> Nemipterus japonicus>Argyrops spinifer>Rhabdosargus haffara>Euthynnus affinis> Sauridaundo squamis. Co levels have been reported in bone 0.42 ± 0.07 μg/g dry 46
23
wt. 0.13‐0.16 μg/g wet wt. . Moreover, fish brain has displayed 0.027&0.088 ‐ 0.10 μg/g dry wt.22. Turkish Standards do not cover information about maximum Co levels in fish samples. Calcium belongs in to alkaline earth metals64, elevated concentrations of Ca Table (3) which accumulated in bone ranged from 9197.157 to 17557.42 and from 4533.787 to 24094.456 in brain respectively, Nemipterus japonicus exhibit the maximum values 17557.42 and International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 217
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X 24094.456 μg/g wet wt. in bone and brain, respectively, while, Sauridaundo squamis has the minimum values 9197.157 in bone and Euthynnus affinis has the minimum value of 4533.787μg/g wet wt. in brain. The decreasing order was as follows: Nemipterus japonicus>Peneus japonicas> Argyrops spinifer> Trachurus indicus> Oreochromis niloticus> Scomber japonicus> Euthynnus affinis> Rhabdosargus haffara> Sauridaundo squamis in bone fish. The pattern in brain was as follows: Nemipterus japonicus> Sauridaundo squamis> Peneus japonicas> Trachurus indicus> Rhabdosargus haffara> Scomber japonicus> Argyrops spinifer> Oreochromis niloticus> Pomadasys stridens> Euthynnus affinis. What are the effects of metal bioaccumulation, the authors added that metals are bio‐available and bio‐
accumulative substances in concentrations that cause 65
physiological effects in vertebrates . The metals Hg and Pb possess chemical properties that mimic trace metals such as Ca and Zn. Pb have a similar ionic radius to Ca. Therefore, we can expect that these metals are stored and affect the kidneys and bone tissues and active transport through calcium channels of the nervous system66. The mechanism of lead toxicity is by replacing cations Ca and Zn within cells. This replacement allows interactions with the compounds that coordinate binding of multivalent cations affecting survivor ship, growth, learning, reproduction, development, and metabolism67. Another study68 confirmed that Pb can be biomagnified when the top predators are invertebrates, other authors69 reported that Ca concentrations in the rotifers when exposed to 1 mg/L of Pb for 24h and compared to Ca concentrations in the control animals, show Ca reduction this is probably due to decalcification of the rotifer cuticle by Pb substitution for Ca. Decalcification by Pb has been reported in other invertebrates. For instance, Pb bioaccumulation on skeleton morphogenesis in the common asteroid Asterias rubens affected morphogenesis. Selectivity indices of metals in fish bone and brain Fishes are able to regulate metal concentration to some extent after which the bioaccumulation will occur. Therefore, the total concentration of metals will control the regulation and bioaccumulation capacity of each 70
tissue . Metal selectivity index (MSI) measures the affinity of the species to accumulate a metal in that tissue/organ of the body. MSI is calculated for all the metals except mercury and calcium as the percentage of absolute concentration of a metal in a tissue to the total concentration of all metals in that tissue71. MSI (%) values are represented as Fig. (3a – j), based on the MSI values, the affinity for bone of Argyrols spinifer can be ranked in the order Fe>Co>Zn>Cr>Al>Ni>Mn>Cu>Pb=V. However, Nemipterus japonicus follow the order Fe>Co>Mn> Cr>Zn>Al>Cu>Ni>Pb=V. Brain of Scomber japonicus in decreasing order of Zn>Fe>Cr>Co>Cu> Ni>Al>Mn>Pb>V. Whereas, Pomadasys stridens follows the order of Fe>Zn>Cu>Co>Cr>Al>Mn>Ni>Pb>V. Significant differences in metal affinity was noticed between fishes as well as tissues. However, a significant difference in Al, Pd, Mn, Co affinity was observed between tissues and species. These differences might be due to the site difference, availability of metals and feeding habit. These results suggest that both pelagic and demersal fish has almost same kind of metal affinity. All the fishes are reported to be shown with high affinity towards Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, and Co, irrespective of their feeding habit. Relative tissue‐
