by (1986) John Nicholas Brown A.

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A MODEL FOR RURAL ROAD MAINTENANCE IN ZAIRE
by
John Nicholas Brown
B. A. Harvard University
(1986)
Submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning on May 15, 1990
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
MASTER OF CITY PLANNING
at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
June, 1990
@John Nicholas Brown
The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute
copies of this thesis document in whole or in part.
Signature of Author
Department (f Urban Studies and Planning
May 15, 1990
Certified by
Ralph Gakenheimer
Profe or cf Urban Studies and Civil Engineering
A 0Thesis
Supervisor
\f
Accepted by
Donald Schon
Professor-of Urban Studies
Chair, MCP Committee
MASSACHUSEjTSlNST TUTE
OF TECHNn01.1y
JUN 0 6 1990
LIBRARIES
ROtch
A MODEL FOR RURAL ROAD MAINTENANCE IN ZAIRE
by
John Nicholas Brown
Submitted to the Department of Urban Studies and Planning on May
15, 1990 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of
Master of City Planning
ABSTRACT
The maintenance of the world's roads is lagging far behind
their rate of deterioration, particularly in developing countries.
Based on recent research in Zaire, this thesis evaluates private sector
road maintenance contracting as an answer to the road maintenance
crisis. Government and private sector support for privately
contracted road maintenance is strong in ZaYre, although its
expansion would require a major restructuring of existing
government maintenance services. I explore the hidden costs and
benefits of privately contracted manual road maintenance, and show
it in the Zairean case to be an illusory solution.
The second half of the thesis explores an alternative approach
to maintenance based on promoting local initiative for road
maintenance by the road users who need it most. This "local" model
takes the financial distortions out of road maintenance motivations by
cutting national and international subsidies to road work, and ties
road user benefits to road maintenance costs at the local level. Key
arguments for this approach are the cost-ineffectiveness of road
rehabilitation because of very low rural traffic levels and the
expectation that traffic levels will continue to fall because of
worsening economic conditions. National and regional policies
encouraging local minimal road maintenance initiatives provide the
only sustainable approach for Zairean rural transport in the
foreseeable future. This conclusion may also be extended to other
Sub-Saharan countries facing similar long-term administrative and
economic crisis and decline.
1
CONTENTS
CONTENTS...............................................................................
ACRONYMS USED......................................................................
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..............................................................
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................
CHAPTER 1, The Zairean context....................................................
i
iv
v
CHAPTER 2, The Contracting System...............................................
Government Interest ..........................................................
1. OR ...................................................................
2. SNRDA ............................................................
3. The Territorial Administration......................................
Private Sector Interest.........................................................
Contractor Interest..............................................................
Contractor Capacity and Performance ..............................
Performance and Constraints of the Contracting System..................
1. Programming .......................................................
2. Selection of Contractors.............................................
3. The Road Maintenance Contract.................................
4. Payment Levels and Regularity...................................
5. Managing the Contractor
Monitoring and Training....................................
The Need for an Alternative Approach.......................................
18
19
19
20
20
21
26
27
31
32
33
34
35
1
6
36
38
CHAPTER 3. The Local Model.......................................................
39
Calculating Costs and Benefits ..............................................
39
The Local Model................................................................
43
1. Local Model Strategies ...........................................
44
2. Institutional Structures.............................................
49
3. Can the Local Level Be Trusted?............ . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4. Estimated Social and Economic Impacts ........................
53
CONCLUSION, Beyond the Road .....................................................
57
NO TES .....................................................................................
60
BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................................................63
ANNEX I, The 1989 USAID-OR Road Maintenance Survey.....................
A. Description ...................................................................
B. Quantitative Analysis.......................................................
C. Qualitative Analysis ..........................................................
D. Methodological constraints ................................................
1. Geographic and Temporal Restriction ...........................
2. Questionnaire Accuracy ...........................................
67
67
68
68
69
69
70
a) Target audience ...........................................
b) Experience ...................................................
c) Interest........................................................
d) Logistical capability......................................
3. Justification of limitations...........................................
E. Chronology of Research Trips ...........................................
Bandundu Travel and Interviews......................................
Shaba Travel and Interviews...........................................
ANNEX II, Maps and Traffic Counts ..................................................
70
70
71
71
72
72
72
75
101
TABLES
Table 1. Total Extra-Urban Inventoried Road Network ............................
Table 2. 1989 OR and SNRDA Budgets Disbursed by GOZ......................
Table 3. ERR of Rehabilitation Work to Gravel Road Standard..................
Table 4. ERR of Rehabilitation Work to Asphalt Road Standard.................
Table 5. Percent of 1987 Budget Expended on Budgeted Items..................
Table 6. Percent Allocation of 1987 Local Budget by Category.....................
Table I.A. Contractor Survey Statistics for All Responding Organizations ........
Table I.B. Contractor Survey Geographic and Experiential Distribution...........
Table I.C. Contractor Survey Statistics for Experienced Organizations ............
Table I.D. Contractor Survey General Information .................................
Table I.E. Contractor Survey Addresses ...............................................
Table I.F. Contractor Survey Employment and Equipment........................
