1 N B -T

Mayank Tyagi
Chirag Upadhyay
DAV Senior Secondary School
No.1, Gandhi Nagar, Delhi
Anita Gautam
K. Eric Drexler popularied the word ‘nanotechnology’ in the 1980s,
for building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers
wide, far smaller than a cell. Nanomedicine is the medical
application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the
medical applications of nanomaterials to nanoelectronic
biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular
Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the
issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale
materials. One nanometer is one-millionth of a millimeter. The
nanomedicine initiative has two major goals: (1) to understand
how the biological machinery inside living cells is built and operates
at the nanoscale; and (2) to use this information to re-engineer
these structures, develop new technologies that could be applied
to treating diseases, and/or leverage the new knowledge to focus
work directly on translational studies to treat a disease or repair
damaged tissue.
It is based on the principle of manipulation of matter at a nano
scale which is being explored widely and applied in the field of
Materials used for the following items are:
Nano Robot
Tripod stand, black cellophane tape, card board, iron nails,
aluminium foil wooden box and double sided tape.
Drug Delivery
Hard Plywood, foam sheet, glue, transparent water pipe, electric
water pump, black chart paper, black cellophane tape, red water
colour and medical syringes.
Nano Particle Targetting
Plastic ball, white chart paper, cotton, small bouncing balls, medical dressing tape, black Pastel sheets, black cellophane tape, yellow LEDs, battery eliminator, wires, wooden box and water colours.
Cell Repairing Machine
Hollow 4 inches long metallic tube, small motor, cone shaped plastic
axel, battery eliminator and aluminium foil.
Neuro Electronic Interface
Model of human brain,7 inches long screw, wooden box, black
pastel sheet, black cellophane tape, 1 inch long screw, white medical
dressing tape and silver metallic poster colour.
Nano Robot
A tripod stand is covered by black cellophane tape. A 3D hexagonal
structure of hard cardboards, covered by aluminium foil. It is
fixed on tripod stand with the help of double sided tape. This is
the prototype of nano robot. This unit is placed in a wooden box
fully covered by black pastel sheet.
Drug Delivery
Human kidney is made with foam sheet, coloured red, inserted
with water pipe fixed with pump. At the other end of pipe two
medical syringes are inserted for drug delivery.
Nano Particle Targetting
Tumour cell is depicted with a plastic ball, covered by cotton and
painted red and black. LEDs, wires and battery eliminators are
used done along with wooden box and colours. The nano robots
are placed at different positions facing tumour cell.
Cell Repairing
A motor is fixed at one end of 4 inches long hollow metallic tube
fixed with a cone shaped plastic axle revolving needle. The motor
is connected with a battery eliminator. 3 foldable metallic strips
attached with it, works as its arms. It is covered with aluminium
foil and is placed on the tumour cell with the support of its working
Neuro Electronic Interface
A 7 inches long screw is inserted in inverted form at the bottom of
a wooden box. A model of human brain is fixed with the help of
screw and cellophane tape. The unit is painted is black .
Nano Robot
These are made up of isotope ‘C13’ of carbon which is synthesised
from ‘C12’ elemental carbon. According to Robert Freitas of the
Institute for Molecular Manufacturing a nano robot is 0.5 to 3 nm
in size because that is the maximum size possible due to capillary
passage requirement. ‘C13’ is used to make them because it has
non-zero magnetic moment. Firstly these are injected in the human
body and the doctor can control them with the help of computers
while monitoring it in MRI machine.
Drug Delivery
Nano robots are used due to their specific size. There are 3 steps
of drug delivery - Sufficient encapsulation of drug, Synthesis of
drug at the targeted region, and after synthesis, clearing of the
drug from the targeted region. The drug is firstly encapsulated in
nano robot and then the nano robot is injected in the patient’s
bod. The doctor then gives instructions to the nano robot to reach
the targeted region and after reaching the targeted region it will
release the drug in the specific region. After sufficient time interval
the drug is cleared by the nano robot otherwise the drug will start
the process of toxicity in the patient’s body.
Cell Repairing Machine
Cell repairing machine is a nano robot which can regenerate the
cells followed by tissue and then regenerate the whole organ.
Nano Particle Targetting
The nano robots are targeted to the tumour site in cancer patient
and will project the beam of specifically charged gold nanoshells
on the tumour cell to destroy it. The positively charged gold
nanoshells were found to enter the kidneys while negatively
charged gold particles in the liver and spleen. The positive surface
charge of the nanoparticle decreases the rate of opsonisation in
the liver. Even at the size of 5 nm these sometimes can be
accumulated in the peripheral tissue and may cause toxicity.
For Neuro Electronic Interface
By this technology patients with delayed neuron response due to
some accident or mental disorders like multiple sclerosis and
paraplegia can be treated. The doctor will inject the nano robots
in the patient’s body and then the nano robots will attach
themselves on the neurons of the patient and send the low
frequency electromagnetic signals to the attached controlling
computer which can amplify, store and respond.
Flow Chart of Process of Curing a Disease by Nano Bio-Technology
Encapsulation of drug in Nano Robots
Injection of Nano Robots in patient’s body
Nano Robots approaching to target region according
to the instructions given by concerned doctor
Releasing drug at the targeted region
Synthesisation of drug at the target region
After synthesisation clarification of drug after
sufficient interval of time by Nano Robots
Nano Robots coming out from patient’s
body through excretory organs
Fig. 1.1: Construction of the Model
Nano bio-technology is future medicine ready to revolutionise the
world by which even deadliest diseases could be cured. It can be
used in cases related to:
1. Cardiovascular diseases and stroke;
2. Drug delivery;
3. Cancer treatment;
4. Surgery;
5. Immune system disorders.
Pithve Prajval Rajeshbhai
Patel Arpit Hemantbhai
Shree Valmiki Vidhyalaya
Kadodra-Kamrej, Surat
Anita Gautam
Train is a major and economical mode of transportation in India.
Maximum people use it, but at the same time it is not 100% safe.
Maximum accidents occur on the track and people either lose their
lives or suffer from physical disorder.
Even government has to spend lots of money to over-come
from such accidents like to the family of the injured and dead
people. Our main aim to develop this project is to avoid train
accidents and reduce economic burden of our country and to
provide safe transportation.
Working through Cooperation of Solenoid and IR Sensor and KEIL
programme principle.
Toy train and track, Sensor, LED light, wire, IC, Solenoid, Battery,
Transistor, Capacitor, Ply, Acrylic, etc.
First of all take wooden ply 2”  3” feet size. Then fix the track of
toy train on the ply with the help of screw. Then join another
By-pass track at a proper place on the main track. Now at the
junction where the main and By-pass track are both meet together,
there to join track with solenoid so that solenoid can change the
track, and with the help of pin join the solenoid in the circuit.
Then set IR sensor for Case-1 and Case-2 on both the tracks. Fit
Capacitor, Transistor and converting regulator with circuit so it
can supply necessary power to the circuit. For controlling of all
the things connect in IC, then to pin IC with circuit and give it
power supply so it will work (Fig. 2.1).
Fig. 2.1: Construction of the Exhibit
There are three possibility of accidents in case of train.
When couple of trains are going on the same track back to back.
First, train which will go on the main track when it will reach on
its sensor, the track will automatically change and the next train
will go on that track called By-pass track so accidents will not
Suppose, both tracks are engaged the upcoming train will be
indicated by the stop signal. So an accident will not occur.
When two trains move on different tracks and gathered on the
same track. In this case, the train which will enter first in to sensor
will command the stop signal to the other train.
When two trains move on the same track from opposite directions.
When both trains will enter into sensor (station) suddenly the stop
signal will start on all tracks. So accidents will not happen.
1. It is helpful for the Railways.
2. It will guide other factors which are concerned with human
3. It will be helpful to avoid road accidents by using sensors.
4. It will be helpful to avoid economic burden of our country.
Tiwari Ankit R.
Patel Kiran R.
Sungrace Vidhyalaya
Udhyog Nagar, Udhna
Surat City, Gujarat
Neelam Doriwala
It is a totally Micro-controller based project which is specially
designed for Indian Defence. It can be used by Army as Spy Gadgets
and as wireless bomb diffuser.
Now-a-days terrorism is a very big issue for the entire world. This
working model of an autonomous robot has been made to tackle
this issue. It can find its own path, diffuse bombs, keep watch on
the activites of terrorists and give us updated information about
them. Artificial Intelligence based robot can be very useful for Indian
This model is designed using infra-red sensors which automatically
detect the distance of the obstacles and gives different types of
command to Micro-controller. The Micro-controller takes these
commands and gives the output command to the motors. Thus
the robot can perform some tasks. We also use white line follower
and black line follower as well as obstacle detection.
IC AT Mega
2-Stepper Motors
4-IR sensor
Wires, Digital Multimeter, 12V DC battery
Wood Sheet
Hot Gun Glove Machine
In this robot we have used two moving wheels which are connected
with motors. We have used one cast iron ball each in the front and
back side for its balancing. These are not connected with any motor.