occupying capacity of a metal in a particular tissue is known as tissue selectivity index (TSI). It is the percentage of ratio between absolute concentration of a metal in a tissue and total concentration of that metal in all 71
tissues . TSI (%) values were calculated for all the metals and are plotted Fig. (4a – j), it is very difficult to conclude which metal has the maximum tissue occupying capacity in a particular tissue of selected fishes, in Sauridaundo squamis Fig. (4a), Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, and Cr showed maximum TSI in brain, and Al, Pb, Cu, Fe, and Co in bone. High TSI values in bone indicated the metals high occupying capacity in this part, in Euthynnus affinis Fig. (4b), Pb, Cr, Zn & Ni showed high TSI values in brain beside, high TSI values for all metals in bone and maximum accumulation capacity was with Pb, whereas in Peneus japonicas Fig. (4h), Al, Mn, Co showed the maximum tissue‐occupying capacity in bone followed by V in brain. The tissue‐occupying capacity of mercury was high for brain followed by bone Fig. (5). the analysis showed that there is no significant difference between the fishes for TSI of all metals, whereas significant variation in tissue‐
occupying capacity was observed for Hg. Unlike MSI, no unique ranking could be obtained with TSI, which is a multi dependent factor. During the ranking of the TSI, there is high species‐metal specificity; species–tissue interaction and metal‐tissue selectivity were observed. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 218
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Figure 3: MSI for bone and brain of fishes. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 219
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Figure 4: TSI for bone and brain of fishes. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 220
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Figure 5: TSI of T Hg in bone and brain of fishes. Figure 6: Total mercury concentration (μg/g wet wt.) in bone and brain of different fish species. Figure 7: Total metals in fishes of Suez Gulf. Total metal concentration in Aquatic species Total content of Hg in each fish was presented in Fig. (6). Maximum concentration was obtained for Argyrops spinifer 0.2059 μg/g wet wt., followed by Nemipterus japonicus 0.1680 μg/g wet wt. and Sauridaundo squamis 0.1554 μg/g wet wt. The highest concentration of T Hg was obtained for Predator Argyrops spinifer 0.2059 μg/g wet wt. followed by Carnivores 0.1680 μg/g wet wt. However, the lowest concentration was given by another Omnivore Oreochromis niloticus 0.0069 μg/g wet wt. The Argyrops spinifer (Predator) collected mainly from just downstream of industrial outlets (location 4) where the presence of high sediment Hg concentration. Inhabits shallow waters and over sandy or mud‐sandy bottoms and it feeds on benthic invertebrates, mainly mollusks, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 221
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X important food fish. Because of these factors, Argyrops spinifer has shown higher concentrations of mercury. The mercury content in the fish is mainly influenced by various factors such as size and age, trophic position (feeding habits) as well as the high background concentration in water and sediment71. All the samples analyzed in the present study showed lower concentrations than the permissible limit 0.4 μg/g wet wt. The total accumulations of individual metals in different fishes have been calculated without Ca and represented in Fig. (7). the total Al accumulation in the fishes were in the order of, Nemipterus japonicus>Oreochromis niloticus>Peneus japonicas> Argyrops spinifer>Scomber japonicus> Trachurus indicus> Rhabdosargus haffara> Euthynnus affinis> Pomadasys stridens> Sauridaundo squamis. In the case of Zn, the order is Nemipterus japonicus> Oreochromis niloticus> Sauridaundo squamis> Rhabdosargus haffara> Trachurus indicus> Scomber japonicus> Peneus japonicas> Euthynnus affinis> Pomadasys stridens> Argyrops spinifer. In addition to that, Nemipterus japonicus and Oreochromis niloticus showed higher concentrations of Mn. For Pb, Sauridaundo squamis and Rhabdosargus haffara showed higher concentrations than the Peneus japonicas