advertisement
l()l
K.H. ATIMAI) DAI I l.,AN'S AN I) lil I IAI).lAIr l)liW;\N'l'AltA'S
CONCIlPTS oF llDUCAl'l 0N l N'l'l l li l'lilts l'l'l(l'l'l \/l'.l oF
CI'I ARAC'I-ItI{ I'D I.JCAl'ION
DJ'1lh K u itl:llnsll
li
LccllrrcI at I'lS Yogyrrliirr'11 iltatc LJrri!c|siti
clyalrktttnalitlrrrgttrail.ctltlr
Al)st lircl
IloIos'(l hv K' ll t\lrrnatl Dlhlln
tdy aints to slu(ly: (l) concc111s ol'ctlttcitliollal
contribu{iortl to cdrrclliorlirl sttttggles at
thcir
aod
in
lncloncsia
Oi*un,uto dLrrini the Outch colonial era
b1 K ll Allrn.d Dahlan and Ki
concc'ts
i11
tllc
ctlLrcali(rnal
imi, (;),litn.nrio,i, olcharaclcr cduciltion
(.i)
rr 1rroItIrIIiIrtI ol corllbitlirtg tltc
urrl
cra.
llrc
rlrrlin.r
ii d*untoro as x bosis to lilcc t10 situutiorrs
bilsis ol tcligioLts vrtlttcs atrcl
lhc
ttsitrs
I)c\\illrt|rii
ilarljlir
uncl
Ki
Dahlau
.H. Ahnrad
jlttlovitliotls
concepts by
's
and Ki
Li
K
cultural valucs.
dy wus cprtrlit0tivc
in ttitltrlc ctltployittg tltc lrist.rierrl llIlrtt'ltclt lt
tr:eLl llrc LIrtLttrtctt( slu(ly
ls
(llc
plintary aItl scconclaty sorttccs. ilcsidcs. this 5tu(l) clllllroyc(l intcrvicws aS
Titnlltnsisrvlt
ll1c(l]o(1. Thc intcr.victvs r!cIc cortrlrrclcrl rvith lirLLr l\'lLtlrrttttttttLlit'rth itnd
metlrOcl, carLicd oUt on both
practitionors.
of thc study are as lollorvs. Fil.st, thc con(lilion ol'thc cclLrcltion dLrling thc colonial government
Ahnlad
wnrlairatin,tinnti* 0n(l thsl ol lhc tslirrrric tilLtcrrliprl rvhich \vils llol r(rotl cncotrtittlctl K II
was
llis
tcitclings.
(hil1
atrtl
t'cltgioLts
gc.c'al
l<tort,lcdgc
inlcsr.tc(l
ito run Muhu'tmudiyah schools
Ki
Hadjar'
irrLclligcnce
spit
ilLLrtl
lntl
irrtcllig,cn0c
inLcllcctLlrl
lTcl'',crln
a
balancc
idio prouia. snrdcntsivith
idings
otl
cnllh,rsizctl Ilttttc ott ctltteitliotl bitserl 0lt lotrrl errlltrtr" l'ttrlLrtLtrLtl lllLtlt I'i'tr;r tlrrrt lre csllrblisllccl
thc
tltlt,rlclclopc'd
pr'inciple ol scll-intlcpcnclcnce rvilh a nutionel basis airrctl to tcitlizc e,.lLrertLioll
ltrrtl grx[l rlccds ltt
n's charactcr cclucalion rvls bascrl on Islirnric tcurlrLrts. rlirrlrcl! llLilll. l.rrrr\lerlge.
()n
to Ki Ilacliar
,tootl
rreco|ditlg
ollrer
llitrr(1.
lltc
rlcetls.
brLt
irls(r
u r"tigiun tuugtr, ltot only knowlcrlgc.
irttcllccttrill
cLrtttlLttl
lll
ol
clriltltcrr':1trorl
rtrtr,,ttrl
llrr
hlllrtttcc
slo\
ol
lt
r.eduiatio,r hitl tu tukc rtccottttl
usirlg thc
\\xs
irrrl)lcrrrcrrtcd
lrtiLteatiLrtr
pcr
lirt
rlcvcloItIcttr.
ol-tllcir
thc
sakc
ty, and physical ability for
(caring)
irnlong
\\'ith
lhc
(cloing)
cortrbitrcil
(l'ccling).
urrcl
nglakoni
ngr.oso
(unclcrstaicling;,
ofni",ri
ris
Ki Ilarllrrl l)crvirrrlrrll lclirscil lhc svslcrn ol-c(l(rciltioll hy lhe Dulch
K ll
gove1nment at that tinlc, lvhich lvirs rliscrinrn.r(iic irr(l \cry inttlle({llirl irl llilltllc llrirLl. botlt
lvas
holistic,
wllich
dahlan ancl Ki Hacljar Dcwantara consiclclccl rt inrportlrll to ilnplcrrrerll crluc0tioll
(lrc lirrttilr slslertt llltotrgll tllc lslirrttic
the Islamic bolrtling schopl syslcnr ri'lticlt rrus rrrrrlrgerl b1
goth
k. H. Ahmarl Dahlitn
ancl
rviih thc togcthclncss ol tcircllcrs urrrl slrLclcnls crcty tlirr'. sttlrlcllts i1l(lil,lctly lcltrncd no1
ulrrttlclr:t qdlrcirtion irl noblc
fro-m tcxtUoot<s but also fr.onr lilc rhrt {hcy cxpcIicnccd dlili'. ILcligion htscd
c(lurilli()ll il) Ki Ilarlirtr
eltrttrtelul
rrrrLl
errllrrlc-brtscrl
toorl
I)ahlurr
cducation accor.clilg lo K.ll. Ahtrril(l
sllitit' allil ttoblc
itttlcIctttlcttcc
Sirrrlrlititr"
LlisciIlirrc
corlcc')ts
pclspec(ivc
h.rtl
alllost
silllilrtf
ra's
'l
ctnphasizcd thc
were primaty objcctivcs in thciI ctrnccpls ol odLrcation. hcir lcltttlirtg lltoccsscs
-l
trro llttttcs'
lrtsc
s of gooil ciirrlrllics ittltl ilcttls irl rLrilr lrli lo lirllrr 1l\)(l ltrrbits rrrt'1 h'ltrlr it'rs
rvith lllc
lrattlttltty
lltcl
ltc
lll
olch'ar.actcr cclrrcation arc still rolcvilnt lo [rc trpplicrl rrLrrvirr.lltys bccrrLrsc
ng school systcnt
design
ofchalacter eclucalion dcvelopccl l)v the !o\crnlncllt.
chatactcr cdqct(ion. K.
ll.
Ahntacl l).rltlatr.