All these are supported on the wood sheet which we are using as
the main body of our robot. Under the guidance of my class teacher
we have developed AT Mega 32 micro-controller and its
development board using LCD, Motors, IR sensors and LED
blinking interfacing kit.
Based on simple C-programming in the Micro-vision 4 software
we have created our own programme and loaded it in our controller
kit with the help of Flash Magic Software. In this programme we
have used IR sensor detection logic, Motor command logic, LCD
display logic with the help of error and correction method. We
have developed one type of Artificial Intelligence programme which
can find its own path and own way detecting obstacles on its way.
If there is front or back side IR sensor danger level, then controller
gives the command to LED. LED blinks, indicating danger level.
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Line follower
Spy Gadgets
IR Sensor Detector
Bomb Diffuser
Land Rover Machines etc.
Konjengbam Deepika Hillary
Mother’s Pride Academy
Bishnupur, Manipur
K. Debendra Singh
We know that water in sufficient quantity and good quality is
essential for life. However, though availability of safe drinking water
for everyone throughout the year is an urgent need. People rely
on streams, rivers, ponds, rainwater from roofs, public cisterns,
unreliable wells or fountain water. Since children are especially
vulnerable to water-borne diseases caused by pathogens (e.g.
typhoid, cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery etc.), it is a major cause of
infant and children mortality. Therefore, low-cost water purification
techniques are required to provide safe drinking water. Such
techniques are preferably applied at household level, such as
boiling, chlorination, filtration which seem to be more feasible,
effective and sustainable. Among the home based water treatment
methods, Low-cost Portable Solar Water Disinfection System developed and constructed under the principles which are already
used in Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS), recognised by WHO.
EAWAG/SANDEC (Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental
Science and Technology) started worldwide SODIS dissemination
to promote this method in areas where safe drinking water is
unavailable. This is an attempt to provide portable safe drinking
water with one time low cost investment.
1. UV-A interferes directly with the metabolism and destroys
cell structures of bacteria.
2. UV-A (wavelength 320-400 nm) reacts with oxygen
dissolved in the water and produces highly reactive forms
of oxygen (oxygen free radicals and hydrogen peroxides)
that are believed to damage pathogens also.
3. Cumulative solar energy (including the infrared radiation
component) heats the water. If the water temperature rises
above 50o C (122o F), the disinfection process is three times
Water at temperature of about 30o C (86o F), a threshold solar
irradiance of at least 500 W/m2 (all spectral light) is required for
about 5 hours for SODIS to be efficeint. This dose contains energy
of 555 Wh/m2 in the range of UV-A and violet light, 350 450 nm,
corresponding to about 6 hours of mid-latitude mid-day summer
Water at temperatures higher than 45o C (113o F), synergistic
effects of UV radiation and temperature further enhance the
disinfection efficiency.
Wooden frame of length 22 inches, width 8 inches and height 14
inches, aluminium sheets/stainless steel of dimension 22  18
inches, UV-light transmissible glass less than 2 mm (Pyrex, corex,
vycor, quartz) of dimension 21  12 inches, two steel handles, nails,
plywood (3mm) of dimension 22  14 inches, PET bottles, etc.
The innovative Low-cost portable Solar Water Disinfection System
is constructed with a Wooden frame of lenght 22 inches, width 8
inches and height 14 inches and five sided by ply and wooden
plank. Aluminium sheet (or stainless steel) of dimension 22  18
inches and 12  8 inches are fixed on backside (inside) and other
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two sides in curvature shape. On the front, a glass sheet (pyrex or
corex or vycor or quartz) of dimension 21  12 inches having
horizontal sliding arrangement with a knob is fitted (this glass
enclosure will protect the glass bottles from cooling down due to
outside wind). There are two small wooden columns in the middle
so that PET bottles should not fall. On the backside a stand is
fixed which will help the unit to be placed according to the latitude
of the place for maximum exposer to solar radiations (Fig. 4.1).
Fig. 4.1: Construction of the Exhibit
In this solar water disinfection system, plastic PET (Polyethylene
Terephthalate) bottles are used. Bottles are washed well before
used. The bottles are filled 3/4 with clean water and shaken for
20 seconds. After which they are fully filled and lids are closed.
Such bottles are kept inside and the front glass is closed. Finally
these are exposed to sunlight at least for 6 hours. Such water is
ready for consumption.
1. It provides safe drinking water which can be under one's
own control and responsibility.
2. It is low-cost, portable, durable and usable forever.
3. It minimises the use of firewood and kerosene / gas.
4. It reduces air pollution, deforestation and enviornment
5. It improves family health and reduces household
6. A family with low economy can also afford it.
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1. It requires sufficient solar radiations. Therefore, it depends
on the weather and climatic conditions.
2. It requires clear water.
3. It does not change the chemical quality of water.
It can be used anywhere to make potable water.
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Joylen Dourado
Dinesh Zaladekar
Pope John XXIII High School
Don Bosco Ganv Quepem, Goa
Colette Xavier
Our hypothesis was that the Quepem canal water contained high
content of heavy metals like manganese, iron, nickel, chromium,
cadmium, lead, due to manganese and iron mines in and around
Sanguem and Quepem Taluka.
We decided to test the Quepem canal water which is used for
growing paddy crops and to bring awareness which was
highlighted in the news some months back that drinking water
from Salaulim dam was high in manganese.
The trace elements concentrated in an irregular way are usually
metals especially the heavy metals density > 6g cc-1 .
Heavy metals are the natural components of the earth's crust.
The term heavy metals refers to any metallic chemical elements
that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at low
concentration e.g. mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium,
thallium, lead, manganese etc. The heavy metals at relatively high
density are toxic at low concentration and can even cause death.
They can neither be created nor destroyed nor can be transformed
into another. Some are essential for life process but all are toxic to
organisms at higher concetration.
Metallic contaminants (Hg, Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Mn, Cr, Na, K, Cu,
etc.) destroy the bacteria and beneficial micro-organisms in the
soil. Heavy metal leads to precipitate phosphate compounds and
catalyze their decomposition and are non-degradable poisons and
their accumulation in soil for a long period will destroy the living
We collected water from Quepem canal on 17th January 2013
and gave for testing in Goa state Pollution Control Board, Panjim
for the following parameters:
• Iron
• Manganese
• Cadmuim
• Simultaneously, we collected the paddy seed (Jyoti) from
the south zone Agricultural Department, Margao and
soaked them in water for a night and left them to sprout.
• Same day (18 Jan) we collected clayey soil from the fields,
dried and powdered it. Then we filled in 20 plastic cups
and kept ready for the experiment to perform.
• We went to Shantudurga Scientific Tradess in Margao and
purchased Manganese sulphate (MnSO4) and we weighed
80mg, 90mg, 100mg, 110mg, 120mg, 130mg, 140mg,
150mg, 160mg, 170mg, 180mg, 190mg, 200mg, 210mg,
220mg, 230mg, 240mg and 250mg of MnSO4 on electronic
balance with least count 0.01 gm.
• We mixed 80, 90 ----- 250 mg of MnSO4 in the clay and
refilled the plastic cups. Next we sowed the germinated
paddy seeds in the clay plastic cups on 24 January 2013
and observed the growth of paddy seeds. Subsequently,
same day we weighed about 5gm of Manganese sulphate
added to one container clay and sowed seeds in it and we
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also had a container with paddy seeds as a control pot
without any Manganese sulphate.
We collected the results of the canal (Quepem) water from Goa
State Pollution Control Board on 28 January 2013.
Result of Quepem Canal water testing by Goa State Pollution
Control Board.
We saw that cadmium is just at the permissible limits that is
0.01 mg/litre. Rest are within permissible limit except manganese
which is 1.61 mg/litre which is very high as compared to the
permissible limit of 0.20 mg/litre.
1. Cadmium is just at the permissible limit, that is, 0.01mg/L.
2. Nickel is below its permissible limit it is 0.03 mg/L and its
permissible limit is 0.20.
3. Chromium is not present in the Salaulim canal water.
4. Lead is not more than 5.00 mg/L which is its permissible
limit. It is only 0.09 mg/L.
5. Iron is also less than its permissible limit, that is, 5.00
mg/L. It is only 0.34 mg/L.
6. Mangenese is very high 1.61mg/L as compared to its
permissible limit 0.20
Cadmium as Cd
Nickel as Ni
Chromium as Cr
Lead as Pb
Iron as Fe
Manganese as Mn
Test Result
Permissible Units
The container with 80-250 mg/L of Manganese sulphate did not
show any harmful effects on the Jyoti rice growth for eight day.
Effects were seen on the container with 5 mg/L of Manganese
sulphate as the growth of the plants was stunted as compared to
the control container with no Manganese sulphate.