and Oreochromis niloticus. Cu accumulation was maximum in Sauridaundo squamis followed by Peneus japonicas and Euthynnus affinis. Moreover, Nemipterus japonicus exhibit higher concentrations of Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, V, and Cr than others. Beside, the accumulation was maximums in Pomadasys stridens followed by Peneus japonicas and Scomber japonicus for Co. It was found that the carnivore's fishes have accumulated the maximum total concentration of all metals in its tissues, which was much higher than the metal accumulated by the omnivore. In the present study, different fishes contained variable levels of different metals. The concentration of all metals studied was added for particular fish. Then, the total metal accumulation in the fish body with Ca was in the order of Nemipterus japonicus>Peneus japonicas> Sauridaundo squamis> Trachurus indicus> Argyrops spinifer> Scomber japonicus> Rhabdosargus haffara> Oreochromis niloticus> Pomadasys stridens> Euthynnus affinis. The results were supported by earlier studies, which reported that the metals accumulation in fish species was in the order of carnivorous> Predator>phytoplankton>zooplankton72. In short, the intertaxon variability in metal accumulation can be explained by species‐specific differences in bioaccumulation dynamics as well as differences in metal exposure, such as those induced by habitat characteristics (temperature, metal speciation and partition) or dictated by dietary preferences (feeding habits), foraging 73
behaviors, food web structure . Maximum accumulation in Nemipterus japonicus may be due to the fact that they are bottom dwellers and Carnivore and feed up on a lot of detritus matter. The accumulation of maximum amount of metals in the internal organs like brain is attributed to fat solubility of heavy metals in the diet digested by the fishes might have reached the brain through blood. CONCLUSION The present study revealed that the major sources of metals in the fish species are food and feeding habit. The variation in of accumulated metals in different organs of fishes may be attributed to the proximity of the tissues to the availability of metals, i.e. the quantity present in the surrounding environment, age and type of the fish and role of the tissue in the detoxification process. The total metal accumulation in the fish body was in the order of Nemipterus japonicus>Peneus japonicas>Sauridaundo squamis>Trachurus indicus>Argyrops spinifer>Scomber japonicus>Rhabdosargus haffara>Oreochromis niloticus> Pomadasys stridens>Euthynnus affinis. The relatively greater level of these metals in brain indicates the greater solubility and retention of the metals in fats. The greater occurrence of these metals in bone may be associated with calcification process and competition with enzymes for active sites. The observed concentration of total mercury in bone and brain was 0.0069 to 0.2095 μg/g wet wt. (mean value 0.1040 μg/g wet wt.), which is lower than the prescribed limits (0.4 μg/g wet wt.). The calculated MSI and TSI values anticipate a high concentration of metals in the sediments and water of Suez Gulf which can induce an increased accumulation in fishes in future. High metal accumulation was noticed in brain than bone which suggested the importance of considering the fish's organs as indicators of metallic pollution in Gulf. As fishes are staple food for human being, the accumulation of metals exceeding the permissible limits is a serious health concern. The study thus highlighted the heavy metal bioaccumulation potential in fishes which constitute an important group of animals in this brackish water ecosystem. As the high metal availability in the backwaters are attributed to anthropogenic origin, adequate strategies are to be adopted in order to control their presence so that the possible health hazards to different life forms including man can be prevented. REFERENCES 1.
Ikem A., and Egiebor N.O., Assessment of trace elements in canned fishes (mackerel, tuna, salmon, sardines and herrings) marketed in Georgia and Alabama United States of America. J. Food Compos, Anal, 18(8), 2005, 771–787. 2.
Mol S., Levels of selected trace metals in canned tuna fish produced in Turkey. J. Food Compos Anal, 24, 2011, 66‐69. 3.
