Occupational Health - Zoonotic Disease Fact Sheet #21 SPECIES: AGENT: RESERVOIR AND INCIDENCE:

Occupational Health - Zoonotic Disease Fact Sheet #21
[Pseudo Fowl Pest]
SPECIES: Poultry
AGENT: Newcastle disease virus, family Paramyxoviridae
RESERVOIR AND INCIDENCE: The natural reservoir is wild and domesticated birds.
TRANSMISSION: Transmission is by inhalation of infectious aerosols. Intensive
conditions favor spread by contact, on inanimate objects and airborne between poultry
houses. Human infections occur mainly amongst laboratory workers and those who work
with infected chickens or who give live vaccine, especially by aerosol.
DISEASE IN ANIMALS: In poultry, respiratory and nervous signs occur, including
gasping and coughing; also drooping of wings, twisting of the head and neck;
inappetence and paralysis. Egg production ceases. Petechial hemorrhages are
characteristic, especially in the preventricular mucosa. Necrosis of the intestinal mucosa
give a "bran" like appearance. Congestion and mucoid exudate appears in the lungs and
DISEASE IN HUMANS: Usually symptoms are confined to painful conjunctivitis
lasting a few days, but fever and influenza-like symptoms for up to 3 weeks may follow.
DIAGNOSIS: Virus isolation or ELISA.
TREATMENT: Symptomatic.
PREVENTION/CONTROL: Hygienic precautions are needed when handling infected
birds. Avoid inoculation injuries and ensure laboratory safety. Maintain strict hygiene in
poultry sheds and quarantine of imported live birds, prohibit importation from infected
countries, sterilization of, or prohibition on, waste food fed to poultry. Vaccination of