It appears that manganese is being absorbed by the plant
tissue and it enters human food chain causing biological
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Quepem Salaulim canal water is contaminated with heavy metal
manganese which is harmful to the plants, humans and animals.
These manganese heavy metal may be collected (accumulated)
in the plant tissue which will be passed on to other living organism
like cows and humans through the grains, milk and fish causing
biological magnification.
The Salaulim river water canal is contaminated with the heavy
metal manganese. So we infer that the Salaulim river water is
contaminated with manganese as this Quepem canal gets water
from the dam built on the river Salaulim.
The manganese may be absorbed by the plants and present in
the plant tissue.
Effects of Manganese on Humans
• Affects the central nervous system causing Manganism
resembling the Parkinson syndrome.
• Damage respiratory system and eyes.
• Behavior disorders.
Effects of Manganese on Plants
• Affects the flowering and fruits.
• Causes marginal chlorosis.
• Manganese in acidic soil reduces nitrogen fixing capacity.
• Absorption of iron increases with increasing concentration
of manganese in soil.
• Manganese stops zinc absorption by plant roots.
• The application of molybdenum decreases the concentration
of copper and manganese.
Solutions for Manganese Effect on Plants
• Phosphorous calcium affords to plants from manganese.
• Application of potassium consistently decreases the
manganese and iron content in rice fields.
• Copper decreases content of iron and manganese in
submerged soils.
• Grow Vetivera zizanioides in the fields as they absorb
heavy metals.
• Also grow Water Hyacinths as they absorb heavy metals.
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Kaustubh S. Muley
Aniket Gaikwad
Praveen Pandey
Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 1
Dehu Road, Pune
Rama Kapdi
Solar energy has been used since time immemorial by humans
for their energy needs. Sunlight is often used to provide the hot
dry air. We can say that food drying is a very simple ancient skill.
It requires a safe place to spread the food where dry air in light
large quantities can pass over. Dry, clean air including dry cold
air from any source will dehydrate food.
Traditionally solar energy has been used to dry agricultural
products by spreading them on the ground in open sun. This
method of open sun drying is very time consuming. Also the product
gets contaminated by dirt and insects. The use of solar dryers can
overcome these problems to a large extent. Solar dryers make use
of solar heated air for drying agricultural products. Usually we
see that people dry the grains in open space by spreading them
on the floor or on the roofs, but by doing so the food gets
contaminated by rodents, insects, dirt etc. Taking such
contaminated food is very risky. The main purpose behind the
construction of this model is to provide a safer, easier and faster
way of drying the grains. Also in big industries where the quantity
of produce is more and harmful techniques like radiation are used
to dry them, these solar dryers can play a very important role.
These solar dryers are very low cost. Even a middle class farmer
can also make them at a cost of a few hundred rupees and can
use them for many years. Use of solar dryers for agriculture
purpose in developing countries like India has a wide scope as
water for irrigation is available for us for a small duration and we
have a limited time to save our crops after harvesting and to sowing
next crops. This time shortage problem can be overcome by using
low cost solar dryers, It can dry the crops in 7 hours which requires
7 days by traditional method. Another factor that is very important
to remember (which is one of the major reasons to use solar dryers)
is our regional weather, which is severe and not reliable and
destroys a substantial amount of our food, vegetables and crops.
This solar dryer can be used on a small scale in our houses as
well as on a large scale in the industries with a little modifications.
An air pump can be used instead of manual input of hot air.
Solar dryers make use of solar heated air for drying agricultural
products. The air in the heater gets heated up by thesolar radiations
and when we blow the air it will pass through the pipe into the
drying chamber. As hot air rises upwards it absorb moisture from
different layers of grains.
Hard Cardboard
Plane Mirror
Rubber Sheet
Iron Stand
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Binding wire
Oil Paint
Wooden Box
White adhesive
Plain glass
Thermocol Sheet
Take a cubical wooden box and fix mirror on its lid and
the plane glass on its open surface temporarily (Fig. 6.1).
2. For making the drying chamber take an iron stand and fix
the cardboard on its four sides using a binding wire.
3. Make sufficient passage on one of its side so that trays
should be properly inserted.
4. Take a piece of thermocol sheet and fix it on the bottom of
the drying chamber.
5. Apply M-seal on all the four edges to pack it properly. Make
a hole on the lower part of its one side.
6. Make a fan by using cardboard and motar and connect it
to a battery. Fit it on the top of the drying chamber in the
inward direction.
7. Make three holes on the wooden box- two on one side and
one on the side opposite to it.
8. Fix the blower to one of the holes on the side where two
other holes are made. Fix the rubber sheet on the other
hole from inside so that it can act as a valve.
9. Connect pipe from the solar heater to the drying chamber.
Fix it properly.
10. Fill sand in the heater and place it in the sun. Load the
grain trays and blow air through the blower.
Fig. 6.1: Line Diagram of the Exhibit
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Place the model in the sun. Fill sand in the heater and put the
grains into the trays. Open the lid of the heater and let the air in,
the heater become hot. Insert the trays in the drying chamber.
Switch on the fan and blow air through the blower. After some
time the grains will be dry.
It can be used for drying agricultural products.
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Saiyed Gafur Jiyaullah
Bajaj Puneet Ajay
St. Xavier's High School
Surat, Gujarat
Kalpana B. Mahida
Maya N. Sethia
Surat is known for its textile and diamond industries. Surat adds
colour in day-to-day life all over the world. The disadvantage of
dyeing industry is the ‘Water Pollution’. The waste water which is
pretreated is finally discharged into the natural stream. This waste
water contains colour which is rich in Carcinogenic Aromatic Dyes
and Heavy Metals. This has become a major environmental
concern. The conventional methods for removal of colour, heavy
metals are adsorption, filtration using nanofiltration, ultra filtration
and reverse osmosis etc. The drawbacks of this technology are:
low mass transfer rate, low selectivity, large equipment size,
membrane fouling etc. The presence of carcinogenic aromatic
amines and heavy metals in extremely low concentrations cannot
be removed by the above methods. These can be successfully
removed by ELM methods.
In order to develop a novel effective separation process, which is
expected to be more energy saving and economical, the liquid
membrane (LM) separation method has been studied. LM made
the first attempt at the separation of hydrocarbons by emulsion
liquid membranes (ELMs) in 1968.
Solute is transported by liquid membrane diffusion partition
The membrane is a thin layer of liquid between two liquid
phases. Solute is transported by a partition - diffusion-partition
Separation and recovery of different heavy metal ions, organic
acids, bases and hydrocarbons, biocompounds can be achieved
by this technique.
Phase 1
Phase 2
1. Beakers
2. Blender [Agitator High Speed]
3. Magnetic Stirrer [Agitator Low Speed]
4. Pulley Systems
5. Electric Motor
6. Plastic Containers
7. Filter Papers and Funnels
1. n-heptane
2. Dil. HCL
3. Dil. NaOH
4. Span 80
5. Ferrous sulphate
6. Calcium hydroxide
7. Dyes
8. Methylene blue
In the above project liquid membrane as double emulsion is used.
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It can achieve higher mass transfer area as compared to bulk liquid
membrane or supported liquid membrane.
W/O/W Type of double emulsion is used : Water in oil emulsion
dispersed in external aqueous phase. The membrane phase is the
immiscible oil phase separating the aqueous phase.
Major significance of liquid membrane processes are occurrence
of simultaneous extraction and stripping involving a selective
membrane phase. Separation is achieved by permeation of solute
through this liquid phase from a feed phase to a receiving phase.
The feed and receiving phase are normally miscible while the
membrane phase is immiscible.
The water is removed and the gelatinous substance i.e. W/O/
W emulsion with the impurities is de-emulsified.
1. Washing of grey cloth to remove grease and dirt in hot water.
2. Dyeing of grey cloth.
3. Removal of Waste water.
Purification of Waste Water
1. Treatment of waste water with Ca(OH)2 or FeSO4.
2. Preparation of emulsion by using n-heptane, dil.HCl or
dil.NaOH and Span-80 using high speed agitator.
3. Treatment of pre-treated waste water with emulsion using
magnetic stirrer [low speed agitator].
4. Separation of pure water and insoluble part in the settling
5. Recovery of pure water by filtration.
6. Testing of water.
7. The electrostatic de-emulsification techniques are: heat
treatment, phase dilution and high shear.
8. The purified water can be used as shown in Fig. 7.1.
1. Simple operation
2. High efficiency
3. Extraction and stripping in one stage: Extraction is change
of thin to thick phase; stripping is change of thick phase to
thin phase.
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The Methods of De-emulsification
Electrostatic de-emulsification technique
Heat treatment
Phase dilution
High shear
Finally the solid waste is sent to the solid disposable plant.