Copat C., Arena G., Fiore M., Ledda C., Fallico R., Sciacca S., and Ferrante M., Heavy metals concentrations in fish and shellfish from eastern Mediterranean Sea: consumption advisories. Food Chem Toxicol, 53, 2013, 33‐37. 4.
Martinez ‐ Gomez C., Fernandez B., Benedicto J., Valdes J., Campillo J.A., Leon V. M., and Vethaak A. D., Health status International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 222
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X of red mullets from polluted areas of the Spanish Mediterranean coast, with special reference to Portman (SE Spain). Mar Environ Res, 77, 2012, 50–59. 19. Castro‐Gonzalez M. I., and Méndez‐Armenta M., Heavy metals: implications associated to fish consumption. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 26, 2008, 263‐271. 5.
Palaniappan P. L., Krishnakumar N., Vadivelu M., and Vijayasundaram V., The study of the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of bones of Catla catla due to lead intoxication. Environ Toxicol, 25, 2010, 61‐67. 20. Agency for Toxic Substance Disease Registry (ATSDR), Toxicological Profile for Mercury, US Department of Health and Humans Services, Public Health Human Services. Centers for Diseases Control Atlanta, 2003b. 6.
Palaniappan P. L., and Vijayasundaram V., The FT‐IT study of brain tissue of Labeo rohita due to arsenic intoxication. Microchem J., 91, 2009b, 118‐124. 7.
Sanchez‐Chardi A., Lopez‐Fuster M.J., and Nadal J., Bioaccumulation of lead, mercury, and cadmium in the greater white‐toothed shrew, Crocidura russula, from the Ebro Delta (NE Spain): sex‐ and age‐dependent variation. Environ Pollut, 145, 2007, 7‐14. 21. Mahesh M., Deepa M., Ramasamy E.V., and Thomas A.P., Accumulation of mercury and other heavy metals in edible fishes of Cochin backwaters, Southwest India. Environ Monit Assess, 184, 2012, 4233‐4245. 8.
9.
Mann S., Biomineralization: Principles and Concepts in Bioinorganic Materials Chemistry. Oxford University Press, 198, 2001. Wopenka B., and Pasteris J.D., Amineralogical perspective on the apatite in bone. Mat Sci Eng, 25, 2005, 131‐143. 10. Gross K.A., and Berndt C.C., Biomedical application of apatites, In: Kohn M.J., Rakovan J., Hughes J.M. (Eds.), Phosphates: Geochemical, Geobiological and Material Importance, Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 48. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, 2002, 631‐
672. 11. Lind P.M., Milnes M.R., Lundberg R., Bermudez D., Orberg J., and Guillette J.r., Abnormal bone composition in female juvenile American alligators from a pesticide‐polluted lake (Lake Apopka, Florida). Environ Health Perspect, 112, 2004, 359‐362. 12. Wanderley R.B., José G.D., José Vicente E.B., Leidiane C.L., Marilia H.M., Marília H., Carolina R.C., and Olaf M., Mercury in muscle and brain of catfish from the Madeira River, Amazon, Brazil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 118, 2015, 90‐97. 13. Beard J., Marshall S., Jong K., Newton R., Triplett‐Mc Bride T., Humphries B., and Bronks R., 1, 1, 1‐Trichloro‐2, 2‐bis (p‐chlorophenyl)‐ethane (DDT) and reduced bone mineral density. Arch Environ Health, 55, 2000, 177‐180. 14. Nicotra M., Melilli‐Priolo‐Augusta verso uno sviluppo ecosostenibile. Morrone Editore Siracusa, 148, 2012. 15. Emara M.M., Farid N.A., El‐Sabagh E.A., Ahmed O.E., and Kamal E.M., Physico‐chemical Study of Surface Seawater in The Northwestern Gulf of Suez. Egypt J Chem, 56(5, 6), 2013, 345‐365. 16. REMIP, WORKING GROUPs 2(WG2), JICA and EEAA, State oil pollution and Management in Suez Gulf region, 15, 2008. 17. Shakweer L., Effect of waste disposal on the chemical composition of some aquatic organisms' long Alexandria coastal waters, Ph.D. thesis faculty of science AL‐Azhar University, Egypt, 1993, 64‐66. 