Kyai Haji Ahmad Dalrlan (hctcal'tcr rvtittcrr
Ahmad Dahl.rn) ancl Ki llacljar l)c\\lntrtrrr
two educationill llgLrtcs
thlt
Ill(l()rrcsiir
during thc Dutch coloniiil pcriod lloth ol'
dcvclopccl cortccpts ol' c(ltlcillioll atljLrstcrl t,r
cultural, atrcl tcligiotts concliliorts ltl
society. They not only creatccl colrcclLs
lor
lll{ in(lli'cll'rtr\
1rq,'1r11
rv"' rr"r"
hi
IIild.iuL
I)c\\ilntltir.
tLLLtL
rirl lrisLoricrri tcllcctiLrtt
ur(lrr ()aaulrilli\irl ,rL lllirl lilll. l)Lll llls() llcli\'alY looli
purt iur(l \\'cre Llitccllr iltrtrlrctl irl tltc licld ol'
ctlucation: thcy str0gglcd to P(Jvitlc cclttcatiotr lbr
thc
i,rtltgcnotts pcople by
cstablishing
NlLrhlrntrrrrdiyrtlr lrtrrl'lltllllrrrsis*'a cclitclttitlnal
orgirnirirtions. lltcsc,llgrttlizltiotls dcvclopcd tltc
ittrligcrtoLLs Icrrlrlc s irrtlcIcrrtlcttl spilit on thc irasis
ol sLrerrr eLrlltrtlrl \lrrrrgllls oll lllc Lrtlt llirttrl itllil lllc
rcligiou\ slrcl]g111 ort lllc otllcr
ii
.l
t92
K.ll. Ahrlud I)altlln vicu,erl tltrl thc socirl
conditions iitich ivclc unl.itvorabic in tclns
ol.
ccononric. political. sociirl. irnrl cLrllLrllrl uspccls
llceirtrse ol 1lr( o(r.rlJrllor;rltl llrc rtli-riLrLrs
lil.c
which was ncl bascd on Al err.an .,,,1 lln,lith
2, Chrractcr llducrtioll in K.H.
|csLrltctl in lirllrlislit. :rIri sliltic itIilLl(lcs.
r]il tr,ly
J.i(lrllt- I,,,rl \,Ir,11t.,1\ ..rrri .rrl1..rrr! r. rlt't;',
_fo
givcn.
rlcirl rlith lltis. trrlrlicnrng ncw il\!,ilrcncss
\\,.r rr\'.(\.ir) t. ll.r1..
l,.,,I,lc 1,,,..(.. \!il_r(lj: r..
lo,. iIl.rrt_.(
.llr.rrrs..lr,., l,rr 1,-.,,,11. lr,j\s\.. r.:
lelr:- .. r..rr''.
IL.l(.111.., L, rL...trrrrr:,, irr \. (,,, ..i
lutrrl llit(litll is bclicrerl l0 bc ir i|1r1, lo (lcvcl(rI
scll_
iclcntity anci scll-rclilnec. coLulgc lo sltugglc
ag:rinst vicc (oll)ressr()n). irrrd titc l,iil t,,
tlcvii,p
vrlUr {rrrtlcPtll{lfl](c) iSrrtliq i\. hLrrrtorrr.
200(r: lSll). -fhis bcconrcs l
li)un.lrlion of
Vrrrr.trrlr:.,i ., . . ,tr r,, l, ., ,.,1r .,rr ,,rr
tlrrlili0 K.ll. r\ltltatl l)rrltlun. tvlto lhsolbccl a
lol 0l lsliIIic ntodcrn vllLlas
1o (lc\,clop
l
ltilll
civilizltlio , l(i I llrtil:rr. I)cN,i!ttilril Nils tllllUrIcc(l
lllorc l)! ('\\ l)ct.slt(rti\as (rl c(l (it1i()n ll lJtc W.sl
itnd cltboriltc(l hjs crlLlcltionitl thcorics Using tllc
ntlion's cIll |1tl
ttr]LtL,s (esJrcr.itrJl!
Jtrrlrrrcst,
eullurr). I rr)nl tltc erlUrlrlt()llitl tl)cot),
hc rvirs inllLrcnccrl by Montcssori.sl)crspccttVc.
lhcoly oi
urirri:rtr,'rr. , J,rr.. L tr. t( .1,(\.t l.,t (.l t,{t..,r.,
rrro('l)enJc
tl \l\lltl. Iic(,t,,1. rrr
tc,,rrrrr]_.
;rr.,l
altcn{iolt 10 childr.cn's inlctcsts ill](l nccrls (Si-rrlr0
A
KLl0loro. 1006: ll I ). I crrelrcr.s. ntain tluty is
giving knorvlcclgc to cltil(lrcn
rro{
bLrt guirling thcnt to
lcarn in accordancc with titcir Icvclopnrcnlul
Illcrcsls itit(l nccils \/il)lcrrcc.
i)Ullisll]lct)1. lUl(l
lotcc arc Dol Llscd to cducatc cltilclr.cn in ordcr
that
tlrcl . :rrr,ler cl.,1r lrr,,1 i1,l(,l,ctr,i(.1t \l\tf rl
Mtrltarrrnrrrlryalt cclrrcaliol lhal devclolts
Islantic virlrrcs and gcncrai knowlcdgc natrilcslcd
irl K.ll. Ahr i,l I)illll. r'r (,,llc(llt ,,t ((lU..,rt:i,n.
l(l
CLItI(iillol l\l\\.,1 ,'n tlri I:ttt,, itl (l.lll (, lltitl l\r
Iladjal Dcrvarrtlr.a clcvclopccl havc goals par.allcl
to
those ol'1hc nlllionitl cdLlcillion. ln qcncr.ul.
lsluntic
!(lltiitti,' lt:lr ,t I, Llrrl\ ,t.t\..t., i,l lrr| ,rrrru rrr.h.uttart bcrng.. l,llcl\ nlrl.ir)! llrc.rr cafrrlrl..
,,1.
rlel,.lr'l)rrrr: .tll l,
lr,,t..ntr.rl. L, l. r(lr..rl
nraxitnitlly in acco|dancc rVitlt lltc Iulcs shl(j(l
in Al
Qur'an and llil(lith so tltill
wlole
linllll, thcy rvill
bL:rngs
bccornc
(MarzLrki. 20ll:467).
. .hurnln
Mcanrvhilc. crrllLu.c-basccl cilLrculion thur Ki
llaclirir
Dcrvantala dcrclopccl itints lo c(lucNlc childrcn
so
lhal thcy cilt l'ijcl. lhirrl(. itjlrl worli in(ici)cn(lcnrJy
irl
thc scopc ol'itllilit)iltg llrr. rony trrrri
itl lil!
logclhctncss (r\briLrIr.trcltILrI
l9ii6;lill). Tirr cr)ntlrililli0l
01.
llcilcc
S
rrr.jrrrtriltir(ljo,
tltcl;t t\\o priniiltics
rcsults it) il co0ccpl ol cllirritctcI ctlrrcatir,rr ptrrirll.,l
lo llt( !uitl ,,t tjr\. .rl,\rl:rl e.l.r.,,t.urr. ,,.rtr..ly
ttltkilU r',irr,lc I , , . 1,.,,p lc r,lr,, lr:rr, rr,,r
()lll\ rIll('l'tr'(lr,. lr t r,,,,.:,,.,, .r.,.,irr.Lr. rr.Jl
,rs
r
,
L I
, r
r
,
,
I :r
.
lovc ancl ltlitlc o1 11rc nilli()n iltLl counlrr-.
Ahmatl
hltn's CoDccpt of Education
I(.11. Alrrrriril Dulrlarr cornbincd scisntillc
knoulcJgc irrd reliUior ro inrfrove the poor lile
(\\rl\lilr,.'Ir llr.
l)L\,j1lc c\pcricIL(rl clLriirrg thc
t,'lrrtti;rl ..rir. n sltrl(!,y tu fucc sucill clrcugc-s
due
to llro(lcrnizntiol. accorcling 1o K.ll. Ahmad
l)lrlrlirrr. elrrr.l,c rtr.rtl( by tcl(rllg lu Al
eL,r.ln by
(rudiuirl rg liltiilistic J i ldcj lrrd blrtr,l
ob,.Jienci.