Stability of emulsion is affected by two phenomenon – Globule
Rupture and Osmotic Swell:
1. Saves Energy
2. Cost Effective
3. Continuous operation of industry
4. Purification of water
5. Removal of carcinogenic substance upto required
6. Save water towards greener earth.
High speed
Washing of
"Grey Cloth"
Dyeing of
Dyeing of
water +
Magnetic Stirrer
in dyeing
Storage Tank
Increase the
level of water
Fig. 7.1: Flow Chart of the Exhibit
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Rohith Krishnan MK
St. Ephrem's Higher Secondary
School, Kottayam, Kerala
Abraham Varghese
Tessy Lukose
Molten salt solar plant is a rich source of electricity, fuel and
fertilizer. So using this plant we can cut-short the shortage of
electricity, fuel and fertilizer.
1. PVC Pipe
2. Joints and Bents
3. Plastic Bottle
4. Cardboard Box
5. Paint
6. Decoration Paper
The salt storage medium is a mixture of 60 per cent sodium nitrate
and potassium nitrate. This salt is stored in a receiver at the top of
the solar power tower. The salt medium is heated to 565 0C (1049
F) by concentrating sunrays towards the receiver using heliostat.
[The heliostat is made up of convex lens and it can concentrate
sunrays to a fixed point and it can absorb and radiate sunrays
very effectively because of the presence of silica gel]. The molten
salt then reaches the hot salt storage tank. From this tank the
liquid salt is pumped to Superheater to convert liquid salt into
vapour. This vapour is used to generate steam to rotate generator
system. HP turbine (High Power Turbine) produces 20 - 30 MV/
day. The steam again passes through LP turbine (Low Power
Turbine) and produces about 10-15 MV/day. After this process
vapourised salt is cooled with the help of a condenser and it is
stored in cold salt storage tank.
The salt stored in the cold salt storage tank after a series of
cyclic process is again pumped to the receiver and is heated at
565 oC (1049 oF). It is a re-cyclic process.
During a day the plant produces 40-50MV. The annual
capacity of plant is 1080 GV (Fig. 8.1).
Fig. 8.1: Construction of the Exhibit
The maximum output is at 1:00 pm and the process continues
to generate power until 11:00 pm. This is because the mild carbon
steel steam pipe can hold heat for 13 hours.
Using feed water Pre-heater we can separate potassium nitrate
which can be used as fertilizers which are very essential for the
growth of plants.
Using HRSG (Heat Recovering Steam Generator) system plant
can produce fuel also.
2 8
Receiver Tower
Cold salt storage tank
Steam Generator
HP and LP Turbine
Hot salt storage tank
Feed water preheater
1. Heliostats : Concentrates sunrays towards the receiver.
2. Receiver : Stores the mixture of salts (sodium nitrate and
potassium nitrate)
3. Hot Salt Storage Tank : Stores hot molten salt
4. Cold Salt Storage Tank : Stores cooled molten salt
5. Super Heater and Reheater : Reheat the molten salt
6. Steam Generator : Evaporates molten salt
7. Condenser : Condenses molten salt vapours
8. Generator : Generates power
Eco-Friendly Plant.
Hot salt storage tank and cold salt storage can absorb
poisonous gases because of the presence of carbon in the
mild carbon steel which is used to make the tank.
It can produce large amount of electricity which is required
for all the purpose in a country.
The plant can also produce fertilisers and fuel.
2 9
Joyel Santhosh Thomas
Government Higher Secondary School
C.P. Bindhu
Green Buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the
built environment on human health and natural environment by
efficiently using natural energy, water and other resources and
by reducing waste, pollution and global warming.
Green buildings are considered to be the 21st century's
buildings. Main reason of global warming is carbon dioxide. 80
percent of CO2 is produced at the time of construction of buildings.
Inside the concrete house the temperature is 39oC to 40oC while
outside temperature is 35oC. Inside is very hot but in green
building we feel very cool.
Principle of green building is "reuse, reduce and recycle". By
remembering this mantra we can save our earth and health. All
the materials used for the building can be reused.
The green buildings have rainwater harvesting, portable biogas
plant, electricity from hybrid energy-system that is from wind and
sunlight and kitchen garden.
Cardboard sheets, plastic bottle, p.v.c pipe, fan, artificial grass,
water colour and fevicol.
Rain water harvesting cement tank is made underground. On top
of the tank there are grasses and stone bricks. When the tank is
filled, water will go to the well. All pipes are connected underground.
Portable biogas plant that can be shifted from one place to another
is in place. Kitchen waste can be used for this. From this we will
get cooking gas and the slurry can be used in kitchen garden. We
get electricity from hybrid energy system that is from wind and
electricity at night and in summer and sunny days we can produce
electricity from solar energy (Fig. 11.1).
Fig. 11.1: Construction of Green Building
3 1
Phup Hkonshan Mirip
Vivekananda Kendra
Vidyalaya, Lohit
Arunachal Pradesh
Mutum Ranjeeta Chanu
In this project we are trying to exhibit an innovative idea for efficient
management of road, rail, water and air transport systems.
Now-a-days, we come across some incidents where vehicles get
overloaded and for that reason bridges are damaged and we face
a lot of problems in transportation due to such man made hazard.
But here we have an unique idea to save people and properties
and to make the public aware about the load capacity of bridges.
A weighing machine, a signal machine and a sound alarm are
fixed below the bridge. It conveys signal and produces a sound
alarm as soon as overloaded vehicles pass over that point.
Electrical Wires
Signal and Alarm Post
Solar Panel
Vehicle (Toy)
Fabric Colours
The system comprises a solar panel, weighing machine and an
alarm machine. There is a solar panel which is connected to a
battery. The solar panel converts sunlight to electrical energy which
is stored in the battery as DC power. The battery supplies power
to the alarm and the weighing machine. Alarm machine is
connected to a weighing machine which is located below the bridge
at both sides of the bridge and it is fixed at the point of ten tonnes.
Some wires coming from weighing machine are connected to the
battery and some are connected to the alarm as well as signal
post. The alarm post is again connected to the battery. When a
vehicle weighing more than 10 tonnes passes over this weighing
machine, signal is conveyed to the alarm machine. The alarm starts
ringings. Thus, a person can understand that his vehicle is
Some of the significance of this method are as follows:
1. It will safeguard the lives and properties of people.
2. It will save both money, time and labour.
3. As some people unknowingly overload their vehicles, it will
be helpful to them to be aware about the possible accidents.
4. As it works automatically, no extra effort is needed.
5. Many people are illiterate in our society. It will be of no use
to them if any warning board is kept on the roadside. But
this method will be helpful to them.
This exhibit can prevent damage of bridges by directing overloaded
vehicles. Thus such man- made disaster can be avoided by taking
3 3
Amit Kumar
Government Senior Secondary School
Jhajpul, Hisar (Haryana)
Shivender Sharma
This exhibit can help us to meet the challenge of scarcity of
electricity and reduce global warming by reducing the use of
Wood, water pipes, brick stones, storage box and black paint.
A small house of wood is made. A black painted chimney is
connected inside from the roof of the house. An underground one
meter deep hole is dug out from the house. The hole is connected
with a water pipe to the house floor and hole. Hole is provided
with brick stones and water.
During day time the sunlight falls on chimney. As a result the
temperature of the chimney increases and hot air rises up. Thus
air inside the chimney comes out into the atmosphere and a suction
is created behind. In this way, hot air from inside the building is
exhausted. As the pipe is connected with a brick box containing
water, to overcome the suction created in the building, the air comes
from the brick box in the building through the inlet pipe. When
air flows over water, it carries moisture along with it. This makes
the room cool. Thus natural AC is made without any use of
A solar chimney can serve many purposes. It causes hot air to
rise up and cold air to draw in. This air drawn can be used to
ventilate a home or office, to draw air through a geothermal heat
exhange, or to ventilate only a specific area such as a compost
Natural ventilation can be created by providing vents in the
upper level of a building to allow warm air to rise by convection
and escape to the outside. At the same time cooler air can be
drawn in through vents at the lower level. Trees may be planted
on that side of the building to provide shade for cooler outside air.
This natural ventilation process can be augmented by a solar
chimney. The chimney has to be higher than the roof level and
has to be constructed on the wall facing the direction of the sun.
Absorption of heat from the sun can be increased by using a glazed
surface on the side facing the sun. Heat absorbing material can be
used on the opposite side. The size of the heat absorbing surface
is more important than the diameter of the chimney.
To further maximise the cooling effect, the incoming air may
be led through under ground ducts before it is allowed to enter
the building. The chimney can be improved by intergranting it
with a trompe wall.
Solar chimney can increase natural ventilation and keep the
building cool. Thus, it helps in reducing use of non- renewable
energy sources, CO2 emission and pollution in general. Solar
chimney is painted black so that it can absorb the sun heat more
easily. When the air inside the chimney is heated, it rises and pulls
cold air out from under the ground via heat exchange tubes.
Air conditioning and mechanical ventilation have been used
for decades as the standard method of environmental control in
many building. Pollution and reallocating energy supplies have
led to a new environmental approach in building designs. The
solar chimney is one of these concepts currently explored by
scientists as well as designers, mostly through research and
3 5
3 6
It saves electricity, economic in use and efficient.