18. Omayma E.A., Sawsan A.M., and Nazik A.F., Evaluation of Heavy Metals Accumulated in Some Aquatic Species Collected Along the Suez Refineries to El‐Sokhna Area. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 34(2), 2015, 143‐156. 22. Mohammad M.N., Authmann W.T., and Alkhateib Y.G., Metals concentration sin Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from illegal fish farm in Al‐Minufiy a Province, Egypt, and their effects on some. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 84, 2012, 163‐172. 23. Tetsuro A., Shinya Y., Asami I., Tokutaka I., Yasumi A., Thijs K., Albert D.M.E., Osterhaus S.T., and Hisato I., Accumulation, features of trace elements in mass‐stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the North Sea coast in 2002: The body distribution and association with growth and nutrition status. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 2011, 963‐
975. 24. Ioanna K., Kenneth D.B., Spiros A.P., Tracy M.S., Nafsika P., Katerina S., and Ioannis K., Metals and other elements in tissues of wild fish from fish farms and comparison with farmed species in sites with oxic and anoxic sediments. Food Chemistry, 14, 2013, 680‐694. 25. Burger J., Jeitner C., Donio M., Pittfield T., and Gochfeld M., Mercury and selenium levels and selenium: mercury molar ratios of brain, muscle and other tissues in blue fish (Pomatomus salt atrix) from New Jersey, USA. Sci Total En‐
viron, 443, 2012, 278‐286. 26. Coulibaly S., Atse B.C., Koffi K.M., Sylla S., Konan K.J., and Kouassi N.J., Seasonal accumulations of some heavy metal in water, sediment and tissues of black‐ chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron from Biétri Bay in Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast. Bull Environ Contam Toxico, l(88), 2012, 571‐576. 27. Cardoso T.P., Mársico E.T., Medeiros R.J., Tortelly R., and Sobreiro L.G., Mercury level and his to pathologic analysis of muscle, kidney and brain of large head hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) collected in Itaipu beach‐Niterói, Riode Janeiro, Brazil. Cienc.Rural, 39, 2009, 540‐546. 28. Storelli M.M., Cuttone G., and Marcotrigiano G.O., Distribution of trace elements in the tissues of smooth hound Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the southern‐eastern waters of Mediterranean Sea (Italy). Environ. Monit. Assess, 174, 2011, 271‐281. 29. Cizdziel J., Hinners T., Cross C., and Pollard J., Distribution of mercury in the tissues of five species of fresh water fish from Lake Mead, USA. J. Environ. Monit, 5, 2003, 802‐807. 30. European Commission, Commission regulation (EC) No. 629/2008 of 2 July 2008 amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off. F. EU, 51, 2008, 4‐10. 31. FDA, Guidance for industry: Action levels for poisonous or deleterious substances in human food and animal feed, Available from, http://www.fda.govFood/ Guidance‐
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 223
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X Compliance Regulatory Information/Guidance Documents/Chemical Contaminant sand Pesticides/ucm 077969, htm Accessed 19.05.10, 2000. 32. Health Canada, Human health risk assessment of mercury in fish and health benefits of fish consumption, Available from, http:// hc‐sc.gc.ca/fn‐an/pubs/ mercur /merc‐