Da
Such a slrxtcgy accor(ling to Abclul Munir.Mulkhan
(l()trrt;'t1 ..',r bc rrilrJe hy .rw,rl,urrrng
tltt iltihatt
r sprIit rtrrrl lllutivjltiur) lhtoUglr thc
of logicf,l and ralioial ;inking
c:rlrrrl,ilrry rrrr.l lry srrrJyirrg soeirj lc.rlilies.
/tlrinkrrrg
improvonrent
I hcrcluru. thc ubjcct ol thc
P1q3qj1lng llto\ cnlcnt by
MLrhulrnrrrliyuh (hal K.ll. Ahnracl Dahh;
\'slirbli\lr(\l is .lctuk_rpirrg inltorirtrvc spirit and
rroli\irlrr,n in all .oeral srrara. fi.orD rhe liypcople,
tllc l)('or. lltr Ireh, t(' thc intcllccrrllrl
llr( l)r',,ics. L'l (il.tfit(tLl. c(lu(JtiL,r) tlrll K,H.
Airrrad l)ahlan applicd to hjs shrclents wis
gudLr0lly carricd o 1 wilh cenflinty. Thc
coutitgetb
itcl or to
.r[r goocl dcctls wos soulcthiug ;ol*
irrlr.rlrrrrrr rllirrr rrr..r'cly r.crrdirrg lntl nrenroIizi g
(.)uf iUl vcrscs ils possil)lc,
M0lnorirl
rli ty Al
Al Qur'an vcrses with;ut unclerstanding
inrplcrllcnLing thc coltlcltts was not bcDel
nraoy
crroLrglt accoldilg 1o ll,lt. Tjlcrelorc.
thc Dr(
llrrrt lrc alrplicd irr tclclrrng his studcnts wrs
l)ol
rclJin5.rrrrl rlcrtrolizing Al eur.un verscs,
bul
.I)rlcl\t.r
{irn! Ilrr, rrrt.lrnirrgs lrrrJ rntplcr
thcnr ol cloing
r'
ur
gi_rocl clecds
iu clailv lilb.
Thc loirndation ol'K.H. Ahlrad Dahlan,s
r)LIU crlllcillrott is lslurrric tcuchings cor
tlrlec pillur, cs l)tclltioncd belorc. rrattrcly
fuitlt. scrcltrlle lrrowledge. and good decds;
bc(olltc tl)u brr,is hrr irll uducJtionfll itIcntpts
itc lrirrlr. l(cligiotrr lirrrh (belicll rn
the
bccontcs rlrc pr.iruirr'1 pillar.. lollowed by scr
lirrorvlcdgc t{) support rhc bclicf tlrtrl
onc has.
posscssing religious laith and beliel
one wil
willingly do good (lcc(ls in accor.dancc
with
Irlrgi.rrrs Iulcs. lhesr: lrr., plir.;rllcl to thc
chi
rrlucurion rhcrrr') by Li,,korrl {lg9j:51), who
that charactcr has thr.ee intcrrelated aspects,
nolal knowing, nroral lbeling, and rroral bi
ll l)..gini wilh krrowilg irllgo-od thilgs. lollowcd
i t tltc ltc rl) to do ull gouci things. i
)lrlllrgrlcrs
lirr:rlly
ti,ll,rwcrt hy Ll,,irg rrll goj rhing,,
tlr'cc itsl)(ctj. ccot,.lrng lo Licl(onil, ilrc con!
,r'' tl)s lrirlrili ol lhIltUltl\. lr:clitigs.
trtttl trctionS;
irll. ll IltuIt. il i. rr..eerilrry ro hnvc knowlcdUo
ju(lgc whirt is rigltt, coltccli about what
is righi
actioD to do
whtt is right.
193
3, Chrrnctcr tiducation in Ki
Dcwantara's Conccpt of F.ducnlion
lic
fe
hc
ue
,rd
)y
ul
tq
rg
s,
tJw
tn
rd
c,
l,
ls
o
c
s
g
d
II
d
v
)
Educating. accorcling to Ki
llurljar
Illdjar
Dcrvanlala,
is not only improving the intellcctual aspccr. but
{. (l)nll)iIriion ol K.ll. ,\hrrrIrl Duhlin's llnd
Ki lla(l.iar Dc\1rntllrr's CoDccpts of
Chirrirctcr llducation
Thcsc trvo ligtrlcs' contmon intelests in
u|c thrt thcy cntphasizc education of
pc|sonality ancl good nloral conduct. The
thc r'norrl (inncr
strength. charactcrJ, thought (intcllcct). and
physical aspect of a child. ln aclciition, Ki Ilacljar.
Dewantnra ( l9i7a:323) also cmphasizcs thc
importance of cducation bnscd on culturc, which
cclucation
sttempts to enhance goocl moral as rrraxinrally as
govcrnnrcnl inrplcmcr',tecl inlcllectulll education
also simr:ltaneously cnhancing
possible
by
devcloping thoughts, feclings. and
willingncss. Educution ol thL' cugnitivr ir:l\(t
(thought or intellcct) is allcacly clear; up to thc
lprcscnt,
it
lrcc<lnrcs
thc fir'st priolily itr
oLrr
educational systcnr. Howcvcr, thc lll'lcctiv0 lsl)cct
(feelings and willingness) is olten ncglcctecl. A
igood pcrsonnlity is nol givcn h t ir rn sr l).
, dcvcloped through a long ploccss.
Education ofgood urolll basccl on thc nntion's
cultulc is dcvcl0pc(l lnrl crcllplillcd by tcirclrcls or.
parnong. Thc conccpt o l' "r'll?,{.jrl", lum0ly //!'cl.//
(knowing), rglo,ro (lccling). rrnrl rrg/rrlioirl (iloin11),
cornbined with the instrLrctional rncthod with rhc
anong (caring\ svstctn, bocontcs an insltuclionill
systent applied il Tantirnsiswa. with thc sloglrr
Tulwti Handayani (Litcrally, it rrrcans 'Florr tlrc
rear, the tcachel nrotivfltes thc stu(icnts'). With sLrch
a systcm, Ki IIad.ilr Dcwill]tara nrirdc rn allcr.nalivc
to colonial cducalion which was too intcllcctuill in
nature by devcloping cducation based on thc
nation's cultulc, including hunrlnity, indcpcndcnl
spirit, lcspcct
lbr
piucnls, politcncss. crhics,
nationalisnl, and stluggling spilit, in olclcr thar
education dcvclops slu(lcnts irs a rvltolc rr,hich
enhanocs thcil pcrson lity urrrl cha|actcr..
The proccss ofcducation ol'goocl rnoml by Ki
llttcljar Dcwantarl is crrr-ricil orrl il li)uf strgcs tlrirl
he took f'rom Islantic principlcs, nanrcly ,r.t,ra i'rr1
(law), halcikat (csscrlcc), toikot(palh), Ind /r./ i.l/irl
(knowlcdgc). 1'l1c ,\vuti'ut stagc is th0 proccss ol
making childlen under age havc good habits, rhc
hakikat stage is thc tinrc ol'plovitlint insight inro ol
undcrstanding oJ'All vil'tuc allcr lhey rrc gro\!n up.
lhe lorifurt slagc is a proocss of making thcnt awal.e
ofthe obligation to do good clcctls, ancl ll.tc tnu rilirt
stage is the highcst stagc in which thc grown-ups
are capable of distingLrishing bctwecn vicc ancl
viftuc and selecting thc b01tcr lor tltcn'tsclvcs.