Table I.G. Contractor Survey Description ...........................................
Table I.H. Contractor Survey Other Management...................................
Table H.A. Compilation of OR Traffic Counts ........................................
7
13
40
40
51
52
86
87
88
90
92
94
96
98
102
FIGURES
Figure 1. Zaire's Vehicle Fleet, 1930-1986............................................
Figure 2. Distribution of Vehicles by Region, 1959-1984.........................
8
Figure 4. The Current Maintenance Model...........................................
Figure 5. The local Maintenance Model ..............................................
17
48
Figure I.A. Sample USAID-OR Contractor Survey Questionnaire ................
80
9
MAPS
Map 1. The Transportation Network of Zaire..........................................
100
Map 2. Maximum ADT Counted on National and Regional Roads ................. 103
Map 3. OR Traffic Counts, Bas-Zaire, Kinshasa and Bandundu ................... 104
Map 4. OR Traffic Counts, Shaba ......................................................
105
Map 5. OR Traffic Counts, Haut-Zaire.................................................
106
Map 6. OR Traffic Counts, Equateur ...................................................
Map 7. OR Traffic Counts, Kivu........................................................
Map 8. OR Traffic Counts, Kasai Occidental and Kasai Oriental ...................
107
108
109
ACRONYMS USED
ADT:
ERR:
GDP:
GNP:
GOZ:
INSS:
OFIDA:
ONATRA:
OR:
PDO:
PVO:
RRC:
SNCZ:
SNRDA:
UP:
USAID:
Average Daily Traffic
Economic Rate of Return
Gross Domestic Product
Gross National Product
Government of Zaire
Institut National de Securit6 Sociale
Customs Office
Office National des Transport
Office des Routes
USAID Kinshasa Project Design and Operations Office
Private Voluntary Organization
Regional Road Commission
Socidte Nationale des Chemins de Fer ZaYrois
Societe Nationale des Routes de Desserte Agricole
Unite de Production, OR road work logistical center
United States Agency for International Development
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My greatest thanks go to my partner in Zaire, Citoyen
Kabwenge Musungu, who made all of our work together a joy, and
who has kept me in touch with Zairean developments. I am also
most grateful to our multiple bosses Tom Driscoll, Bob Braden and
Bill Anderson, who were a pleasure to work for, as well as to the
staff of USAID Zaire's Project Design and Operations Office.
Cit. Sebagisha, Coordonnateur Regional adjoint of SNRDA,
travelled with me in Bandundu. Similarly, Cit. Tsumbu,
Coordonnateur Regional SNRDA, and Cit. Morisho, Adjoint
Technique Regional OR, accompanied me in Shaba. Their
contributions in time and insight were essential to this report.
Professor Ralph Gakenheimer has been a superb advisor
throughout my time at MIT and has provided me the tools and
institutional approach necessary to understand this topic. I am also
grateful to Professor Paul Smoke of the Department of Urban
Studies and Planning for his exceptional consideration and interest.
INTRODUCTION
The maintenance of the world's roads is lagging far behind
their rate of deterioration. Inadequate past maintenance and new
construction have greatly aggravated road deterioration and its costs,
while the urgency of major repairs and rehabilitation has caused
postponement or suspension of more economical routine
maintenance. The road maintenance crisis is most advanced in
developing countries, where the World Bank estimated that more
than $90 billion worth of road infrastructure has been destroyed
because of inadequate maintenance in the past twenty years. This loss
could have been averted with preventive maintenance costing less
than $24 billion.' The total economic impacts of lost road capital
investments are even greater and many countries realize that they can
no longer afford such enormous inefficiencies.
The types of roads most greatly at risk in the road
maintenance crisis are unpaved rural roads. These comprise the vast
majority of developing country road networks but are most difficult
to access and monitor for maintenance. They deteriorate far more
rapidly than paved roads, yet they have the weakest constituency to
advocate their repair. Most importantly, the economic costeffectiveness of their maintenance is the most difficult to justify, and
they are the first roads on which maintenance subsidies are
abandoned by central governments and donors.
The World Bank's HDM-III road maintenance model shows
that the cost of lost infrastructure in road deterioration is only a
small fraction of the wider capital cost of reduced transport
productivity. In the case of low-volume rural roads, however, this
major economic justification for road maintenance does not hold
true. The model estimates that most low-volume rural roads carrying
fewer than 20 vehicles a day (comprising the great majority of rural
roads in the poorest countries) are too expensive to maintain relative
to the few users and low value added which they generate. Scarce
maintenance resources, the model suggests, should be concentrated
on high volume urban roads and strategic export highways, where
the capital value of goods transported and time saved is much more
significant.
The HDM-III model can be criticized for, among other
weaknesses, not adequately considering the eventual costs of isolating
rural populations. National governments, in any any case, have
political reasons to not forsake their rural networks. As Cooke points
out (1988), rural roads are essential for the state to secure its
mandate over rural people, to feed burgeoning urban populations,
and to dampen disequilibria in national development which often lead
to rebellion or civil war. Nonetheless, it is clear that rural roads are
not a high priority of central governments in these times of general
crisis, nor are they likely to become one in the foreseeable future.