It can reduce global warming.
It can utilise the heat energy trapped in desert area.
It uses a renewable source of energy.
iq"ih; ikS/ksa esa fcuk ekSle iq"iu djkuk
ik;y ukenso
egkjkuh y{eh ckbZ 'kkldh;
dU;k mPp- ekè;fed fo|ky;
iwf.kZek feJk
fujatu ikaMs
tyok;q ifjorZu osQ dkj.k Hkkjr esa ouLifr;ksa ,oa tarqvksa dh iztkfr;ksa dk
yqIr gksuk tkjh gSA budk lao/Zu larqfyr ,oa fu;af=kr okrkoj.k esa vuqowQy
ifjfLFkfr nsdj fd;k tk ldrk gSA blh vo/kj.kk osQ lkFk fcuk ekSle iq"ih;
ikniksa dk iq"iu (ngfy;k] Mk;UFkl] flyksfl;k) izkstsDV esa fd;k x;k gSA
rki vkSj feV~Vh esa ifjorZu djosQ fojks/ tSfod [kkn osQ iz;ksx ls fcuk ekSle
ngfy;k osQ ikS/s esa LoLFk iq"iksa dk f[kyukA
vko';d midj.k
jk[k] lfCt;ksa dk fNydk] lM+k&xyk eSVsfj;y] dks;ys dk pwjk] lw[kk xkscj]
gjh ?kklA
feV~Vh dk rsy] uhe] uhe dk jl] lhrkiQy osQ iÙkksa dk jlA
ngfy;k dk ikS/k yxkus ls igys feV~Vh rS;kj djukA D;kfj;ksa esa xkscj dh
[kwc lM+h [kkn ,oa yku dh ?kkl Mkydj djhc Ms<+ ls nks iqQV rd feV~Vh
[kksn dj feyk nhft,A dVh gqbZ gjh ?kkl feV~Vh esa ueh j[krh gS tks ngfy;k
osQ fy, vR;ar vko';d gSA ;g mipkj D;kfj;ksa esa ngfy;k yxkus osQ ,d
ekg iwoZ dj ysuk pkfg,] ftlls gjh ?kkl vPNh rjg lM+ tk,A
izn'kZ dh lajpuk ,oa dk;Ziz.kkyh
[kkn cukus dk rjhdk
[kkn cukus osQ fy, yxHkx 3 ls 4 iqQV xgjk x<~<k vk;rkdkj [kksndj mlesa
lcls uhps vPNh HkqjHkqjh feV~Vh Mkyrs gSaA mlosQ mQij xkscj osQ miyksa dh
tyh gqbZ jk[k Mkyrs gSa tks ngfy;k o vU; iq"iksa osQ fy, lcls vPNh [kkn
gksrh gSA fiQj ydM+h osQ tys gq, dks;ys dh ,d ijr Mkyrs gSa fiQj mlosQ
mQij lfCt;ksa osQ fNyosQ dh ,d ijr Mkyrs gSa vkSj mlosQ mQij yku dh
dVh ?kkl tks fd ueh iznku djrh gS vkSj mQij ls feV~Vh o FkksM+h ek=kk esa
ikuh Mkydj mls mQij ls <d nsrs gSa rkfd mlesa gok o ckgjh cSfDVfj;k
u tk ik,a vkSj ;g è;ku j[krs gSa fd mlesa xhyk xkscj bLrseky uk gks D;ksafd
mlesa dhM+s iuirs gSa tksfd vkSj vi?kVu djosQ vU; thoksa dks iSnk djrs gSa
bl dkj.k xhys xkscj dk iz;ksx ugha djrs gSaA
yxkus dh fof/
ikS/k fuf'pr LFkku ij yxkus osQ iwoZ gh gjs jax dh pkSdksj NM+h yxk nsuh
pkfg,A NM+h dh mQ¡pkbZ ikS/s dh laHkkfor mQ¡pkbZ ls de ugha gksuh pkfg,A
ydM+h dks ikS/ksa osQ lgkjs osQ fy, igys ls gh blfy, yxkrs gSa D;ksafd ikSèkksa
osQ cMs+ gksus ij muosQ danksa dks {kfr igq¡p ldrh gSA ikS/ksa osQ c<+us ij mUgsa
3 8
ydM+h dk lgkjk nsdj LFkku&LFkku ij cak/ fn;k tkrk gSA
ikS/ksa dks LFkkuakrfjr djosQ de ls de lkr fnu rd mQij ls Nk;k
djosQ jf[k, tc rd ikS/s yx u tk,¡A tc ikS/s yx tk,¡ o vaoqQj fudyus
yxsa rks mQij ls Nk;k gVk dj D;kfj;ksa dh feV~Vh dksM+ nsuh pkfg,A feV~Vh
esa gok vkSj lw;Z dk izdk'k rhu ls pkj fnu rd tkus nhft, ftlls feV~Vh
HkqjHkqjh gks tk,A
[kkn feV~Vh esa Mkyus osQ ckn feV~Vh dh lrg ls 5 lseh- mQij rd ikuh
Hkj losaQ rks vPNk gksxk ftlls ikS/s ikuh o [kkn dk mi;ksx vf/d dj
ik,¡xsA ikuh 15&20 fnu osQ varjky esa nhft,A ikuh nsus osQ pkj&ik¡p fnu
igys feV~Vh dh dksM+kbZ dj nsuk pkfg,A
xeyksa esa xkscj dh [kwc lM+h [kkn vkSj lfCt;k¡ tks lM+ xbZ gksa 15 fnu
osQ varjky esa Mkfy,A ngfy;k osQ ikS/ksa esa ifRr;k¡ tksM+s esa vkeus&lkeus gksrh
gSaA vr% izzR;sd tksM+s esa vkeus&lkeus nks vaoqQj fudyrs gSaA uhps osQ tksM+s dks
izkFkfedrk nsrs gq, c<+us osQ fy, NksM+ nhft, vkSj mQij osQ vaoqQj dks ,d
NksM+ ,d vaoqQj ,dakrj Øe ls rksM+ nhft,A
dfy;k¡ xqPNksa esa vkrh gSa] vr% osQoy eè; dh dyh dks NksM+dj ml
'kk[kk ls vU; lHkh dfy;ksa dks rksM+ nhft,A osQoy ,d gh dyh ,d 'kk[kk
esa jgus nhft,A blls iq"i vPNs ,oa vkdkj esa cM+s gksaxsA
1- tc ikS/s dks 15 lseh- xgjk [kksndj yxk,¡ rks ;g ;kn j[ksa fd ikS/k
x<~<s esa u jg tk,] feV~Vh dh lrg ls oqQN mQij yxk,¡A
2- [kkn dks ikS/s osQ rus ls 15 lseh nwj pkjksa rjiQ Mkfy,] ikl gksus ij
ikS/s ej tkrs gSaA
3- è;ku j[ksa fd xeys dh flapkbZ osQ i'pkr~ [kkn rus ls gj xeys osQ fdukjs
fNM+fd, vU;Fkk [kkn ikuh esa ?kqy dj xeys osQ Nsn ls cg tk,xhA
4- tc ngfy;k osQ ikS/s c<+us yxsa rks muosQ vaoqQj dks mQij ls nks iRrksa osQ
uhps ls rksM+ nhft,A ikS/ksa dh 'kk[kk,¡ lqn`<+ gks tk,¡xh o vaoqQj Hkh eksVs
5- tc dfy;k¡ vk,¡ rks ;s è;ku j[ksa fd ,d rus ij nks ls T;knk dyh u
3 9
gksaA ckdh dfy;ksa dks rksM+ nsa blls iwQy dk vkdkj Hkh cM+k gksrk gSA
T;knk gksus ij iks"kd inkFkZ lHkh dfy;ksa esa caV tkrs gSa o iwQy NksVs
gksrs gSaA
iwQy dk cM+k vkdkj izkIr djus osQ fy, tkudkjh
uhe dh [kyh o ljlksa dh [kyh dks ,d eVdk esa Mky?dj ikuh dks iwjk
Hkjdj] <ddj ,d ls Ms<+ ekg osQ fy, j[k nsaA tc og ikuh lM+ tk, rks
og pk; dh rjg dyj ij vk tk,xkA fiQj vki mls iwQyksa osQ ikS/ksa ij
fNM+osaQA blls iwQy dk vkdkj cM+k gksxkA
oSKkfud fl¼kar
rki vkSj feV~Vh esa ifjorZu djosQ ,oa iq"ih; ikniksa osQ fy, vuqowQy
okrkoj.k rS;kj djosQ vkSj fo'ks"k tSfod [kkn ds iz;ksx ls fcuk ekSle
ngfy;k ds ikS/s esa LoLFk iq"ikssa dk f[kyukA
;fn vEyh; feV~Vh gS rks ;g 'khrdkyhu ikS/s ds fy, vuqowQyu dk dke
djrh gSA feV~Vh dh vEyh;rk dks c<+k, j[kuk pkfg,A cxhps dk rkieku
gfj;kyh yxkdj de j[ksa rks ngfy;k] dkusZ'ku] Mk;UFkl tSls iwQy o"kZ Hkj