Good moral bcconres thc nrain goal ol thc
learning proccss that
Ki lladjar
Dcr.,anlarr
hirr is not only
irnploving thc intcllcclual spcct rs thc schoolr g
system by the Dutch colonial governll'tent at that
conducted. Educating according to
timc, but also sirrultancously inrproving t\c goocl
moral (inner strenglh, charrctcr), lhoLrght (intcllccr),
and physical aspect ola child.
cultivation ol'children's pc|sonality and good moral
corrduct bcconrcs thc lirst priority indispensable in
thc lcnrning ploccss. Whcn thc Dulclr colonial
rrnccasingly. thcsc t\\,o llgutes s,cre bmve enouglt
rur rrakc a clccision to intpl!nrcnt educatiou with
diflcrcn( conccpls.'l'hcir cdLrcrtional goals not only
crrphasizc tltc ilrlal['ctLtill or cognitivc ssfect, but
rulst, rlcvclop chiltlrcn s good chilractcrs. Islaln,
rvlrich is llrll ol'tcirchings crnphasizing norms
lrgrrtlirg thc lclrrtirrrrslrip rrrtrolg hrrnlrn bcings rtnd
thlt l)ctwccn hurnln bcings irncl Cod, bccomes the
lorrrrdrtirrn ol K Il. Ahrnad Dahlan's cducation of
gorxl tttrlitl eortrltrel. l\luirltvltilc, charnctct'
scrrsiliverrcss cLLllivirlcd tlrIrrLrgh a vaIicty of ar.t
r(li\,lics llr(l ill iltl)(ll(tii)l l() tltc nltlion's cullul0
bc{iorncs thc lbirndation ol Ki llacljar Dewantata's
c(lucali{)n
lloth K.ll. Alrrrad I)irlrlan lnd Ki Hadjar
I)clvallillil crrl;lltIsizc thc inlpottancc of thc
culliv!tiorl ol'goocl moral con(lLlct that can be
naximizcd in thc bourding cducalional systcm.
K.ll. Ahrlud l)alrlun's lnrl Ki llld.jar [)cwantart's
cor'rccpts ol' the borrding systcrn ain to develop
chiklrcn's physical urtrl spiriturl aspccts, The
ruldclstarrlinu ol lcligioLrs tclrcltings and thcir.
iorplcmcnlation as rvcll as thc prcparation of
prospcclivL' lorrtlcrs hcconte th0 goills of thc
M rrlrirnr rlirtliyulr ltolldirrs systcrn.'l hc lanansiswa
tcrching institution. bascd on Ki Hadjar
|)urr:rrrt:t ,r' , ltrttt,tl ,,' r ( l't.,. (t tlr'lit\t/C{ ItotC O
cclucation in thc l)olrding systent as an alternalive
lhut hc olli'rc(l in trnticiplrtinq cclucation which
bccotttcs nrrrtc trntl rrrLrrc itrt(llcetuill ill naturc.
Eclucation IbcLrsing on only intcllcctuality makes
hurrunity lccling pclislr irrtrl crlphlsizcs only
rllusions. lioth ligLrrcs i'icrl thut thc boardirrg
syslcrn is an approp|iurc ntodcl lbr charactcr
ccluca l ion.
ll' thcir- vicrvs tr|c cornbiIcrl, tll0y car reprcsenl
cdLrcationirl pcrspcclivcs that, bcsides enrphasizing
lcligious nornts. highly rcspccr thc ualion's cultural
valLrcs in clcvcloltinq studcnts' chiuilctcrs. Up to tlte
prcsent. characlcr cclucation in lncloncsia is still in
thc process of scalching alicr thc utost appropriate
loInrat. ll l)uncasila bccorncs tltc lbLrnclation ol thc
implementation. chalactcr cclucalion has to conloun
to all principlcs in Puncusilu. Thc Iir.st pr.inciplc.
bclicl in Cod, cannot bc
scporated
fiom
lhe
corlporlcrts of thc intp lemclt talion of the nation's
cllariicter cduciltion. Ilcligion. which bcconcs thc
IbLrnclation ol K.ll. Ahnrad Dahlan's character
c.,luca1ion, is all alterniltivc lbr. thc chalactcr
cclucalion inrplcntcntrition in lncloncsia, cornbined
.
i'
194
ol good nmlal basccl on thc
natioD's cLlllurc thut Ki Ilirrljirr I)cwilnt|ra
rvith thc cducution
tlcvclopcrl. I\4oruorcr'. il llrcl rrrc slLr(lrc(l irr rir()rc
de(ail, thcse lrvo ligurcs'birsic iclcirs ol chllucLcr'
cclLtcllion ntc irr linc $rtlr lclull lhcorics on
cha[rctct c(luelrLioi] lrl l)rc\crlL. srreh its tlrosc
proPoscd by l-icliorl i l99l I lnd llohlin (2005).
1 hc sinrilirr itl ol K.l l. .,\lrrrurl l)arrlan's iurd
Ki Iladjrr l)crluntelu's conccl'rLs ol cha|aclcI
cducnliori\ llrirl lllc)'cnrl)hirsizc {lrc pIinciPlc o1
cxcltlp]|[] tttodel: urrtl lhc inll)orlirlec ol il\iit0ltcss
through a dial,rgic prrccss in tlrc inculcution ol'
i.
chllrilctcrs 1o u\oi(l in(l()rlriIirti()rr 'l hc lcilchcr. who
is a strbstilrrlc lir l)ircuis anrl is sirrrrltuncorrsly un
cldcr llgurc .rt school. has a lcsponsibility ot'
p|oricling cxunrplcs li|st l.rlirrc rclching rll goo(l
things 1o lll0 slLrclcnts. Suclr rL corLlition is plritllcl to
thc lhcory on tlrc chilluclcr
implcnrcntltirrn rtrr()r(1in! 1() I'cills()r].
cdLrcillion
(10(X);2-1()).
who st0lcs Lhlll tllc i( 0ill clrirtxclcr c(lrrcllli()rr
ploglarr is iln iiltcl]rpt colluboratirell' trutlc by
adDlinist[itors. lcachcrs. courrsclots, and prrcnts
ancl pclsonality. Conrbining the concept of good
nr,,rill condllct cdui tion th l K.H. Ahmad Dahlan
rlcvclopccl and charNotcr c(lucalion thllt Ki Hadjar
Dcwantara in'rplcmcnted
li)rr'rulating
is an
alternative
to
idcal conccpt of chamcter education
llr IDcloncsian pcoplc. Both gonccpts aim to lnake
Inclolesian pcople posscss indeperdent spirit, good
nrorirl colldLrc{, n(l Bood chaftrctcrs. Characlcr
educalion is iurplenrented thlough an educational
ploccss r,vhich is basccl on thc firmily, dialogic, and
holistic. "lhc cor)ccllls ol' cxcrl'rplary nto(lcls and
dialogic proccsscs to llnd out tlle roots of the
problcnrs ancl thcir solutions.ilre applied ,as an
lttclrl)l lo rtlrin awatcnJss.