The options for rural road refinancing are limited. Funds for
rural unpaved road maintenance are unlikely to be transferred from
budgets outside of road transportation, as inadequate maintenance is
an endemic problem straining all state services. Nor are funds likely
to be reallocated from the maintenance of paved roads or from
urban areas, which already heavily subsidize rural unpaved roads.
Some resources may be gained by reorienting road investment
priorities from new construction to maintenance. In foreign aid, such
a refocusing has already taken place, with few new savings to be
made. 2 Finally, more resources could be generated from new local
taxes and road user charges. Yet given the highly inefficient
collection of local taxes in developing countries, local levies for road
maintenance will only work if they are also expended in highly
decentralized form at the local level.
My thesis investigates a trend held as highly promising in the
international road maintenance literature: the organization of
contracted manual labor, which reduces the road maintenance
foreign exchange requirements of mechanization and technical
assistance. Reliance on manual road maintenance is as old as human
civilization, but it is a new and uncertain challenge for many
developing country road administrations. While densely populated
countries with dynamic private sectors such as Pakistan and
Bangladesh have shown considerable success with contracted manual
road maintenance, it has has rarely been implemented successfully in
sub-Saharan Africa.
Sub-Saharan road maintenance research by government and
donors is now particularly pressing and intense in Zaire. My
involvement in road contracting research last summer gives me a
personal view of Zairean road maintenance. I reject private sector
contracting managed by national or regional road administrations as
a systematic approach to rural road maintenance. I advocate instead
self-initiated and implemented road maintenance at the local level,
with no external rehabilitation or maintenance contracts or other
subsidies. Unlike some consultant reports which assume that well
maintained roads will automatically lead to their increased use, I
seriously consider the rural withdrawal from the national economy
which has already substantially taken place in Zaire. I believe that
my approach is also appropriate to many other declining sub-Saharan
African economies with scattered populations, weak private sectors,
minimal communications, financial instability, limited access to
foreign technology and technical assistance, and low public sector
discipline and morale.
I differentiate the "local" model from currently implemented
systems of manual, mechanized, contracted and in-house maintenance
in Zaire and the assumptions of orderly operation behind them. I
argue that only policies successfully encouraging local initiative may
forestall the abandonment of much of the rural network and provide
a cost-effective and sustainable framework for prolonging the use of
ZaYre's rural roads.
Chapter 1 of my thesis presents Zaire's road maintenance
logistics, actors, institutions, and basic constraints to current
effective road maintenance. Contrary to most road maintenance
literature, I rely on a political economy more than an engineering
perspective, in recognition of the fact that engineering decisions play
only a minor role in the efficiency of road maintenance in ZaYre. I
focus on the historical context of Zairean road maintenance in order
to ground the current road maintenance crisis in terms not only of
organizational failures, but of profound socio-economic change.
Zaire's large donors, most notably the World Bank and
USAID, currently assume that the development of private sector
contracting provides the best hope for improved road maintenance in
Zaire. Chapter 2 provides an analysis of the performance record and
potential of Zairean contracted manual maintenance. I explore why
government support for contracted maintenance is strong, even
though its development requires a severe whittling of established
government maintenance services. Based largely on data which I
collected in the summer of 1989, I survey contractor characteristics
and experience, and elucidate the complex motives in their
expressions of interest.
Chapter 3 provides an alternative to contracted maintenance
which focuses on policy changes that tie road user benefits to road
maintenance costs at the local level. The "local" model which I put
forward takes financial distortions out of road maintenance
motivations by ending national and international subsidies. Instead, it
employs national and regional policy to promote an environment
where minimal maintenance is more likely to be done spontaneously
or through local agreement by the road users who need it most. A
key argument for this approach is the cost-ineffectiveness of road
rehabilitation because of very low rural traffic level levels.
An unorganized form of the local model is already in effect, as
local institutions adjust to the paralysis of nationally administered
maintenance. Some rural organizations also continue the tradition of
maintenance self-initiatve developed before ZaYrean independence in
1960. I argue that national and regional policies encouraging such
local efforts provide the most likely sustainable solution for Zairean
rural transport in a time of continued economic decline.
The theoretical importance of my thesis is threefold. First, it
contributes to the developing countries' debate over the best
institutional approaches to road maintenance. All too often, road
maintenance approaches are seen as a simple choice between
government force account and privately contracted road
maintenance, without considering the removal of government
subsidies while encouraging less damaging road use. Second, I
explore the hidden costs and benefits of contracted manual road
maintenance and clarify its Zairean limits. Finally, I emphasize the
political economy of cheap road maintenance availability and
feasibility over the engineer's calculation of road use and roughness
as the central elements of constrained rural road maintenance
planning. My model uses a logical framework in which local supply
and willingness to bear the maintenance cost is itself the indicator of
local demand, and ultimately, of road maintenance levels and
priority.
Zaire's international donors are actively searching for new
approaches and ideas, without being convinced that their favored
approaches promoting privatization, contracting and manual
technology will succeed. On the practical level, I hope that the
information in my thesis will be useful to the Zairean government
and to donors financing road maintenance in Zaire. In particular, I
will present in quantitative, qualitative and graphical form
considerable evidence underscoring the unsustainability of current
approaches. My data can be adopted not only in support of my
model, but also for the planning of ongoing reform efforts.