fish‐Poisson‐eng. php Accessed 19.05.10, 2007. 33. Yamashita Y., Omura Y., and Okazaki E., Total mercury and methylmercury levels in commercially important fishes in Japan. Fisheries Science, 71, 2005, 1029‐1035. 34. Anderson H.A., Hanrahan L.P., Smith A., Draheim L., Kanarek M., and Olsen J., The role of sport‐fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998‐1999 12‐state survey of women age 18‐45. Environmental Research, 95, 2004, 315‐324. 35. Perez G.A.M., and Vaquero M.P., Silicon, aluminum, arsenic and lithium: essentiality and human health implications. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 6, 2002, 154‐162. 36. Struys‐Ponsar C., Kerkhofs A., Gauthier A., Soffié M., and van den Bosch de Aguilar P., Effects of Aluminium exposure on behavioral parameters in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem. Behav, 56, 1997, 643‐648. 37. Squadronea S., Brizioa P., Chiaravalleb E., and Abet M.C., Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), found stranded along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea), as bioindicators of essential and non‐essential trace elements in the environment. Ecological Indicators, 58, 2015, 418‐425. 38. Rosseland B.O., Eidhuset T.D., and Staurnes M., Environmental effects of aluminum. Environmental and Geochemical Health, 12, 1990, 17‐27. 39. Camargo M.M., Fernandes M.N., and Martinez C.B., How Aluminium exposure promotes osmoregulatory disturbances in the neotropical freshwater fish Prochilus lineatus. Aquatic Toxicology, 90, 2009, 40‐46. 40. USEPA, Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment 630/ P‐
03/001F, United States Environmental protection Agency (USEPA). Washington. D. C, 2005. 41. Ghosh B.B., Mukhopandhyay M.K., and Bagchi M.M., Proc. National Seminar on Pollution Control and Environmental Management, 2005, 194‐199. 42. Gorell J.M., Johnson C.C., Rybicki B.A., Peterson E.L., Kortsha G.X., and Brown GG., Occupational exposures to metals as risk factors for Parkinson’s disease. Neurology, 48, 1997, 650‐658. 43. Prasad A.S., The role of Zinc in gastrointestinal and liver disease. Clinics in Gastroenterology, 12, 1983, 713‐741. 44. Shahram E., Akbar H.M., Naser J., Seyed F.N., Seyed M.N., and Mohammad A.E., Trace Element Level in Different Tissues of Rutilus frisii kutum Collected from Tajan River. Iran. Biol Trace Elem Res, 143, 2011, 965‐973. 45. Mohammad A.E., Shahram E., Seyed F.N., and Seyed M.N., Determination of Trace Element Level in Different Tissues of the Leaping Mullet (Liza saliens, Mugilidae) Collected from Caspian Sea. Biol Trace Elem Res, 144, 2011, 804‐811. polluted marine area. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 9, 2015, 333‐341. 47. Hornung H., Krom M.D., Cohen y., and Bernhard M., Trace metal content in deep‐water sharks from the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology, 115, 1993, 331‐338. 48. Plaskett D., and Potter I.C., Heavy metal concentrations in the muscle tissue of 12 species of teleost from Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 30, 1979, 607‐616. 49. Cliton H.I., Ujagwung G.U., and Michael H., Trace metals in the tissues and shells of Tympanotonus Fuscatus var. Radula from the Mangrove Swamps of the Bukuma Oil Field, Niger Delta. European journal of Scientific Research, 24, 2008, 468‐476. 50. Garcia‐Leston J., Mendez J., Pasaro E., and Laffon B., Genotoxic effects of lead: an updated review. Environmental International, 36, 2010, 623‐636. 51. D’Ilio S., Mattei D., Blasi M.F., Alimonti A., and Bogialli S., The occurrence of chemical elements and POPs in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), An overview. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62, 2011, 1606‐1615. 52. Kurey W.J., New Madrid refuge contaminants report, U.S. Fish Wild Survey, 695O‐H American Parkway. Reynoldsburg, Ohio; 43068, 1991, 614‐469‐6923. 53. Brasil A., Agência N., and de Vigilância S., Portaria n‐685, de 27 de agosto de 1998. Limites máximos detolerância para contaminants inorgânicos. Brasília, DF, Diário Oficial da União, 1998. 54. Sivaperumal P., Sankar T.V., and Nair P.G., Heavy metal concentrations in fish, shellfish and fish products from internal markets of India vis‐a‐vis international standards. Food Chemistry, 102(3), 2007, 612‐620. 