Charactcr cducation iu good moral corduct
c(hrcation accolding to K.H. Ahmad Dahlan and
ar1
rnoral cdLrcation in Ki llad1aL Dewantara's
pcrspcctive has a sirrilar conceptual loundation,
lloth crn bc lnalognrrs 10 il twin lroverncnt,
stlrLggling to dcvclop inclcpcndcnt spirit lbr
inrligcnous pcoplc nlthough they have difforeut
lburldatiorls, namcly leligion and culture. Their
.A(ln)itristlrlrlls. le,relreLs. lrtrtl,.r'rLtt:r'lots \l.rrr L\{r
drrtics. Onc is cncorrraging llrc plrrclrls' irrvolvcrrrcnl
an(l the olhcr is Ir'ovirlinI n(xlils li)r lhc rI[{lr]ls
con(cr'rs ()vcr tlrc corrrliliorts o{ thc pcttplc uttdcr
Moclcling plays
crrplrasizcd cclucllion to build studcnts' clraracters,
lt spcciul tolc irs 11rc cotc ol ir
proSrallr. l"irs1, il g(x)d clri[lcLct llils k) bc
ittcttlcltlcd ir lltc IetsDcr'lite ol "r[' rts Itlo". trrl
"do as l say". Such a theory is in linc rvitlr r.vhat
both K.H. Ahnracl I)uhlar irn(l Ki li r(liar Dcwirnllrir
ir
thc chl[irclcr c(lucirliol ill]l)lcnrcllirlloD.
Bcsidcs cxcnrpluly uro(lcls. both K.ll. Ahlrircl
Dahlan ancl Ki llarljur I)c\\.irnlrrir vicrvccl lhal
di(l
!llxlr(lcr c(lllcrli\rt llt,l lu ttrtr'lt tlrc lrrels
rrl
awareness and inrplcmcntltion. 'l
hc alt0nlpls to
allrin awdrcncss alc nril(lc thlouth a clilogic
proccss. K.ll. Alrrrld l)ulrlurr hckl a pIillciplc Ihirt
occupalion madc thcnl think of cducational
c(rrcql)ls wilh lhc slnrc principle in esscnce. Both
Sirnplicity, disciplinc, indcpcndent spirit, and good
rrorrl cor(luct trccrrrrc tlrr r)lin gouls ol b0lh
ctlLrc.itionul corcL'pts. Thc learning process
acco|ding 10 thcsc two figures has a silnilarily in
tlrirl both crnphrsizc thc plinciplc of cxcnpiary
nrodcls and 4u itwarcucss process through dialogs.
l-hc tcachcrs play an inrpo(ant role in building the
slu(lcrts'cllllrelcrs irt scltool; thcy ltc obligcd t0
providc good cxarlplcs for the students in all
aspccts ol'knowlcdgc taught to thern, in adtlition to
givirg inspilatiol to thcnl (hrough dialogic learning
cnlbracing a lcligion mcans doing good actions; the
vcLscs ll ort'r Al Qur'ln ilrc lot only lcarucd in tcrms
ol lhcir llcilnin!.s hul lrlso lrpplictl irt tclnts ol lltcir
instruclions. llclbrc his studcnls irpplicd thc vcrscs
processes.
thal (hcy hird lcurnctl. hc diil not tcir.h thc
intctprctatiort ol otlrcr \crscs. Sirrrilurly. Ki Illcljll
Dcwantara cnrphlsizccl tbill it \\'us inll)orlilnt lbl'
childrcn 1o hrt.' rt lrthit rrl hclrrrinu rvcll in
accoldancc with our cultlllc. lo inculc|lc lhc
0warcncss ol thc lovc ol cultLrrc. rnd to sirongly
Thcse two are highly respccled by our nation. The
holcl artd lriglrll' rcsl).el tl)!. rlrliorr's cultrrlc. I;,r'cly
tcachcr is obligcd lo lcach ch rirclcls to thc slLrdcIls
sponlancously bccaLrsc acco|cling 10 hinr charirctcr
rrrirlerrlrlistit vulucs ilrrrj :'cicntific valucs arc
rulrrrJtcd fi,.rrr: lhc rcligion and culture.
cducllion is not ncccsslrlily irrplcnrcllccl irs a
scparrte subjccl. bLrt it is intcglutccl into iLIl sLrbjccts
through lhc .\ ui Ltl, lutikdt, tre ti/itl ',r'td ltukiktr
nrtion's cLlltLlrc so thal j1 is necessary to build
chllactcrs basccl on lcligious and cultural values
Both
K. H. Ahrrad
Dahlan and
I)cwarlirl strugglcd lor
Ki
Hadjar
indepcndence by
dclinding thc rcligiorl and the nation's cLLIture.
Iocal cultural v lucs constituting thc
national
culture bccorne important pad in the development
of cl)irl0tcr c(iucllior to fircc global ch llenges
whioh arc gotting nrora and mon powerful at
p|cscnt. Thc licld ol'educatiou has to compete with
Matclialistic valucs can clcstroy the religion and
the
bcsides humanity valucs.
slagcs.
llrirfr,irriNcras
5.
Conclusions
Willt sirrilirr blcl.!rL'rrrttls. l,.ll. Alrntird
Dahlan arcl Ki llucljaI I)c\!rrrtilra inrplcllcrllc(l
cdLlcalior lhlt nLrl orrlv crlplrasizcLl tlrc intellcctLrlrl
ilspccl bu( llso el$cloIcrl tlrc slu(lcIls' inlcgril),
fll
AbdLrllrh Syukli Zarkrsyi. (2010).
keplitrlcliau
"lMcrnbangun
darr kar0ktcr bangsa tnclalui
llcrdidikirn'. Mul;ulalt. Disanpaikau dalalr scminar
rrasioral FISII UNY l2 lMci20l0
I
t95
t'. 't"Itrt't r"'tttt 1tt 'ltl'/'an hnlt
l22l
' ' l)cr.(lrkr!r\' |lnn!t
\lgi}J P Ilkl ]-'n Klot I l ll
Mtthttnttttt ti) dh J'tlut
ct'l
oi,'t,t,,
)ir"i
'
lirlarla: [Jrrr]ri Aksirrir
v'rit'/
)irrpiftilp"",t'"t,tu
thut kit'th Kiti Ahtttt'l
' 12010). Pcvrrr
ltutlttnndJi'ltlt
hiltn'th
iiiii'-)nt,,',,
Mulkhan
Abdul Munlr
-
1t"ir",
Abdurrschtnar Surjorrrihar'''ljo
(l'J$6t fi //'r'/l'rl
Adi Nuglalrn r2009)
K// Attntl D Ln
hk'lr'ttt
CV
Kurnun Yogvrkrrlai
; ,;,,,,' ., , ,r
lli'1 1\l
Il1fl'tNlt tlt'
(2007) tlllio Jnkartar Cr^lledia'
|31 Bcrlcls, K
r.l,1"''
ll4l Bosdan & Sr$crt lccrt. t LIht'ds
llai5;/'i';[1'l:;,1]
l
rctc'tt'Lh
lo qlloliktlive
Wrlcy & Sons
trltrrrt'
t"ihttt'lut l't
IlTl Carlrcv. T.F ll9-l2t Contor 'tn'tlrttt
rr'7r' i ///o'7 Lorr'lorl:
r
urrl'r
{
"'';;;;;,; i'tlcrtntlt lion
B.T. Batsfold
l*"llcr
"PL'lrgcrr)hirngilll rlr(r(lcl
tcrintcgrirsi dahnt pcnrbclq'rurt
"'"tlijri."
;i;;';;;;ji Ji so cnt"''"i11
tlgl
O'c, t'lornf l* UNY'
P"n'ti'titi tl cr'ti
Th XXlX
h dr InAla
I20l Daris Tarnirn. {19q0) "Muhcrrrrnrdiy
buku
'-"'
perjalartltn blttgsrr" Dalatll
un
sciur'th l'rntiliit'ru 'la't
r,urtii
Wlcana
,.rr//rdlryd Yogyilkarlr: Pl Tirrr
f2ll Dclirr Nocr' (1985)
' ' iuJon"rin
/'
l)|r,L'"r'rir
lll{l',rru,,','."