I completed the primary research for this thesis as an intern at
USAID Zaire's Project Design and Operations office (PDO) in the
summer of 1989. At that time I compiled on disk and analyzed 280
answered questionnaires from organizations interested in maintaining
roads (both mechanically and manually) in the Bandundu and Shaba
regions of Zaire. The questionnaires were originally distributed by
PDO in October 1988. During six frenetic weeks in Bandundu and
Shaba and six weeks in Kinshasa, I interviewed 110 of the
responding organizations and made many contacts with government
officials responsible for road maintenance . Annex I includes a
description and compilation of much of the data supporting my
thesis, along with my list of interviews. Annex II provides maps and
traffic counts for Zaire which confirm the low levels of Zairean
traffic levels. These low levels lie at the heart of an understanding of
why the local model can succeed in Zaire, while a private contractor
model cannot.
CHAPTER 1, The Zairean context
The magnitude of Zaire's logistic, climatic, financial and
institutional challenges to regular rural road maintenance underlies
the failure of all combinations of manual, mechanized, contracted
and force account road maintenance approaches in the last thirty
years. Zaire is a vast, sparsely populated river basin imposing
immense logistical challenges to its people (see Map 1 in Annex II).
Tropical forest covers almost half of Zaire's land mass of 2.3 million
Km 2 (about one quarter the size of the United States). The country is
essentially land-locked, with a mere 30 km of Atlantic coastline. Its
greatest natural resource, copper, must travel more than a month by
road, rail and barge from the opposite end of the country to Zaire's
only port.
Zaire's population of 33 million is widely dispersed, providing
an overall density of only 14 inhabitants per Km2. Much of this
population is isolated in remote areas of the country, such as the
copper mining centers of Shaba in the southeast. Sparseness of
population, combined with one of the world's lowest per capita
GNPs ($150 in 1987), assures that traffic volumes and the
economies of scale of infrastructure are low, and that therefore
transport is expensive.
Aggregate transportation flows have remained constant at 1.3
passenger-kilometers and 0.6 ton-kilometers a day per capita despite
Zaire's GNP decline of 2.2% per year since 1965.3 This constancy is
misleading, however, as transportation flows have shifted
dramatically in the past twenty-five years because of a massive
withdrawal of vehicles from rural areas, rapid growth of urban
traffic, and the development of air travel and cargo.
The primary link in Zaire's transportation network is the
Zaire river and its tributaries, navigable over 15,000 km. 5,000 km
of railways bridge the impassable stretches of the waterway and
connect out to the the major mining areas in south Shaba. Feeding
into the river and railway network are 145,000 km of roads,
classified into five categories with the following characteristics:
Table 1. Total Extra-Urban Inventoried Road Network
Road Classification
National Paved Roads
National Unpaved Roads
Regional Priority Roads
Regional Secondary Roads
Local Interest Roads
Km
2800
17900
20200
17100
87000
ADT 4
293
19
3
2
0.25
One might expect the paved network to be given priority for
maintenance, because of its far greater traffic flows and strategic
nature. A 1984 World Bank survey of developing countries,
however, considered only 17% of ZaYre's paved roads in good
condition, while 20% were fair (needing resurfacing) and 63% were
poor (needing reconstruction). Unpaved roads fared better in the
survey, with 61% in good, 25% in fair, and only 14% in poor
condition. 5 I will explain the maintenance favoritism shown to less
used roads in Chapter 3. For the moment, it is important to
emphasize that economic and institutional blows have drastically
accelerated deterioration on all roads since 1984. Having logged
more than 4,000 Km in 1989 dry season (best-case) conditions, I can
testify that the current quality of most ZaYrean roads is dismal.
There was a time, now considerably enhanced in myth, when
virtually all roads were well maintained. Some Belgian road
inspectors (so the story goes) would judge road quality by placing a
glass of water on the roof of their car and checking it for spills.
While the current Zairean road administration cannot adequately
maintain the 10,000 Km. it limits itself to, the colonial government is
generally recognized to have assured good maintenance of over
136,000 Km of roads. 6 . This astonishing achievement is often
viewed merely as a historical testament to the extent of colonial
exploitation. Yet the success of colonial road maintenance must be
well understood before considering how to administer the immense
network which the Belgians left in legacy.
Figure 1. Zaire's Vehicle Fleet, 1930-1986
80000
70000
60000.
0
0
X
4
Cars
Jeeps/Pickups
Trucks
Motorcycles
Buses
.+
A Tractors
.
Trailers
50000
.
40000.
30000
20000
o
10000,
Other
0 --10000,
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
The above graph shows that the Belgians had to reckon with
approximately as many vehicles before independence in 1960 as are
left today, after several economic collapses.7 While truck use (the
crucial element in road deterioration) appears to have declined, its
impact has drastically increased. The first vehicles exceeding an eight
ton total capacity were not imported into Zaire until the early 1960s.