55. Eisler R., Compendium of trace metals and marine biota2, Amsterdam: Vertebrates Elsevier, 2010. 56. Bowen H. J., Trace Elements in Biochemistry, New York. Academic Press, 1966. 57. Forti E., Salovaara S., Cetin Y., Bulgheroni A., Pfaller R.W., and Prieto P., In vitro evaluation of the toxicity induced by nickel soluble and particulate forms in human airway epithelial cells. Toxicology in Vitro, 25, 2011, 454‐461. 58. Rejomon G., Biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, Doctoral Thesis, India. Cochin University of Science and Technology, 2005. 59. Bu‐Olayan A.H., and Al‐Yakoob S., Lead, nickel and vanadium in seafood, an exposure assessment for Kuwaiti consumers. Science for the Total Environment, 223, 1998, 81‐86. 60. Joanna B., Michael G., Zenon B., Nabeel A., Ramzi A., Dalal A., Mohammed A.M.A., and Abdulaziz A., Interspecific and locational differences in metal levels in edible fish tissue from Saudi Arabia. Environ Monit Assess, 186, 2014, 6721‐
6746. 61. Forstner U., and Wittmann G.T., Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Springer, Berlin, 1981, 486. 46. Giovanna S., Rossella D. L. O., Cecilia D.T., Antonio M., and Salvatrice V., Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 224
Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., 36(2), January – February 2016; Article No. 34, Pages: 209‐225 ISSN 0976 – 044X 62. Jabeen F., and Chaudhry A.S., Environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities on the mineral uptake in Oreochromis mossambicus from Indus River in Pakistan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2009. 63. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Agency for toxic substances and disease registry, Division of Toxicology. Clifton Road, Atlanta, 2004. 64. Nielsen S.P., The biological role of strontium, Bone, 35, 2004, 583‐588. 65. Deacon J.R., and Stephens V.C., Trace elements in streambed sediment and fish liver at selected sites in the upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, USA, 1995‐96, Arch, Environ. Contam. Toxicol, 37, 1998, 7‐18. 66. Albert A.L., Introduction a la toxicologia ambiental. Organizacion Pana‐ mericana de Salud (OPS), World Health Organization (WHO), Mexico City, 1997. 67. Garza A., Chavez H., Vega R., and Soto E., Mecanismos celularesy moleculares de la neurotoxicidad por plomo. Salud. Mental, 28, 2005, 48‐58. 69. Jes Jesus s Alvarado F., Roberto R., Javier V., Marcelo S., and Isidoro R., Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta). Aquatic Toxicology, 109, 2012, 127‐132. 70. Hellou J., Warren W.G., Payne J.F., Belkhode S., and Lbel P., Heavy metals and other elements in three tissues of cod, Gadus morhua from the north west Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 24, 1992, 452‐458. 71. Nair M., Jayalekshmy K.V., Balachandran K.K., and Joseph T., Bioaccumulation of toxic metals by fish in a semi enclosed tropical ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Forensics, 7, 2006, 197‐206. 72. Balasubramanian S., Bose P., Jayanti R., and Raj S.P., Bioconcentration of copper, nickel and cadmium in multicell sewage‐fed ponds. Journal of Environmental Biology, 18, 1997, 173‐179. 73. Geldiay R., and Balik S., Turkiye Tatlisu Baliklan (In Turkish), Izmir, Ege Universitesi Fen Fakultesi Kitaplar Serisi, 2000, 519. 68. Rubio I., and Rico R., Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments. Environ. Pollut, 159, 2011, 1831‐1835. Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Available online at www.globalresearchonline.net © Copyright protected. Unauthorised republication, reproduction, distribution, dissemination and copying of this document in whole or in part is strictly prohibited. 225
Download