UNIVERSITY OF MALTA ISLANDS AND SMALL STATES INSTITUTE MA –ISSS: SEMESTER EXAMINATION JANUARY 2014 SESSION ISS-5001: Overview of Environmental Concerns for Islands and Small States Date: 23rd January 2014 Time: 3:30pm – 6:30pm Answer TWO questions from Section A and TWO questions from Section B. Use a separate booklet for each question. All questions carry 25 marks ___________________________________________________________________ SECTION A 1. Explore different marine conservation strategies which can be adopted in a small island state like Malta. 2. Discuss the concept of sustainable tourism with special reference to small island states. 3. Describe the main components that may be considered to draw up a strategy for a small island state, in order to reduce its energy use and become less dependent on imported fossil fuels. 4. What do you understand by mitigation and adaptation with reference to climate change? Why is climate change considered to be of major relevance to small island states? SECTION B 5. The efficient management of water in the Maltese Islands is essential to safeguard this vital, yet scarce, resource. Discuss the difficulties in procuring freshwater and highlight the likely adverse impacts resulting from water resources mismanagement. 6. The lack of a proper waste management system inevitably leads to environmental pollution. Discuss this statement within the context of sustainable waste management strategies for islands and small states. 7. With reference to islands and small states issues, critically evaluate the spatial planning system adopted in the Maltese Islands. 8. Marine pollution arises from various sources and causes different impacts. Integrated Coastal Zone Management can help to reduce marine pollution. Discuss.