I.lrrshLrllrrh. (:rtrrlr .i'1,r,.r,,
'
ltttttl\'ttt \\ltttttt
l)crl?r,b./,(o" lilkilrlal
rr
',' / 'rr"/'t''r"'
C'r&'n n"J"rn l'htn
/gnl)./942 Jakrrtar LPIFS
'lt
1itnti,tit'a't ll'n di
l)'llttt)lt\tit 't tl(tn
LSIK
ll'r'r\r' /' arr ' r'i''r'r/ C'l'('r"I"
l""t Dt H'tn'tt N'r(rrIl''r' Jakanc:
l1'rl Illrull \.lsullol
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llutlti Aksrrs
,,,i,uu,
ttn'lrot
Il\l(;t'll\rll.rr\. I' rr' IIr'r'r 'l r'l'r'trr rrirrg lll't"ty
, ''t';"'. ''l h''r"r'( '' r"rrrr' l :r l' \trinrlr\'
N,'i.,.,',,rr',, \/ r-'1';\'/.,'ir' lrl rrr": Ul Prc's
t"lt;'ntt' Ktll It'ltLut
fl',1 llxrii(1. KRll r:r\'\r'
Yogyirlena:
tl
lhtt't'1
l,tt'.4,t1t.! /- l''""/ I 'tt i
I ll Pt NlLrhJnrnrirdi) 'rh
I l](rl!l r I I '{5r' llht'h1 rl'it J't't tn'rlthtrt
llTl
t" ll.rrl\ "r'i,,'
/'r(/"'(\r'r p'J" 't'ra 1t'ttJ ukun
',.,:i'ii
'ii Pustaka
JaYa
t\4ci 2010
(2010) Hunnnisasi pentlilikan' lakarta:
-.
tt",ai
trit
'l
,,'rr\r Y'\$vlkllrrr
Jq)drg. JAkartil:
tlSl
t'"' Dullnivlri Z!,"htli t20lrt1
fftutit
'. '
,,, 1,","'
.,
' \
Ncw Yolk: ll'rlrl rrr) ljLI'rl:
larrtlc PNsscron (1996)
L
{
l.1Jlr;,,11l,r. ,.
i"rl
and Bacon
cltrcolion to.iel.\' und
t""':': t
rj)^r,,,',"
',"' ""
Lcrr(l'rn Sy(lnL)
RcPt odtclion i
Londonl Sagc
l(111''llrr
r" ' 't 't't l"ttt" t:ttirt
Publishcrs
C
th*'1\' 'tt,t
''"7;,*;),,;,,;,;;,
-g"o* An i'*''h'''i"t' t''l0rorrl(':
/\rl\r'
-Jcarr-C
\/,r'rt
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tl,r -/ /i.,/,!. t'' 't tlt' '11'r1n1l
'- ' n,,J rin.r I'cngLrrrr Iii"rl L-ttl
t1.r'
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' ' l'',',. 1.'1.l I l"l : f{"yLrrrlr'1; I rr'rrr n lrrnr(l
//r' 't'"ltt'txt ul
|.rIIIIIIIIII. NliJhr(l r(J ) Ir'-r1t)n
lllinors
'lt!t l
.,.r,',/ ,/,.r'rs, t ' '!t'\
l
c
I'rrl)lisl)cr
rrrr(l
1irirrilrg.
Skyligllt'l
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'
;"".f.,i,.",,','. r' 'r " 1':_ti'rrr"rri r rilrllcrilrg:ysltlrl
.i,ltlr'*"' ctlLre.ri.rr" lirr'lr' ( /ri[//rrr,ri
ii,'l
"i,,:i"
I:.1ucttt irtn.kntnrtl 29
llll(;.,,\ll r'1. l,'l'r Ilr"lr t t^'t'i "'t 'i11 l'rr'//sc1Brrn'
l)ts:
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' ;, ,.;,,,'
Qua tuttl IL\tt ttitlS Jalrtl't
Bourticu, Picrc d
tr
r
Puslika l'clajar
llcrrrir(lr' r2l)r'l)
0llBobbic Dc Poncr & N4il(
l6l
,;;,.;,,
i ,,.,,1r',
Bil,tn,l,r' Jnhana: LP3llS
it'rrl,,,Jt
\ rrrrr'' l:rn ?r /"'r'/r''l''r
l ritl rr'\ \l
'i,:",':,;
2.i,,J,,
Il5l Bocdarl & Robert
Tanllnslswa
r'rl" /"rrl'r'r'
I \r I r r(. I rr','! rl"rr')r l"1t't ttt"t't "'
J'tt'u't
" ,,',, n t;t',,,, r'/'r! /r'rrrr'rrlrl'i lt tt
'r'1l!!r/t'rl
Kr
[9] Acus nurn.rnro {lc)xxl /'/Vt'lrk/r/']'i.l"rrr'1'rl
'' Hi k,r DLrintttLt t(1tt'tttt iir\t /,'''(/'ti'r '\''/\rI'//
rrr"'irni" Yogv' k"r't'' I S1
{1982r' p//'Il/r'//rv' 'i
PcrsalLrnn
YogYa'ialta: Lotrrng l)ustlkll
Al Wasnth
ll2l Bcrk. Lrrtrla E {200?l D' r't"/'l,t'ttt
liltrp,n Bostorll Allyn 'rnd Ilirror)
tll"-'ti: tUltut.ktf
fn'l'l
^l,'
t- n'tal"t't"tt J'l't'tt ltnJulikan
,,.,,',,, ,,,,,,,,,t l " t
t'l-
"Trrll Pcngrkil lri(ltrr)
Ahnlird Dlhlillr' { l08r)
l,,f""t blrkr' /'( /*' ''l'ilh"'I'r /'r1lrrtr/''r
,".tt,,tit".
';;;,;;,;;,;,,tw
dari nota k' hn\n ltti't)\ tt"'It
'",)iii",,t,,
tJ ot Yogv;rknlt't: Pr D(rr l)rnrcn\i
yttlttw'tn't'
Alfian.
t2010) Pulirik kn'n notlLnt' B"t t' t' !
'
i,',iii,,i,),",i,r,,t, a'rhttJ'tl' k' )"tti' t isnt"
r-",,' .'r'''-""'i
ttl''nt
tt0l Aorb Su ri ro. ( lq\51. nrlrlli
\l' t"tt"'ttnhwlt
l I trJlirrr:rrrl^ I l"\-)
Surya Suana Crafika
Jak^r(o:
llrtrLt
Yogylkrl ta:_Malclis Ltlhur
(2010) Seiaruh Kuuntan'
Ahmad
',),"ri,)lAdaby Darbarl
Ktttnptrng
f24l
rll
/J(//,/(rr \'()gyrtkll rl: Pcllcltit Pcrsilt
I'cnLlirlilian Lti\tldr]f,g:
DjurrthLrr, l (lL)T\' Saiuftth
'
J2f
-
singkct I869- I923 Yogynkorl't: Urrasr
ia"i,,*,
l,)t.r|rrrrrrr
',ilti.,,",'
\ti"rtin
,251 FirelrrrrrlrlIr. A Il.,lti^Jr'
YogyirkxLtc: N4Lrjlis T'rtrligh
dan Tant'n'i"'o rl'tl'tnt
sr'l'ttrttt
Sirrirr IInranrrr
Jakartu:Pcncrbit
Un"lnr,
traoinerio
Duwanlora
ll r,llfrl'rrrrrir' '1"'\t ll'I ttt l\ tl tllttnttl
K tt A
j
,t," i ,",'tltt t ti' /tt tt:th ti "tw1at
l2-ll
'"
Yogyakarta: Suara Multarnmacliyah
lrkirr1ir' Dillcn Dikddsrrrcn
.i,-,,,,-,'.'n11in,"
I'Jncrbit Mirillr
l40l
"' Hcallbrd.