By 1984, only 21% of trucks had a carrying capacity of less than 5
tons. 52% had a carrying capacity of eight tons or more. 8
Furthermore, it is now extremely common load trucks well beyond
their specified capacity limits. Road use is virtually unregulated and
drivers are paid mostly by what they can transport above and beyond
their instructed cargos. Larger trucks, when affordable, are
increasingly favored, because they can handled deteriorated roads
better.
Driving practices have become far more damaging partly
because Zaire's constituency for effective rural road maintenance has
fallen drastically in size and power. The following graph shows how
vehicles have been largely withdrawn from rural areas to the capital
Kinshasa, as firms and people pull out of a rural economy reduced to
only a small fraction of its 1950's strength.9
Figure 2. Distribution of Vehicles by Region, 1959-1984
100
90 -ishasa
80 -
Shaba
70 -
Haut-Zaire
60Bas-Zaire
50 -
Equateur
40 30 -ivu
20-
10- Bandundu
Kasai-Occidental
rr-
CoKasai-Oriental
Although some colonial roads have disappeared, the rural road
network is now greatly overbuilt in proportion to the traffic and
maintenance resources of the shrunken rural economy. Average
daily traffic is only 63 vehicles per day for national roads, and three
vehicles per day or less for the regional network (see Table II.A in
Annex II). There are no recent estimates for local interest roads, but
these most likely fall well short of one vehicle per week on average.
Low traffic flows provide sparse support for road
maintenance in a tropical environment where violent rains and
prolific vegetation keep the fixed costs of road maintenance high.
Furthermore, the economic shocks of the past thirty years and the
rise and competition of smallholder agriculture have left
comparatively few influential large companies capable of controlling
cheap labor and of providing rural road maintenance costeffectively. I very much doubt that the Belgians could succeed in
maintaining roads effectively today. Indeed, the large number of
expatriate advisors working on the problem have had no costeffective results.
The success of colonial road maintenance is largely explained
by a different historical context, but it is also worth stressing how
much concern and policy commitment was given to it by
government. The Belgian crown recognized that its authority and
resources in Congo drew directly from its massive investments in the
expansion and maintenance of the colony's roads. Since the 1880's,
mobility was consistently one of the Territorial Administration's
highest priorities, and there is abundant empirical evidence to show
that by the 1950's one could drive a Volkswagen Beetle through most
of Zaire. Driving 2750 Km across the country from Matadi (the
western port) to Lubumbashi (the eastern copper capital) by car
would take four days, whereas now it can be done only by heavy
truck and takes at least 17 days.
A key strategy of the Belgian crown was to build and maintain
colonial roads through large investment firms to which it granted
land concessions or economic monopolies. The private sector
developed local road networks or strategic links in close relation to
their financial return. Since rural vehicles belonged overwhelmingly
to large firms, and a single investment company would dominate
road use in any given rural area, it was deemed obvious that large
firms should be responsible for "their" roads, at no cost to the
government.
For major roads used by multiple firms or small roads with no
dominant private sector sponsor, the Administration assigned road
maintenance responsibilities to its smallest administrative units, the
"Chefferies" (now "Collectivit6s"). The chefferies passed on road
maintenance implementation to villages chiefs who supervised
foremen ("capitas") and manual laborers ("cantonniers"). At each
level in the road maintenance hierarchy, the chief, capita or
cantonnier could be severely punished or greatly rewarded according
to the quality of his work during frequent inspections. While fear
and forced labor dominated the early colonial experience, significant
monetary incentives to labor mobilization became standard after
World War II.
Despite the limitations of entirely manual technology, road
maintenance remained excellent for three essential reasons:
cantonniers were paid well, they were paid regularly, and they were
not allowed to leave. The Administration strictly controlled
agricultural markets and urban migration, so manual road
maintenance was one of the few remunerative opportunities for most
villagers. Given government employee status, steady salaries, and
benefits, cantonnier work was popular.
The essential counterpart of the colonial administration's
success in repairing roads was its emphasis on prevention. The
colonial government was able to enforce stringent regulations against
damaging road use. In particular, the Administration prohibited the
import of road vehicles with over 2.5 ton axle-loads,'0 used
weighing stations to monitor overloading strictly, kept speed limits
low, and patrolled rain barriers to interdict road use during or
shortly after heavy rains (when the road foundation is the weakest).
Virtually no natives could afford or were allowed to have cars,
further limiting road damage.
After independence, roads began to deteriorate rapidly as
rural administrative systems unravelled, several regions declared
independence, and expatriate leadership fled. In particular, the most
prosperous regions of Bandundu and Shaba suffered repeated civil
and economic shocks. In Bandundu, colonial infrastructure was
largely destroyed by the Mulelist Rebellion (1964), whereas in
Shaba, repeated invasions in the 1960's and 1970's by the Gendarmes
Katangais disrupted the supply of ZaYre's copper lifeline.
ZaYreanization measures in 1972-73 produced a second downfall of
the rural economy as expatriate-owned plantations and commercial
enterprises were handed over to inexperienced nationals. Despite
"retrocession" of many rural enterprises, the rural economy
collapsed in scale, stability, and capacity to support rural road
maintenance.
