Characterization of Long Term Analysis of Climate Change & Global

Civil and Architectural Engineering Department-College of Engineering-Sultan Qaboos University
Characterization of Long Term Analysis of Climate Change & Global
Warming in The Arabian Gulf Countries : Determination pf LowLevel Temperature Inversions Using Radiosonde Temperature
Mohammed Saif AL Khalbani
Of all weather conditions, inversion is probably the most important wherever atmospheric
pollution is discussed. The inversion layer generally acts as a blanket of air warmer than the air
immediately below it, which is a reversal of the normal. The net result of inversions from an air
quality perspective is a very stable atmosphere characterized by little mixing which may result in
an imbalance between pollution generation and pollution dissipation. As very little vertical
mixing of polluted air takes place in an inversion layer, pollutants released become trapped
under or within the stable layer of air. Pollutants continue to be emitted into the atmosphere but
are not transported away and the air quality will be affected. The objective of this study is to
examine the characteristics of the low-level tropospheric temperature inversions to a height of 4
km above a suburban site in different Arabian Gulf Countries by using 10-year records of daily
upper-air meteorological data. The temperature profile data included in this study was derived
from the radiosonde data collected by the Meteorology Department from different stations in the
Arabian Gulf Countries. The study addresses the statistical analysis of inversion parameters and
investigates whether changes in these parameters (i.e., depth and strength) have occurred during
the last decade. Both surface-based and elevated inversions are investigated. The study is
important since it is the first investigation that addresses the statistical analysis of the thermal
inversion layers in the Gulf region. The study indicated monthly changes in inversion frequency,
height, depth, and strength. The frequency of the occurrence of all inversions seems to be
slightly stable through out the period of the study. Since the frequency of the elevated inversions
is the complement of the surface-based inversions, the highest frequency of surface-based
inversions in some months corresponded to the time of minimum elevated inversions in the
others. Overall, most of the inversions tended to be surface-based in all stations of the study
areas in the Gulf Countries. The surface-based and elevated inversions vary from winter to
summer months depending on the changes of the atmospheric weather parameters in all stations
of the study areas. The elevated inversions were generally lower and weaker than the surfacebased inversions. The study also indicated annual variations in the thermal inversions associated
with inversion depth, height, temperature and strength across both the surface-based and
elevated inversions through out the 10-year period at some of the selected stations of the study
Civil and Architectural Engineering Department-College of Engineering-Sultan Qaboos University
areas in the Gulf Countries (Saudi Arabia Station No. 41024, Kuwait Station No. 40582, Abu
Dhabi Station No. 41217, Salalah Station No. 41316). Most of the relationships between the
atmospheric parameters associated with both surface based and elevated inversions showed
positive correlation at all stations of the study areas in the Gulf Countries. The results generally
showed a positive correlation between all atmospheric parameters, such as temperature, relative
humidity, dew temperature, wind direction and speed for both surface-based and elevated
inversions. The relationships between the inversion depth and temperature difference across the
elevated inversion indicated strong and positive correlation (r > 0.60), but weak and positive
correlation (r < 0.60) across the surface-based inversion at all stations of the study areas, except
for the State of Kuwait (Station No. 40582) and the sultanate of Oman (Salalah Station No.
41316), which both showed the correlation coefficients of (r = 0.570) and (r = 0.514),
respectively across the elevated inversions. The results also indicated that the bottom and top
heights across the elevated inversion were associated strongly and positively with each other (r >
0.95) at all stations of the study areas in the Gulf Countries. The outcomes of this research will
help the decision makers of different sectors in the Gulf Countries to review and establish rules,
regulations, and strategies for the mitigation of climate change and global warming which are
projected to compound the pressures on natural resources and the environment, associated with
rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic development in the Gulf Countries. Extensive
studies should be highlighted for the comparison of the results ofthe present study areas with the
observations of inversion layer in other Middle East countries and other regions in the world.toexplore the link between the thermal inversions, the-phenomenon of larger-scale global
warming, climate change, 'arrd the causes of cyclones and natural disasters.