nSfud thou esa mi;ksfxrk
1- ÝyksjhdYpj dks c<+kok nsukA
2- iq"i foU;kl ,oa iq"iksa dh [ksrh osQ fy, iwQyksa dk mRiknuA
3- laqnjrk c<+kuk] i;kZoj.k dk egRo c<+kukA
4- vklikl dk rkiØe de gksukA
4- iwQyksa osQ mRiknu ls csjkstxkjh dks de djukA
5- vk; dh izkfIrA
6- vkS"kf/ esa iz;ksxA
dhVuk'kd dk iz;ksx
4 0
feV~Vh dk rsy] uhe dh iRrh dks mckyus ls izkIr jl rFkk lhrkiQy dh iRrh
dks mckyus ls izkIr jl] rhuksa dks cjkcj ek=kk esa feykdj fNM+dko djus ls
lkjs dhV&iraxs [kRe gks tkrs gSaA
1- ;g iq"i Hkh foyqIrizk; thoksa dh rjg fliZQ rhu ekg rd f[kyrs gSa
ysfdu gekjs iz;ksx osQ bl rjhosQ ls ckjg ekl f[kysaxsA
2- bl ikS/s dks yxkdj ÝyksjhdYpj dks c<+kok nsuk gSA
3- bu iwQyksa dks yxkdj csjkstxkj yksx jkstxkj ik ldrs gSa rFkk vk; dh
izkfIRk Hkh gksrh gSA
4- [kkn dks ge [ksrksa esa Hkh iz;ksx dj ldrs gSaA
5- dhVuk'kd dk iz;ksx Hkh lHkh ikS/ksa esa o [ksrksa esa dj ldrs gSaA
6- bl ikS/s osQ tM+ o rus dk vkS"k/h; iz;ksx Hkh djrs gSaA bls /ksdj rFkk
ihl dj yxkus ls tgk¡ nnZ gksrk gS ogk¡ nnZ fuokjd dh rjg iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA
4 1
lksyj fjD'kk
vk;Z mPp ekè;fed fo|ky;
th-Vh- jksM] ikuhir
vkj- osQ- xxZ
tSlk fd vki tkurs gSa fd gekjs ns'k esa ;krk;kr ds lk/uksa dk cgqr T;knk
fuekZ.k gks jgk gSA ;krk;kr lk/uksa dks vehj yksxksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj
fodflr fd;k tk jgk gS rFkk mUgha dh lq[k&lqfo/kvksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj
mUgha osQ yk;d mi;ksxh okguksa dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk jgk gSA blh ckr dks è;ku
esa j[kdj eSaus bl fjD'kk dk fuekZ.k fd;k gSA
lksyj fjD'kk osQ }kjk ,d O;fDr fnu esa de ls de ` 800&900 rd
dek ldrk gS o fnu Hkj esa 40 ls 50 pDdj yxk ldrk gSA
bu iSlksa osQ }kjk og vius cPpksa dks ,d vPNs LowQy esa f'k{kk fnyk
ldrk gSA blosQ lkFk og vius ifjokj esa fdlh osQ chekj gksus ij mldk
vPNs ls bykt Hkh djok ldrk gSA ;g lksyj fjD'kk ok;q iznw"k.k rFkk èofu
jfgr gSA blls gekjs vkl&ikl osQ okrkoj.k ij cqjk izHkko ugha iM+rk rFkk
vktdy th-Vh- jksM ij okguksa dh cgqr T;knk vkokt gksrh gS ijarq ;g èofu
iznw"k.k ls jfgr gSA blls etnwj oxZ dks Hkh bl lekt esa vkxs c<+us esa
lgk;rk feysxhA bldk uke lksyj fjD'kk gSA
blosQ vykok lk/kj.k fjD'kk osQ }kjk etnwj oxZ osQ yksx tks fnu Hkj
esgur dj fjD'kk pykrs gSa vkSj iwjs fnu dke djosQ ` 200&250 gh dek
ikrs gSa] lkjk fnu dke djus osQ ckn os Fkd tkrs gSaA mUgha iSlksa osQ }kjk muosQ
ifjokj esa 'kke dk [kkuk Hkh eqf'dy ls cu ikrk gSA vxj fdlh fLFkfr essa
chekj gks tk,¡ rks vxys fnu os dke ij ugha tk ik,¡xsA mUgha iSlksa osQ }kjk
mUgsa vxys fnu ds Hkkstu rFkk viuh nokbZ dk [kpZ fudkyuk gksxkA tks cgqr
T;knk eqf'dy gSA
oSKkfud fl¼kar
bl lksyj fjD'kk osQ vanj lkSj mQtkZ dks ;kaf=kd mQtkZ esa cnyk tkrk gSA
vko';d lkexzh
1- ik¡p lfj;s
2- 1 ,Dly
3- 1 eksVj (Vªd okbij 12 V)
4- 3 Vk;j
5- 3 xjkjh
6- 12 V dh cSVjh
7- 2 lkSj IysV
8- 1 ykbV
9- 4 cSfjax
10- 2 pSu
11- 2 iSMy
lajpuk ,oa dk;Ziz.kkyh
1- lksyj fjD'kk osQ vanj lcls igys ,d xksy ,Dly dh t:jr iM+rh
gSA blosQ nksuksa fljksa ij Vk;j yxkus gksrs gSa rFkk mlh ,Dly osQ
chpksachp ,d xjkjh yxkbZ tkrh gSA xjkjh osQ nksuksa rjiQ ,d&,d cSfjax
4 3
yxk;k tkrk gSA
cSfjax osQ mQij ,d xksy iRrh yxkbZ tkrh gS ftl ij ml fjD'ks dk Hkkj
vk tkrk gS vkSj og ,Dly viuh txg ij fujarj ?kwerk jgrk gSA
cSfjax osQ mQij yxh iRrh ls mQij mUgha lfj;ksa dks vkxs c<+kdj vkxs
okys gS.My ls tksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA
mUgha nks lfj;ksa ls mQij dh rjiQ rhu lfj;ksa dks mBk;k x;k gS ftlls
lksyj fjD'kk dh Nr dk fuekZ.k fd;k x;k gSA
mUgha nksuksa lfj;ksa osQ uhps dh rjiQ cSVjh rFkk eksVj dks yxk;k gSA eksVj
dh xjkjh dks ,Dly dh xjkjh ls ,d pSu osQ }kjk tksM+k x;k gSA
eksVj dks cSVjh osQ lkFk tksM+k x;k gSA cSVjh ds rkjksa dks lkSj IysV ds
rkjksa ls tksM+k x;k gSA cSVjh fnu esa lw;Z osQ izdk'k ls pktZ gks tkrh gS
rFkk og jkr es vklkuh ls dk;Z dj ldrh gSA
Nr osQ mQij nks lkSj IysVksa j[kh xbZ gSaA bUgha nksuksa lkSj IysVksa dh rkjksa
dks cSVjh ls tksM+k x;k gSA
iSMyksa dks Hkh tksM+k x;k gSA
ehVj dks tksM+k x;k gS tks n'kkZrk gS fd gekjh cSVjh fdruh pktZ gSA lkSj
IysV osQ }kjk ge viuh cSVjh dks pktZ djrs gSaA fjD'kk osQ vanj yxh
eksVj cSVjh ls djsUV izkIr djus osQ ckn pyuk 'kq: dj nsrh gSA fnu
osQ le; gekjk fjD'kk /wi ls pyrk gS rFkk jkr osQ le; ge viuh fnu
esa pktZ dh xbZ cSVjh dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA cSVjh rFkk /wi nksuksa ph”ksa
u gksus dh fLFkfr ;fn dHkh mRiUu Hkh gks tk, rks ge iSMy Hkh ekj
ldrs gSaA
1- ;g fjD'kk
2- ;g fjD'kk
3- etnwj oxZ
bl fjD'kk
4- bl fjD'kk
4 4
iznw"k.kjfgr gS tSls ok;q iznw"k.k] èofu iznw"k.kA
T;knk nwjh de le; esa r; djrk gSA
osQ yksx lkjk fnu fjD'kk pykus osQ ckn Fkd tkrs gSa ijUrq
osQ }kjk og fnu Hkj dke djus osQ ckotwn FkosaQxs ughaA
}kjk os igys ls vf/d iSls dek ldrs gSaA
5- lkSj mQtkZ u [kRe gksus okyh mQtkZ gS ftlls ;g fjD'kk pyrk gSA