With heavy support from the World Bank, the government of
Zaire (GOZ) created a road maintenance parastatal in 1971 to
replace the Ministry of Public Work's Roads Administration,
considered highly inefficient with its 40,000 salaried cantonniers.
Office des Routes (OR) aimed at primarily mechanical road
maintenance with in-house production units (called unit6s de
productionor UPs). Only new capital-intensive equipment could
counter the impacts of heavier trucks, uncertain cantonnier salaries,
and the liberalization of small-scale agriculture on the effectiveness
of manual road maintenance. OR did not replenish its stock of aging
colonial cantonniers, and their numbers and strength gradually
declined. Many cantonniers who had been living in special cantonnier
villages along uninhabited road links migrated away.
OR faced major management problems with its large number
of force account (in-house) operators and machinery. Under World
Bank prompting, OR turned over most national and regional road
maintenance responsibilities to private sector contractors, whose
politicized selection often encouraged poor or unimplemented
maintenance. For local interest roads, cantonniers were selected and
supervised by the collectivities, and controlled and paid by the
nearest OR UP. As the UPs were often too distant or too busy with
mechanized work for effective administration, maintenance of local
interest roads was ceded entirely to the Governors (Regions) with the
collectivit6s as implementing agents. The collectivities experienced
great difficulties managing and motivating their cantonniers, as they
lacked the resources, stability and authority of strong government to
back them.
Faced with extreme road deterioration, most rural enterprises
pulled out of remote areas, although some continued to maintain
rural roads crucial to them on their own account. Religious missions
in particular continued to play a key role in maintaining remote road
links. Yet further rural economic shocks, such as the demonetization
in 1980 which wiped out most of rural peoples' savings, withdrew
from the rural private sector its ability to finance a major portion of
the country's road maintenance needs. As rural economic conditions
worsened in the 1980's, systematic self-maintenance of roads also
continued to decline. While the feeder road network is mostly
undocumented, many colonial roads are known to be lost.
From 1981 on, the national Agriculture and Rural
Development Department became increasingly involved in the
maintenance of local interest roads. Funds were disbursed for
Governors, and equipment was given to the collectivities to be
distributed to their road workers. As the Agriculture and Rural
Development Department lacked financial, logistic and technical
capacity, significant activity did not begin for five years.
Following a division of the Agriculture and Rural
Development Department in 1986, the Rural Development
Department was given overall management of local interest roads,
now known (and economically justified) as "agricultural feeder
roads." With World Bank assistance, the Department created the
Service National des Routes de Desserte Agricole (SNRDA) in early
1987. SNRDA was structured from the beginning to contract out all
maintenance work with contractors and suffered the same problems
of political selection of contractors as OR. In a major effort at
decentralization, SNRDA relinquished most of its authority over
road link maintenance contract selection to regional government in
1989.
OR now has 8,000 employees, a large equipment fleet
including about 550 civil work units and 800 trucks, 27 UPs, and
headquarters in each of the country's nine regions. Aside from donor
funding, its resources depend almost entirely on an earmark of the
national fuel tax, which was greatly reduced by high inflation in the
1980's. Although earmarked government revenue has increased by
making the fuels tax an ad valorem import tariff rather than a fixed
retail tax, budgeted funding has been largely withheld from OR.
Financial crisis since 1987 has forced the suspension of virtually all
contracted work, and made meaningless all maintenance work
programs.1 1
Table 2. 1989 OR and SNRDA Budgets Disbursed by GOZ
Road Classification
National Paved Roads
National Unpaved Roads
Regional Priority Roads
Regional Secondary Roads
Local Interest Roads
Km
ADT
OR/SNRDA Cost
2800
17900
20200
17100
87000
293
19
3
2
0.25
$80,000
$742,000
$515,000
$80,000
$293,000
Without multi-million dollar infusions of donor support, there
would have been virtually no maintenance implemented in the past
three years at all. Funding actually received from the GOZ by OR
and SNRDA has been extremely sparse - $1.9 million for OR and
$292,500 for SNRDA in 1989. This has not even been enough to
cover fixed costs, let alone perform maintenance. For example, OR
debts to contractors and suppliers currently total $15 million.12
Graphing the percent relationships in Table 2 highlights the
confused relationships between length of road, level of traffic and
national government expenditure. Much of the distortion stems from
matching funds to donor commitments (not includes in Figure 3),
while donor projects currently favor the lowest volume roads.
Zaire's paved roads, where maintenance would have a much higher
return (as well as strategic interest), are literally turning to rubble
waiting for new foreign projects to come on line.
Figure 3. Road Length, Traffic and GOZ Maintenance Expenditure
Local Interest Roads
Regional Secondary Roads
Regional Priority Roads
National Unpaved Roads
National Paved Roads
......
...
0
0.1
Km
0.2
0.3
[
0.4
ADT
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
OR/SNRDA Cost
1
National Zairean road maintenance policy is not only
financially but also strategically bankrupt. Zairean road maintenance
has come to a virtual standstill, not only because of financial crisis,
but also because all of the approaches tried in the past thirty years
have failed to prove sustainable and cost-effective.
