# MODULE DESCRIPTOR – Mechanics of Fluids and Thermodynamics MECH2004

```MODULE DESCRIPTOR
MECH2004 – Mechanics of Fluids and Thermodynamics
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MECH2004
Mechanics of Fluids and Thermodynamics
2
0.5/7.5
September
June
Dr Suen (50%) Module Coordinator
Dr Aleiferis (50%)
Prerequisites
Completion of first year Thermodynamics and Mechanics of Fluids.
Mathematics to first year undergraduate level including integrals and differential equations.
Course Aims
The aim of the fluids part of the course is to study the basics of fluid flow through pipes and around
bodies. To achieve this it is necessary to study the boundary layer in some detail, what it is, how it can be
modelled, how it behaves, how it can be controlled and the consequences this has on fluid flow and
engineering design features. Analysis includes definition and use of coefficients of friction, pressure, drag
and lift. The fundamentals of fluids mechanics and aerodynamics/hydrodynamics are studied both via
empirical formulas and by introduction and derivation of differential equations from first principles.
Analysis is carried out holistically in the context of experimental observations as well as theoretical
modelling for various applications.
The thermodynamics part of the course covers 4 main topics: mixtures of ideal gases, elementary
combustion, steam turbine and gas turbine cycles. The coverage starts with a brief summary/revision of
ideal gas law. The concept of ideal gas mixture and the calculation of its properties will be introduced. In
particular, the mixture of air and water vapour will be studied. Various terminologies for moist air and their
applications in air-conditioning will be addressed. Finally a direct-contact device, i.e. cooling tower will be
studied including its operation, advantages and disadvantage. For combustion, students will learn how to
balance a combustion equation for a given fuel and determine the corresponding stoichiometric
coefficients and air/fuel ratio, and how to perform molar and gravimetric (wet and dry) analysis of the
composition of the combustion product. For steam and gas turbine cycles, basic system
components/configurations and operation (Rankine cycle and air-standard Joule cycle), and how the
component/system performance is defined, will be introduced. The course provides students with a good
basic understanding of factors affecting system performance and the techniques for improving the
performance. Students will also have opportunities to practice on cycle calculations involving correct
implementation of the energy and mass balances around the system, and the use of Steam Tables (SI
Units).
Method of Instruction
Lecture presentations, tutorial classes and (two) laboratory classes.
Assessment
The course has the following assessment components:
 Written Examination (3 hours, 75%)
 Two Laboratories (25%) one for Mechanics of Fluids (TF1) and one for Applied Thermodynamics
(TF2)
To pass this course, students must:
 Obtain an overall pass mark of 40% for all sections combined
The examination rubric is:
Answer FIVE questions (from eight offered) and answer no more than THREE questions from EITHER
section (A or B). All questions carry equal weight.
Resources:
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Massey, B.S. (revised by J. Ward-Smith), Mechanics of Fluids, 8th Edition, Taylor and Francis, 2007.
White, F.M., Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Turns S R, Thermal-Fluid Science, An Integrated Approach, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Cengel Y A and Boles M A, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, McGraw Hill, 2006.
None
Content
Fluid Mechanics
Approximately 15 hours of lectures and 8 tutorial sessions. 1 laboratory class on pipe flows.
1. Introduction
Overview and introduction to the course
Introduction to Boundary Layers
2. Flow in Pipes
Entrance length and velocity profile for laminar and turbulent conditions
Flow in rough pipes and application of the Moody diagram
3. Flow Past a Body
Drag and friction
Inviscid flow theory and experimental data
Bluff bodies and aero/hydro-foils
Effects of pressure gradient on boundary layers and methods for control
4. The Momentum Integral Equation
Definition of displacement thickness, momentum thickness and shape parameter
Derivation of MIE for 2-D flow over a solid plate
Application for laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a plate
5. The Navier-Stokes Equations
Derivation of the Navier-Stokes Equations
Simplifications
Prandtl’s Hypothesis
The Boundary Layer Equations
Thermodynamics
Approximately 16 lectures and 12 tutorial/revision sessions. 1 laboratory session on IC Engine.
1. Mixtures of ideal gases
Overview and introduction to the course
Revision on the Ideal Gas Law and compressibility factor
Gibbs-Dalton Law and properties of ideal gas mixtures
Mixtures of ideal gases and vapour
Basic psychrometric processes and air-conditioning
Cooling tower
Numerical Examples
2. Elementary combustion
Combustion equations and conservation of mass
Stoichiometric coefficients and mixtures
Stoichiometric A/F ratio; weak and rich mixtures
Wet and dry analysis of combustion product
Numerical examples
3. Steam turbine cycles
Introduction to basic steam turbine cycle and associated components
Comparison between Carnot and Rankine cycles; effects of work ratio on cycle efficiency
Introduction to mean temperature of heat reception and rejection
Methods for improving cycle efficiency: Reheat cycle and feed heating
Closed-type and open-type feed water heaters
Numerical examples
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4. Gas turbine cycles
Introduction to basic gas turbine cycle and associated components
Closed and open circuit gas cycles
Basic cycle calculations; isentropic efficiency for gas compressor and turbine; work ratio
Parameters affecting the specific work and efficiency of the air-standard Joule cycle
Specific fuel consumption
Numerical examples
General Learning Outcomes
Knowledge and understanding
A broad range of the basic principles of fluid mechanics associated with the analysis of flow in pipes and
around bodies; an introduction to the Momentum Integral and Navier-Stokes equations.
Energy balance in gas and steam cycles; psychometric analysis of basic air conditioning systems;
elementary combustion theory
Skills
(i) Intellectual
Fluid mechanics principles applied to flow past bodies, also compressible and incompressible flows; the
application of this analysis to a range of engineering systems.
Performance improvement of thermal power plant; design/sizing of components in air conditioning
systems; determination of stoichiometric, weak and rich air fuel ratio.
(ii) Practical
Common laboratory test and measurement equipment for boundary layer study; power measurement and
combustion analysis of IC engine; collection and analysis of data in the context of the theory.
(iii) Transferable
Generate and systematically analyse a wide range of simple fluid flow and thermodynamic problems and
devices of practical engineering significance.
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