1800’s Kentucky • By 1800, two societies were developing in Appalachia • "Tuckahoe" refers to the low-country, slave-owning , large farm owners, with all of their economic, political, social, and English (mostly from Northern and Western England) ethnic traits. • The “Cohee" were typically non-Anglican, poor, nonslave-owning, hard-scrabble independent farmers, moving into or through the hills and mountainous regions of Virginia and both Carolinas. • Cohee culture • Grazing, farmland economy with cattle and hog grazing on an “open range” in the forests • Patch farming in cleared portions • Families lived in isolated farmsteads • Neighborhood churches and school houses were the center of community interest • It was not a capitalistic oriented agriculture • The focus was family survival • During the pre-Civil War era the Southern Appalachia economy was quite diversified • • • • • Farming with a broader market based system Small towns with stores beginning to develop Ores (copper, lead, nickel, etc) and coal produced foundries Salt mining Gold mining • Problems between the backwoods and the tidewater over representation • This was an issue of slavery • In Virginia the westerners argued strongly for emancipation • Many Germans and Quakers argued against slavery • Many Appalachia counties had virtually no slaves (however that did not mean it wasn’t there) SLAVERY causes division: • Though the numbers were low in Appalachia, it was growing up until the Civil War • In Appalachia, the local elites did own several slaves, and theirs did not seem to be a consistent view across the board • One thing is for sure, many of the Appalachians opposed slavery because of opposition to the planter elite, not because they supported African American equality • Though Cohee society may have been largely antislavery, it had made peace with slave society • In Appalachia it really did pit father against son and brother against brother • Many areas of seceding states had treasonous sections in the mountains • Many of these pro-union areas talked of their own potential statehood • In 8 of the 10 elections prior to the Civil War, someone from KY was either a presidential or vice-presidential candidate. • Leaders like John J. Crittenden and Henry Clay were national leaders. • State’s large population and rich farming made it important as well. Kentucky’s Importance • Geography-• For the South: the Ohio River would provide a strong line of defense, it would be hard for the North to invade b/c no bridges existed. • The 3rd largest slave state could supply many men for the armies. • Rich agriculture: horses and crops for armies Kentucky’s Importance • Access to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad • As a border state, both sides needed access to the enemy through Kentucky • Important commodities: • Hemp, tobacco, flour, mules, corn and wheat KY’s location • “I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.” Lincoln: • No troops to either side • Asked Presidents to respect their neutrality • Gov. Magoffin’s plan for “armed neutrality” • KY would be a mediator • In reality: • Both sides armed militias in hopes they would fight for them; Confederates. occupied Eastern KY and Bowling Green • Union occupied Louisville & Paducah Neutrality vs. Reality • Clashes between the governor and the legislators • Gov. Magoffin supported state’s rights to slavery, • Pro-Confederate sympathizers created a provisional gov’t to vote KY out of the Union (Columbus occupied) • A star on the flag of both sides! • John Hunt Morgan’s raids • Couldn’t be prevented by the state militia • Some army deserters, other just taking advantage of war • Frankfort remains solidly Union. • Some 400 battles and small fights, only a few major battles • While officially neutral, KY couldn’t prevent either side from infiltrating the state. • While officially neutral, KY couldn’t prevent either side from infiltrating the state. • In terms of soldiers: • 103,000 Kentuckians serve the Union • 40,000 Kentuckians serve the Confederacy (all volunteers because KY was occupied by the Union) • Most fought in the western theater • In military leaders: • 67 KY men become Union generals • 38 KY men become Confederate generals Bottom line: A House Divided KY Map • Fall of 1862: • 2 armies, needing water, meet and fight at Perryville (near Danville) • Bloody day—4200 Union, 3400 Confederate casualties • “ground slippery with blood” • Importance: last major invasion of KY by the South PERRYVILLE • Popular opinion turns against Lincoln with the change of direction in the war. Most Kentuckians aren’t happy with this change in focus/purpose. • Emancipation Proclamation doesn’t affect KY—only states in rebellion. • During the War this area was constantly part of the Western Campaigns • The War was destructive to the entire area • • • • • What few schools there were closed Agricultural life was destroyed (raiders on both sides) Guerilla warfare Feuds developed Also a haven for deserters (rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight: based on conscription laws in the South) • Authority had collapsed • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNPEZRTpwPw A brief visual, brought to you by Kentucky Tourism • Kentucky became more sympathetic to Confederacy • Resented Union treatment of South in Reconstruction • Economy in shambles Post War • ½ of all male slaves who could fight joined the army • 3rd largest training ground for African American soldiers (10,000 Union) • Established as a refugee camp, as soldiers brought families with them • http://www.campnelson.org/tour/refugeecamp.htm Camp Nelson • 1. Read chapter 3 in Caudill’s book, with the guided notes • 2. Go to http://www.ket.org/civilwar/kyrole.html and answer the following questions: 2 assignments • 1. What was unique about Kentucky’s position during the war? • 2. What were the economic ties to both North and South? • 3. What was Kentucky’s official position when secession began? • 4. Explain the raids and the “bushwackers” that happened during these years. • 5. What effect did the Emancipation Proclamation have on KY? • Read 1 of 2 articles today on either Kentucky’s Neutrality or Camp Nelson • Neutrality Article: • Why were both the North and South so interested in Kentucky’s location and its decision to remain neutral? • Who was John Hunt Morgan and what did he do? • How were Governor Magoffin’s intentions thwarted by both sides during the war? • Camp Nelson article: • Why would the Camp expel refugees (blacks)? • Where blacks (free and slaves) allowed to serve in the army? • What were the conditions like at Camp Nelson?