Current plans for the reform and relaunching of OR and
SNRDA all focus on developing contractor work, although
systematic dependence on private sector contracting had no place in
colonial road maintenance success and has generally failed where
applied since in Zaire. Spurred by the World Bank, the Zairean
government approved in December 1989 a plan to privatize much of
OR. Personnel would be cut from 7500 to 5800 by March 1990 (I
have no indication that this has taken place), and eventually to 2000.
Equipment would be leased to private operators under contract who
would then sell their services back to OR. The purpose of the plan is
"a new management system whose objective is the elimination of
most of the maintenance done by [OR's] force account works and all
its equipment management in favor of maintenance contracting."13
Given that the general quality of most contractor work until now has
ranged between disastrous and poor (as shown in the following
Chapter), are such plans for drastic privatization reasonable or just
an act of desperation?
Figure 4 on the following page shows the current institutional
organization of rural road maintenance in Zaire. For lack of space,
the flowchart does not include the upper echelon of ZaYrean
government administration, which consists of the all-powerful
President Mobutu and his Executive Council. Mobutu wields great
personal influence in the distribution of his country's revenues and
has fired several directors of OR in the past four years. GOZ
underfunding of the national road maintenance administration is
therefore partially a reflection of presidential disfavor to its
administrators. Although it is hard to read Mobutu's intentions, it is
my impression that Mobutu has furthermore intentionally allowed
OR's financial crisis to worsen as a policy weapon for major reform.
Three essential points about the diagram of the current
maintenance model should be noted at this point. The first is that
road user charges (primarily the fuel tax) pass from the road user to
the oil companies and the national customs office all the way up to
the highest levels of government. The benefits which trickle back
down to the user are unsurprisingly small. The second point is that
OR, SNRDA, and Territorial Administration have parallel but
independent top-down hierarchies. Some consultative links between
the hierarchies are only now beginning to develop. The third point is
that road users have no say in either the implementation of OR force
account (in-house) road rehabilitation and maintenance, or the
selection and supervision of road contractors. These inefficiencies
make up the core of the current system.
The contractor model now envisioned by foreign donors
would decentralize OR and SNRDA at the regional level, and
increase the influence of regional government on contractor selection
and supervision. Foreign aid would be retargeted to the regional
level, but would not have significant policy implications for
subregional (zone and collectivit6) government. Donors would
continue to subsidize government road rehabilitation or maintenance,
whether OR, SNRDA, or regional government manage the contracts.
Chapter 2 investigates the powerful institutional interests
which predetermine the direction of road maintenance reform and
considers why contractors in general will not provide cost-effective
maintenance. I overview the road maintenance biases of government,
farmers, merchants, missionaries and large engineering firms, and
analyze the interests, experience and capabilities of actual
contractors. I then show how these biases and constraints cause the
breakdown of the current system. This overview provides the
necessary preparation for the alternative model which I present in
Chapter 3.
Department of
Finance
Territorial
Administration
Department of
Transportation
Department of Plan
OFIDA
I National OR
(National SNRDAI
Department of Rural
Development
CHAPTER 2, The Contracting System
Through the resources they channel, road maintenance
contracts have enriched both effective and ineffective contractors.
Road maintenance contractors, however, do not themselves provide a
politically significant constituency advocating the development of the
road maintenance contracting system. The political economy
contracting depends less on the profit motive than on public and
private concern for institutional empowerment and survival. For
example, OR and SNRDA are critically dependent on the promotion
of private sector contracting for their expansion and operating
budgets. The Territorial Administration also has a major interest in
gaining influence by developing its role in the contracting system.
Not least, private sector institutions have a stake both as the primary
road users and as contractors.
The transport sector is one of the main recipients of external
aid in Zaire. Since 1972, the foreign exchange costs of nearly all
investments in roads, railways, ports and river transport have been
financed through official development assistance (ODA), generally
led or inspired by World Bank initiatives and policy. Through 1984,
OR received more than $350 million from donors, of which $160
million financed the construction of roads, bridges and ferries while
$190 million supported maintenance and rehabilitation." Exterior
financing of roads from the present to 1992 is estimated at
approximately $435 million. Large credits and grants are currently
under development for national river and rail transport
improvements, and the final total donor investment spanning two
decades may easily approach two billion dollars.15
Virtually all new road maintenance donor initiatives focus on
contracting maintenance, conscientiously integrated under World
Bank inspiration and leadership. Given their dependence on foreign
funding, is wholly unsurprising that Zairean government institutions
concerned with road maintenance also think the same way. The
following paragraphs detail their particular perspectives on the
contracting system, to be contrasted immediately following by the
particular perspectives of private sector groups.
Government Interest
1. OR
An acute budget crisis impels OR to reduce its direct
responsibilities, and externally financed privatization of maintenance
is the obvious, externally mandated option. Foreign donors such as
the World Bank and USAID are some of OR's few allies powerful
enough to recover its fuel tax revenue base from the central
government - or to underwrite OR's survival. Devastated by
prolonged nonpayment of the tax and mistrusted for its inefficiency
by the government, the OR is compelled to follow expatriate
policies, even if these reforms recommend the partial dismantling of
its in-house maintenance work and a major pruning of its work
force.