6- ;g isVªksy rFkk Mhty jfgr gSA
7- etnwj oxZ osQ yksx blls vius cPpksa dks ,d vPNs LowQy esa i<+k ldrs
8- bldh ykxr ` 1483 gSA
4 5
nksukas gkFkksa ls v'kDr O;fDr;ksa dh i<+kbZ gsrq
i`"B iyVus dh ,d ;qfDr
jfo jatu oqQekj
frjgq ,dkneh bUVj fo|ky;
leLrhiqj] fcgkj
izeksn oqQekj feJ
f'k{kk euq"; dk ekSfyd vf/dkj gSA f'k{kk osQ fcuk euq"; vkSj i'kq esa dksbZ
iQoZQ ugha gSA
lekt esa oqQN ,sls ykpkj ,oa fujhg O;fDr gSa tks f'k{kk :ih nhid ls
nwj jgdj viuk thou va/sjs esa fuokZg djus ij etcwj gSaA ,slh gh ?kVuk esjs
eqgYys osQ jes'k dh gS tks es/koh gksrs gq, Hkh nksuksa gkFkksa ls v'kDr gksus osQ
dkj.k iqLrd ls i<+kbZ ugha dj ldrk gSA og ge yksxksa osQ chp vkdj cSBrk
gSA ge yksxksa dh i<+h gqbZ ckr lqurk gS] le>rk gS] foaQrq gkFk ugha gksus osQ
dkj.k og iqLrd osQ i`"B u iyV ikus osQ dkj.k [kqn ls iqLrd i<+us esa
vleFkZ gSA ,d jes'k gh ugha] gkFk ls v'kDr mu lHkh O;fDr;ksa osQ thou
esa f'k{kk dk fpjkx tykus osQ fy, esjs eu esa bl ifj;kstuk dh lksp vkbZA
pqacd yksgs dh oLrq dks viuh vksj vkdf"kZr djrk gSA ;g ekWMy blh
fl¼kar ij vk/kfjr gSA
loZizFke eSaus ,d Vscy fy;kA ml Vscy osQ ck,¡ Hkkx esa [email protected] lseh O;kl dk
,d fNnz fd;kA mlosQ ckn Vscy osQ uhps okys vk/kj ls ,d iSMy yxk NM+
Vscy esa cus fNnz esa uhps ls yxk fn;kA Vscy osQ mQij ls fudys NM+ esa ,d
nwljk NM+ ysdj (ftlosQ mQij eSaus pqacd yxk j[kk Fkk) mls ,d nwljs ls
tksM+ fn;kA ydM+h dk ,d r[rk ysdj mls Vscy osQ nksuksa rjiQ ljdkus osQ
fy, Vscy osQ nksuksa rjiQ ,d&,d fNnz cuk;k] fiQj r[rs osQ nksuksa rjiQ
iryh Mksjh ysdj Vscy esa cus nksuksa rjiQ osQ fNnzksa esa ls Mksjh dks uhps
yVdkdj mlesa eSaus iSMy yxk fn;kA bl izdkj esjh ;g ifj;kstuk rS;kj gks
xbZA ;g loZlk/kj.k dks de [kpZ ij miyC/ gks ldrh gSA
;g izn'kZ nksuksa gkFkksa ls v'kDr O;fDr;ksa osQ fy, cuk;k x;k gSA bldh
lgk;rk ls ;fn iqLrd osQ ck,¡ i`"B dks iyVuk gS rks iqLrd esa yxs /krq osQ
VqdM+s dks pqacd osQ uhps ykdj iSMy dks nckrs gSa rFkk iSMy dks nckdj gh
ckb± vksj dh jLlh okys iSMy dks nwljs okys iSj ls [khap nsrs gSaA blh izdkj
4 7
vxj] nk,¡ i`"B dks iyVuk gS rks mi;qZDr izfØ;k dh rjg dk;Z djrs gq, nkb±
vksj dh jLlh okys iSMy dks nwljs iSj ls [khap nsrs gSaA
bl ifj;kstuk ls mu lHkh nksuksa gkFkksa ls v'kDr yksxksa dks lgk;rk feyh gS
tks f'k{kk dh jks'kuh ls nwj FksA
4 8
m|ksxkas esa lqj{kk iz.kkyh
vfHkyk"kk lqFkkj
ehjk fuosQru ck-m-ek- fo|ky;
xka/h fo|k efUnj] ljnkj'kgj(pq:)
bUnzk lksuh
ctjaxyky lksuh
esjk xk¡o fdlkuksa dk xk¡o gSA tgk¡ ij izk; lHkh yksx [ksrh djrs gSaA oqQN gh
yksx y?kq m|ksxkssa esa lfØ; gSaA [ksrh djus osQ lkFk&lkFk i'kqikyu dk dke Hkh
tqM+k gqvk gSA i'kqikyu o [ksrh osQ vfrfjDr le; esa FkksM+k c<+bZxhjh] oqQEgkj]
yqgkj vkfn dk dk;Z Hkh pyrk jgrk gSA i'kqvksa dks pkjk fn;k tkrk gS tks [ksr
esa mxh gqbZ [kjirokj dks ckjhd dkV dj fn;k tkrk gSA dVkbZ osQ dke esa
rFkk c<+bZxhjh osQ dke esa vkjs dk mi;ksx djrs gS tks fctyh ls pyrk gSA
xr fnuksa gekjs iM+kslh vius i'kqvksa dks pkjk nsus osQ fy, [kjijrokj dks vkjs
ls dkV jgs Fks rHkh xyrh ls mudh vaxqfy;k¡ vkjs ds ikl igq¡p xb± vkSj dV
xb±A blh rjg xr o"kZ gekjs xk¡o osQ ,d c<+bZ dks ydM+h dh dVkbZ djrs
le; fdlh us chp esa cksy dj mudk è;ku gVk fn;k vkSj os ml O;fDr
dh rjiQ ns[krs gq, ydM+h dks dkVrs jgs] vpkud nq?kZVuko'k gkFk dh
vaxqfy;k¡ vkjs osQ ikl igq¡p xb± vkSj dV xb±A ;gh ?kVuk gekjs iM+kslh osQ
lkFk pkjk dkVrs le; fiNyh xehZ dh NqfV~V;ksa esa gqbZA bUgha ?kVukvksa us eq>s
lkspus osQ fy, etcwj dj fn;k vkSj blh lksp osQ dkj.k eSaus vkjs esa ,slh
O;oLFkk djus dh lksph rkfd vkjs ls gkFk ugha dVsaA
o`Qf"k vFkok vkS|ksfxd {ks=k esa dke vkus okys fo|qr pkfyr vkjs dk mi;ksx
djrs le; ekuoh; Hkwy vFkok vU; dkj.kksa ls gksus okyh nq?kZVukvksa dks
jksdus osQ fy, lqjf{kr vkjs vFkok blh izdkj osQ vU; ;U=k dk fuekZ.k djukA
1- fo|qr osQ lkekU; fu;eksa dk KkuA
2- bysDVªkWfuDl o bysfDVªdy ifjiFkksa dk Kku rFkk O;ogkfjd dk;ks± esa mudk
3- fo|qr eksVj] lkekU; fx;j] Vp lfoZQV vkfn dk Kku o mi;ksxA
IykfLVd] ydM+h] IykbZ] bysDVªkWfud ikVZl&vkbZ- lh-] fjys] dUMsulj]
VªkaliQkWeZj] izfrjks/] ih-lh-ch-] ,y-lh-ch-] ,y-bZ-Mh-] fx;j ckWDl] fo|qr
eksVj rFkk lkekU; uV&cksYV vkfnA
dk;Zi.z kkyh
loZizFke ydM+h dk vk;rkdkj fMCCkk cukdj mlosQ uhps dh vksj ,d fo|qr
eksVj yxkbZ xbZA bldh /qjh ij NksVk gkFk ls cuk gqvk xksykdkj vkjk fiQV
fd;k x;kA bl eksVj dks pykus o cUn djus dh O;oLFkk lh/s fLop ls u
djosQ ,d 12 oksYV dh fjys ls dh xbZA tc fjys esa 12 oksYV cSVjh ls djsaV
Hkstk tkrk gS rks fjys osQ dkWUVsDV pqEcdh; izHkko osQ dkj.k uhps dh vksj
vkus ls fpid tkrs gSa rFkk nks dkWUVsDV vkil esa tqM+ tkus osQ dkj.k eksVj
dk fo|qrh; ifjiFk iwjk gks tkrk gS ftlls eksVj xksy xfr izkIr dj vkjs dks
xfr iznku djrh gS rFkk tSls gh fjys esa fo|qr dk izokg cUn fd;k tkrk gS]
fjys osQ dkWUVsDV gV tkrs gSa vkSj eksVj dk ?kweuk cUn gks tkrk gS rFkk vkjk
5 0
Hkh #d tkrk gS vc bl fjys dk lEcU/ Vp fLop lfoZQV ls dj fn;k x;k