'
N4
R
(l'r('ll lc'trlozzi"
l,i,,,,r,lr',,,', ,',""q/
r
Tlt' lib'ury ql
L"rr'L rr Mcthrrcn & Co LTD
A // 'tlt t''.l D'|hl'rt t't t
t4ll
t' llcri sucir\u (:rrlU)
ttl"t't'1
t't"titi \lL'lt m'uLtlitth
r.:,'.,"i.'i""li
Ul.rlll.L
Merli.r
Bcsl
.lillxl lJ
196
(l()82) Atti tlan
142l Irrani Ilarnadib.
uretoda seiuruh
lt,ttLlnlil,ru \'ot!llkil n: Yllyilslln l)clrcrbit Fll' lKlP
Yo!.yirkirllir
l,l3l lsnrLr
1'r'i l)lrrni. (1009) "llcllcksi
pcndidikun
Ki I liltliilr
konscp
t. NY
[,1'1] Jrrnrrs Salrrnr.
[60] Kilschenbaum, Howard. (2000). "From valucs
clarificatiotl to character educatiol: a pcrsonal
(1968)
(.///1. Dultlutt unul
"c,)tuttiiun,
lrlc Iulrlirn (19()5) NLttirttt'tlistttt
thtn rcwltr.ti tli lntlont:.titt (Tcli. Nin llakdi
Klaus (1980) Content anal)'sis
b:;(lucliotl its lheory ahd nelo(lology' Univ'tsily
[62] Krippcrldorff,
ol
l.l5l Krrhirr. (jocrgc
Socrnllnlo). SLrllrlarlir: ScbcLls N4llrat tJni!crsity
Pcu)sylvoll,iil'.
ktulitilil hildttg
it
KttnnS'kctldtEan
ttttt:a Yogyakrrrtl: N4rriclis
()7?ir).
diffcrcnccs
(l"i7b)
A'.,, 11,
I
Itljur
DL'urrtttrtrt,
hrtgi,ut liLLhu K(l,ltthtIt11ttt^/ Yogyrrkirltl
Mrr
jclis
l-ulrut ItcrslrlLrirr) l llr)lirllsiswil
l50l
. (200s) "Kcbunllki1ii1r pcndidikan
rur:r,,llJl. rrr.rrr!,r]i hrrlir brrlrr |r(rrrikirirrr pcrrtlitlikrrn
Ki I lridjllr De\ilnlitril ullluk lllcrll!klllli Kcballgkilan
Yogylkar-tal
nirsionitl." Kttntpttlutt lltliln
I'erpLr\lirLirirrr I'rrro I'rrLrrrrllrrrrlrrt
lstl
.
( 195
1r).
I)
iili( I
\lr
1. 5().1)
( 195 r b). Sif
ls 2l
l)jili(l
[s.]l
pcD(li(lik
X
lll
in
vulnerability
p.r|'choktgy,
vol
39,
.05l
'
K\ri SYrric.
1n:rr,r,iui,
'
l
. (l()ilc). Silrt
/'r/.vt?. l)j ili(l Xlll N o.5
(lLln
nlirlstt(l pcrrLliLlikan ll.
''l'clgirtl.iitlun
/'rl.\drd. DJilid XVNo.I
btrdipokclti"
Tl,ntansjsrr
[(r?] Lolland
sellings:
'l rrnilrr\is\\'ir
[57] Ki (iLrnaNrrrr. (l9ii()) AktLr0lisLrsi kortscpsi
pcrxlrtlrkirrr Ki Iltr(ljtlr llc\!irlllilril (lllllrrn sislcnl
rrbltl XXl'
lrcrrtlr,lrkrrrr rrrrsi0rrrrl IrrrIrrresirr rli lcrhrrrrg
I)rllnn bukrr Ki ttQliut l)(\dnttt( l(tlanl
lxttttlttngun /tt.t Ltnlt ili ltrn t!nlt ilnl.\'tt'
\.'r'r '1.:r'r.r \l r lr' I rrrlrr l 'r'r.rrr'i'rtrr
l5lil Ki lnrarr Su(li.jLrt. (19|i9) l)arrrtrrtg ylng bc|rvatak
L
sirlriil pinilndhilil (lall l)alrdhita sinillriil" l)alattl btrku
Ki ll,t,liu l)t\tttttt(ttll tklttttt pttnhttg'ut lttttrt
&tnttik dun tttttik)t.to Yogyakarta; Muiclis Lrrhtll'
Tittllrnsissll
2, pp.
l4l-159
Ituiu! ki'uh
Ahntall l)ahlatt dan
(2010). A/,t,/ be
KH
& Lollard (1984). Anulyzittr: social
A guide b (Palil.tlive observ!lion and
:
Wadsworth Publishing
Corrrpitlty
(1991). Eclu.(ttitlg
[611] t-ickor10. Thonlas.
lor Cltul4ctar
llott rtur :,r'lt,xlt ttnt lKtlt tc,V^\I
t
nntl
c.tponsibilitv. Ncw York: Balttarr Books
(2000) "11)orlrrs l.ickorrLr', trrlks
'
rrboul
cducatior" ProQLtesl educ(tlion ioto'tuls
"lt^'"d
vol. 14, no ?, PP 48-49
--.
l7r)l MiIo.rrt.,. D$i H.rstrrti (20u:r' "l)(r]LliJiL'rn
' ' kuruktcr, prradrgrna baru dclalr pclllbcntukun
martusia bcrkualitas" Makalah PPS 53 ITB
Diundult
lJoIduog.
htlp://tumoutou neV70205 I 23ldwi-hastuti,ht0r'
tanggal 24 , \pril20l0
dari
(2011). "Ptirlsip dosur pcndidikan karaktcr
ncrsr)cktif lslarn". Dallrn buku Padidik,ln kotokler'
lTll Mlrzuki.
'd,tl.tt,t pLr.,p"kril
lr
(l()(ll). l\,/J-,/.n/r tLrt tlutttt -tlttL
ivlLrrl.iclis L-uhul
litntulti.tutt. Jogiakar1l:
r1o
r,,u,/r'rrir. Bclmont Cal
l, l7t-174
"l'rrrtgkll-prrrtgkll
roch
l55l'larttrtrrsisrvit'. ( l()55 ).
