Triggers to the Civil War

Triggers to the Civil War
Missouri Compromise 1820
◦ Balance in Congress needs to stay equal
between slave holding and free states
◦ Future problems were to be solved by the 36°
30' line
Abolition movement
Underground Railroad
◦ Over 100,000 slaves escaped
◦ Symbolic importance of Harriet Tubman
◦ Reason why South demanded a fugitive slave law
Importance of black abolitionists like
Frederick Douglass
◦ disproved the belief that African Americans were
The Issue of States Rights
The South's point of view on tariffs (taxes on imports)
It raises the price on manufactured goods and causes
Europe to cut back on the purchase of cotton
◦ Known to southerners as the Tariff of Abominations
South Carolina and John C. Calhoun protest. This is
patterned off of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
(which arose after the Alien and Sedition Acts)
◦ federal government was created by the states to serve them
◦ state conventions can declare laws of Congress
◦ this law then becomes null and void
◦ secession was a last resort
Mexican American War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
◦ America acquired 1/2 million square miles out
west (Texas to California)
◦ Question: balance of free and slave states
Compromise of 1850
California a free state
Other territories left to popular sovereignty
No slave trade in DC
Fugitive Slave Law
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Uncle Tom's Cabin
◦ Northerners exposed to the reality of slavery
◦ Southerners outraged by the distortion
◦ Pointed out the damage slavery did to white
◦ Sold a lot of copies! Banned in much of the
Kansas-Nebraska Act
◦ Negates the Missouri Compromise
◦ Supporters of both sides flood into the
territory to influence the vote
◦ Violence! "Bleeding Kansas"
Dred Scott case
◦ slaves not citizens, property
◦ slaves have no right to sue
◦ government cannot deprive citizens of
property; also negates Missouri Compromise
John Brown's Raid
Radical abolitionist who attempted to
lead a slave rebellion by storming the
arsenal at Harper's Ferry,VA.
 Unsuccessful
 Caught and executed
 South recognizes that violent action
against them is a real possibility
Election of 1860 – Lincoln’s Election
◦ Democrats split between 3 candidates
◦ Lincoln wins 40% of the vote
◦ South considers this a radical threat to their
existence; secession begins
What are the advantages and
strategies of each side?
# 1. Using the chart, make a chart on your
own paper that explains the
strengths/weaknesses of both North and
South. Identify at least 5 of each.
# 2. Summarize the strategies that each side
Northern Advantages
Controls 2/3 of the states (23)
 Pop of 22 mil (South has 9, 4 are slave)
 Manufacturing with over 90% of nation’s
 20,000 miles of RR
 3/4 of nation’s financial resources –
banking, manufacturing, shipping, etc.
 Navy and merchant marine
Southern Advantages
 Geographically
compact 11 states
 Fighting a defensive war
 Outstanding commanders
 Outdoor life
 Foreign friends – Why?
Crash course Civil War 1 and 2