gSA ;fn lsalj ij gkFk j[k fn;k tk;s rks fo|qr izokg :d tkrk gS vkSj blls
vkjk Hkh #d tkrk gSA bl izdkj bl O;oLFkk ls bruk gks ik;k fd tSls gh
lsUlj ij gkFk yxk;k tkrk gS] vkjk #d tkrk gSA
izFke] f}rh; o r`rh; iz;kl osQ vUrxZr vfUre iz;kl esa fd, dk;Z ls ,d
izk;ksfxd :i ls rF; lkeus vk;k fd xfr djrk gqvk vkjk ,d lSd.M osQ
nlosa Hkkx esa viuh fLFkfr cny dj uhps dh vksj pyrs gq, #d tkus ij
ekuoh; nq?kZVuk ugha gksrh gSA blh izdkj dh O;oLFkk eSaus ÝysV csYV vkjs dh
e'khu ij Hkh dh rFkk okafNr liQyrk izkIr dhA
1- vkjs osQ }kjk gksus okyh nq?kVZukvksa dks jksdus osQ fy, ;g ,d fo'ks"k izdkj
dk bysDVªkWfud ,oa eSosQfudy vVSpesaV gS tks lk/kj.k ifjorZu osQ
i'pkr fdlh Hkh vkjs esa O;ofLFkr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
2- bl vVSpesaV esa ,d vR;Ur lkekU; bysDVªkWfud ifjiFk gS tks lk/kj.k
PNP ,oa NPN VªkaftLVjksa osQ }kjk cuk;k x;k gSA bl iwjs bYksDVªkWfud
ifjiFk dh dher ek=k ` [email protected]& ls ` [email protected]& rd gh gSA
3- ;g vVSpesaV iwoZ esa py jgs vkjs vFkok u, lkekU; lLrs ck”kkj esa ik,
tkus okys vkjs dks [kjhn dj bl O;oLFkk dks viuk;k tk ldrk gSA
4- iwjk vVSpesaV bysDVªkWfudyh o eSosQfudyh vR;Ur ljy gksus osQ dkj.k
bldh esUVsusUl dkiQh ljy gS ftls lHkh oqQVhj m|ksxifr dke esa ys
ldrs gSaA
5 1
tknqbZ vfXu'keu ckWDl
xUref.k jLrksxh
Jh xq#ukud fj[lh flag
xYlZ b.Vj dkWyst] cjsyh
bl ekWMy dks cukus dk eq[; mís'; jlksbZ xSl ds flys.Mj esa vkx yxus
ls gksus okyh ?kVukvksa dks Lor% jksduk gS ftlls /u o tu dh gkfu dks [kRe
fd;k tk losQA
lekfo"V oSKkfud fl¼kar
;g ekWMy nks oSKkfud fl¼karksa ij vk/kfjr gSA izFke fl¼kar jsr }kjk vkx
cq>kus dk gS o nwljk fl¼kar xSl osQ izlkj ij vk/kfjr gSA fiLVu osQ ØksM
ls jsxqysVj osQ isap dks ck¡/ nsa rks mls cUn fd;k tk ldrk gSA
1- ,Y;qehfu;e o dkWij dh pknjsa
2- fiLVu o flys.Mj
3- okYo&xSl jksdus osQ fy,
4- okYo&xSl Hkjus osQ fy,
5- ikWyhFkhu
6- iryk ikbi ,oa rkj
;U=k dk dk;Z
bl ckWDl dk dk;Z flys.Mj esa yxh vkx dks cq>kuk gSA ;g ckWDl flys.Mj
osQ Åij fp=kkuqlkj gj le; j[kk jgrk gS o flys.Mj esa vkx yxus ij mls
rqjUr o Lo;a cq>kdj flys.Mj eas CykLV gksus ls cpkrk gSA
bl ckWDl esa nks Hkkx gksrs gSAa ,d Hkkx jsr }kjk vkx cq>kus osQ fl¼kUr ij
dk;Z djrk gS rFkk nwljk Hkkx fiLVu ds uhps cUn xSl ds izlkj }kjk dk;Z djus
osQ fl¼kUr ij dk;Z djrk gSA blosQ igys Hkkx dk dk;Z vkx cq>kuk o nwljs
Hkkx dk dk;Z jsxy
q Vs j dks Lor% cUn djuk gSA
fp=k 19-1% tknqbZ vfXu'keu ckWDl
;g tknqbZ vfXu'keu ckWDl lUnwd osQ vkdkj dk gksrk gSA blesa nks Hkkx gksrs
gSaA tks fp=kkuqlkj mQij & uhps O;ofLFkr gksrs gSaA bldk uhps okyk jsr Hkjk
ckDl jsr }kjk vkx cq>kus osQ fl¼kar ij dk;Z djrk gSA Åij okyk Hkkx ftls
geus izs'kj Cykd uke fn;k gS] xSl ds izlkj }kjk dk;Z djus osQ fl¼kUr ij
dk;Z djrk gSA bl ckWDl osQ nksuksa Hkkxksa dh cukoV o dk;Zi¼fr dk fooj.k
uhps fn;k x;k gS&
1 jsr Hkjk ckWDl
5 3
fp=k 19-2% jsr Hkjk ckWDl
;g ckWDl ?kukdkj gksrk gS rFkk bldh ryh ls fp=kkuqlkj ,d xksyk dkV fy;k
tkrk gS o mls ikWyhFkhu yxkdj cUn dj fn;k tkrk gSA bl ckWDl esa yxs
gkWij }kjk jsr Hkj nsrs gSaA ;g Hkkx yksgs dk cuk gksrk gSA
vkx yxus ij bl ckWDl dh ryh ij yxh ikWyhFkhu ds fi?kyus ls cUn xksy
Nsn [kqy tkrk gS o jsr vkx ij fxjdj vkx dks cq>k nsrk gSA vr% flys.Mj
esa tc vkx yxrh gS rks jsr Lor% fxjdj vkx dks cq>k nsrh gSA
2- izs'kj Cykd
;g vfXu'keu ckDl esa jsr Hkjs ckDl ds mQij j[kk ckDl gSA
fp=k 19-3% izs'kj CykWd
5 4
izs'kj CykWd Hkh rk¡cs dk cuk ?kukdkj ckWDl gksrk gSA bl ckWDl osQ Åijh ry
ij chpksachp fiLVu yxk ,d eksVk ikbi fp=kkuqlkj csYM dj fn;k tkrk gSA
ikbi osQ ry o izs'kj CykWd osQ feyus osQ LFkku ij xSl dks jksdus osQ fy,
fp=kkuqlkj ,d oSls gh okWYo yxk jgrk gS tSlk fd oqQdj esa gksrk gSA (fp=k
19-3 ns[ksa) tc ckWDl esa Hkjh xSl dk vk;ru c<+rk gS rks okWYo iQV tkrk
gS o eksVs ikbi esa xSl Hkjus osQ dkj.k fiLVu Åij dh vksj pyk tkrk gSA
vc iwjs ckWDl esa ls gksdj Åij ls uhps rd ,d iryk ikbi tkrk gS
(fp=k 19-4) blesa ,d rkj Mkydj rkj dk fupyk fljk jsxqysVj osQ isap ls
bl rjg ls tksM+ nsrs gSa fd tc rkj Åij dh vksj f[kaps rks jsxqysVj cUn gks
tk,A rkj dk Åijh fljk ,d dhy }kjk fiLVu jkWM ls tksM+ nsrs gSa tc fiLVu
mQij mBrk gS rks rkj mQij f[kaprk gS vkSj xqysVj cUn gks tkrk gSA (fp=k 194 ns[ksa)A
fp=k 19-4% fiLVu jsxqysVj
fp=k 19-5% (d) jsxqysVj dh fØ;kfof/
5 5
;fn dHkh vkx jsr okys ckWDl }kjk ugha cq>rh rks vkx c<+us ls rk¡cs ls cuk
;g izs'kj CykWd xeZ gksus yxrk gS ftlls blesa Hkjh xSl dk nkc c<+us ds
dkj.k eksVs ikbi osQ ry ij yxk okWYo iQV tkrk gS vkSj ikbi esa xSl dk
vk;ru c<+us ls fiLVu Åij dh vksj mB tkrk gS o rkj }kjk fiLVu ls
la;qfXer jsxqysVj dk isap fp=kkuqlkj Åij dh vksj ?kwedj cUn gks tkrk gS
ftlls flys.Mj CykLV gksus ls cp tkrk gSA
fp=k 19-6% ([k) jsxqysVj dh fØ;kfof/
;fn fiLVu jkWM esa tgk¡ ij dhy yxh gksrh gS] ogk¡ ij ,d eksVj bl rjg
ls yxk nh tk, fd eksVj pyus ls dhy ij /kxk fyiVus yxs ftlls rkj
f[kapus ls jsxqysVj cUn gks tk, rks ;g dke ge dejs osQ ckgj ls gh fLop
nckdj dj ldrs gSaA
5 6