Dllitttt bLrItt I'arittgLtt,tn l,tnntttsisr,(r
30 rrhun lf 2-1952. Y rgyirkanar Majclis Luhtrr
psychopathology
It'ltthuntnutliyth nttta aNal 'fangcrang: Al Wasath
l(,91-
irt clun ntaksud pcnclirlikan L
to
penelitian
[66] Lcxy J. Molcong (2002). Mebdologi
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No.4. (,5-6il
.._
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anrong nriddlc school studcnts". Jonttttl of
I uhua l)crsiltuilll
llel
S J
(2d01). "school social clirnatc and individu0l
Arr'l,/ Kl Ilatljar DLtLuttturt,
l'tulitliku Yogyukr ii Mliclis
l,.tgittt l).tttttt( -l_illllirnsis\vil
(I
hlur. 35-51
and Blatt,
[(r4l KLrppcrrrinc, C.P., Lcadbcatcr, B.J,
l.rrlrur'
[1n]
ntenengah
Inchucsia clalanr rrencari idcrtitas, 1910-1950"'
llrcii'rr I)c\\'irrrllra. (19(\1)
f47]Ki
' '
pr,,,,,,,.,i ,l,,lin,, h,tntn
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)"
te:l fuuto*lOjojo. (1985). "Muslim kelas
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[.16] Krrclarr (2005). ,4/.'/r){L lr]1clltkttt
/i/\irli//. \ og)irkrrrlir: I)itr l(lrgrnir
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phihts,4th.v o[ cdr,ctttion Ncw York: Chichc'tcr,
tlun
p(trljoL'LtngLtttttjtt I)jNkrll.l1r: DcPot l)cngirdjilran
ol hunqnisic
iountcy. Jr,urnal
I)c\{'llntnr.r yilll!l bcr\\'awilsiln
irasioual rn00Lritl irrtcgtasi nasiortal:scbuah
pcn(ickatalr hisloris klllturill Dir!//./ti Y0gyllkil il:
l'l's
I59l Killpatrick, W., (1992) llhy Johny con't tell tight
lnc
.y'oar w?,g. Ncw Yorki Silron & Schuster,
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N.4iles,
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ql
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Metfuxls
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orer
[73] Mitsuo Nrkarrrtrra (19u3). Thc crc:cenl 'lrires
llrlivcrliitllt
t lN l)tt D\ t r'cc, Yogylktllltll llcluutilk0n
Cacl.jah Mado
{741
Mohanrnra<j
l)jazmAn (!990).
"Pondok
MLrharrrtuliylh scb[tsiti sisterlr Pgndidikln
unluk
nrcrtyiapkan kadcr-kader Multartrrrladiyah". Dalom
bnku Muhannadiyah, seiarah dan amal nsahanya'
hol
lSll- 191. Yogyaka 0:Tiara Wacono
197
(751 Molrarnrnart
Tnuchid. fl96t). Kr lhnh,tr Dtt*,nruut
l'hl tft t thtt
lr..lttlJt,t.
l,,t\litltlidu
ti,t.\i,tuul.
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inn M.. Nicholson. JiIjcc t.
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CV. l{crnrjl
rr,. (1,)d7l
Krlyl
tntt,lr,.r,t,t
ptn rrut tit.\tthtt t\rttitttA,ur
D hl,ul. t,tnt.t,th,tn ln,hl.nt,t
P8J Ridj0luddin, 1200tJ.
lthrtt,t.,K.
I 1.
huatl
./
pendidikan bongsa.
Jakclra: Lpp Uhrrnka J:rkanu
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Retearchey into tht: tlewlopucnt oJ nlhoktg.v,
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rL,l
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i.qiot t
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eJclncntary school: strtrcgics lnr adrninistrator..,
(CnChL'rc. nIC counsClotS..
.Latt ttl t,t Hu k]tti.\t;,
Coun]tektn, li.hrcution ond Dt,\,ch/)t (nt. vti.
lB.
11o.
[r7] sl)jrr,r {:r)rr)r'.p.,,1rl,r.rrl,t},r.ui tl,l.tli-. lllttl,,tlult,
Drs.lrl:likJn llilrl,r \!orl,lloll stt.llc!i pcrrgcn)bnDEan
,hulU,\ckoLrh bxtr kctllrtr iekohh drrr pcngaias
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I90l
l. l{llcluCil)lit
Cipta
[9r] _
Q002). I\tntittitiun
t)kt\.t.dr(*al nttuhttti ltnhtntsitt.
lL1uk
nusiontl lrrdoncsiu... dirl rrr trilLr
Leol'Utttt .turg ttntli:rtt h,,ttnt;u-hrttttt,t ttttrttl:
.taIing Dtcn{L,nuL yots}JLillir: U\y prcsr
1,.
. ll A.tt. (2006). .tktfttlt\liso.ti Nntidikan
-tRxitrrtl ,\utrtu rititrttttn liritt.t.hrkl ti 1,1..
l{itcka
Ilcntirjil llos(hkuryir
IlirnduIg:
PT,
['l2J Ti.n Pcr rlrrl.l.r
r Kli.r^rer. lirrrrrl
1xtulilikn liiitlitt,t. .lIlill:
Kcllcntcrion
l)cndidikln Nasionitl
[93] Wcllck. Rcnc and ALrsrin \,yar,.en. (1962). Theon, rl.
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[94] WlritIcy. If.l. (1960).
' tt tltnttnrt o/ rt:;aunh.
Ositkit: O\'orsers llook (.o
[82J
.
Sprrdlcy. J.P.. ttgls). Tt)1. E ]n,,xtttt,ttiL
Ncw Yorki Rrncltnrt nn,l Winst(nt, lnc
[83] Srrcfiarja
ut D\h
A.
S-t. Dkk_ t2OO6t.
tu41.1.1,1,
K,rw
l,n4;tttt.,
t,,nxk,t,
ti( a, !.\di-L,tut lil\thtt
1,,uttkir t,nU tt,:lih,t
p.'tlutt ddhttn pc4tHngun hLtnt.vtnra. Jakrrt
UrarDcdia Pust:lka lndoncsiir
[01]l.rrrtrolr r:nr'h,. .1)rrh,^r..\r J.n lrurLl,l (irn Ll.rllll
t',ur\r.r-.. (l.rl,r,t l.l\r. /,,r/,,a/,,,,ut\!
:
11L
nn.+t.,t yoly
i],lvili1,,-'.'///',u,.,t,ry
[9fiJ ;, ,,, . t2{]02 | I'rrlir.ligrn:r
(20t0). Ki ttttttittr t)ty.t,tnkutt,
hh)gt.t/i sintkot lBxg_/rJ0. yotsyJknflili
Carnsi
Scto Mulyadi (2008). Tinittttrtn hL\.]\u!tti
brt
[86]
[q7]
t!.\tx,k.
.
Lhottctc: huikling,
h,ryoin<nut ttnlilili,tn,A
k rdkhtr'). Yogyakartn:
Sugiyono.
Tirr.ir W:re nr
l20ltt. Mcntttc p.,nL.titi.tn pt,nJ^litnul
kuouinril litaliruri/, ,itn R&D.
pcndcktkth
EaDdung: Alfabcta
fcrnbangLrnan
pcnclirlil.rrr rr,rsionrl tLrl.rrn nr.,rrt,lr,Jl.rn pcraiaban
blU)Bsir'-. l)irlJtn lrrrkrr /i.rr./,,rl.r,r
unrnk utaryn.ukur
lnlonctio hut,u. Jakan : Cllssirdo
[81] Suporro Rnhardjo.
[85]
ki,rro:
{2nttr.
Kcbrlrl.rn
pcndidikan
rlcrrrpcriiapklrrr p..r,,l.rlik.rrr rtrcrrrrt,r ub,rcl
21...
,'l/./.r/,,4 Drsrrrnl.,rrl.rrr I,.rLl.r rerrrirr:rl rr.rriurrll prodi
-llnrr. PcnJirlrkun plu:r....rr
Do<lol Irpi LNy lg
Oktobcr 20Il
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