OR is comfortable and experienced with private sector
relations, but until now has had some flexibility to choose when and
when not to engage in them. For road links where no competent
contractors are available, or the private sector price demanded is
thought unreasonable, OR would prefer to perform the maintenance
itself.
OR has had some success in the past with a system of manual
maintenance where cantonniers are provided by Chefs de
Collectivites, but supervised and paid directly by local OR engineers.
Some OR cadres say that OR provided better supervision and
technical support than most contractors, since it passed frequently on
the roads, had superior technical skills, and could provide
mechanized assistance when necessary. Yet many also argue that the
administrative costs, both financially and through its taxing of OR
personnel, made continual maintenance unsustainable. Overall, there
is a general consensus in OR that it should have the resources to
20
manage maintenance directly along road links where qualified
contractors cannot be found.
2. SNRDA
With only two or three cadres in every region, SNRDA
depends wholly on contractors to maintain its network of feeder
roads. It also depends on regional government to propose contractors
on the subregional (zone) level and them through a regional
commission (RRC) led by the region's Governor. Most importantly,
SNRDA relies on OR to perform direct supervision of SNRDA
contractors through OR road engineers assigned to each of a region's
zones.
Given the enormous size and relatively non-strategic nature of
the feeder road network, SNRDA is comfortable with the policy of
maintaining roads only where it can find competent contractors. This
allows SNRDA a different type of flexibility from OR's: not the
alternative of in-house maintenance, but a de facto mandate to leave
many of its road links unmaintained.
Like OR, SNRDA is tempered in its enthusiasm for new
contractors by the knowledge that current funds do not provide for
adequate supervision. SNRDA is additionally vulnerable through its
dependence on OR and Territorial resources. SNRDA is clearly
counting on planned World Bank assistance for its effective
expansion into new rural areas.
3. The Territorial Administration
Governors have many strategic, economic and political reasons
to encourage road maintenance, and have often used regional
discretionary funds to do so. Governors' interest in road
maintenance has become particularly evident since the official
decentralization of SNRDA contractor selection to the regional level
in early 1989. Regional government does not believe that the national
SNRDA was effective in selecting contractors, and has gained
increased authority from SNRDA's yielding of decision-making.
Regional government is now anxious to expand private sector road
maintenance, still using national and international funds, but
disbursing them under regional control.
Zone government also favors an expansion of the contracting
system, particularly if it has a say in proposing contractors. Zone
government recognizes the economic impact of externally funded
road maintenance contracts and is anxious that these be distributed in
terms it deems equitable.
Since independence, significant levels of road maintenance
have continued under the auspices of collectivit6 government. A
major limitation of this public system is that it depends on
"voluntary" work (salongo) and highly inefficient taxation of meager
local resources. Considering local government's long history of
direct involvement, it is surprisingly soft spoken about delegating
road maintenance to private individuals. An explanation is that many
local government officials themselves apply to be contractors, either
in their own name or in the name of their government group. Local
government is therefore favorable to the expansion of the
contracting system using individuals associated with it or somewhat
under its control.
Zairean government support for the contracting system is
practical (need for funding and influence) rather than philosophical
(perception of logical institutional roles). Private sector support for
the contracting system is also based on fragmented practical and
personal interests rather than any systematic logic.
Private Sector Interest
The Zairean private sector has suffered immensely from the
lack of road maintenance and resulting lost vehicles, markets and
revenues. From a general point of view, the private sector has an
enormous stake in demanding major, systematic road maintenance
improvement.
The particular perspective of each individual private sector
organization is more complex. Individual calls for private sector
road maintenance reflect considerable interplay of public and private
interests.
Road transport is largely unregulated, and the number of
private operators is increasing. Unlike rail, which is monopolized by
the Societd Nationale des Chemins de Fer ZaYrois (SNCZ), and river
transport, two-thirds of which is operated by the Office National des
Transports (ONATRA), there is no parastatal dominating road
transportation. In 1985 Zaire had about 700 firms with ten or more
trucks each and and an estimated 2,500 small operators with about
one or two vehicles employing approximately 27,000 people.16
Competition is keenest around Matadi, the ocean port, and
around Kinshasa, the capital 130 km away. In most of the country,
road transport is tightly constrained by the shortage and the expense
of fuel, as well as the quality of both paved and unpaved roads.
In such an unregulated, cost-sensitive market, road
maintenance should improve the flow of information and goods,
directly benefitting farmers by stimulating competition between
buyers. Well maintained roads generate both higher farmgate prices
and a more favorable exchange in manufactured goods (although
their terms of trade have fallen drastically with the devaluation of
the Zairean currency). Several farmers told me that they worked
very hard to improve road access to their field, but not so much that
truckers would be tempted to push further on in search of cheaper
produce. Farmers on well maintained roads do not want more
remote roads to be improved. They correctly fear that some of their
competing merchants will drift away in search of lower prices.
In contrast to the agro-industry dominating rural road use in
the colonial period, modem rural trade does not incorporate a
systematic logic of self-interested road maintenance. River and road
transport has declined in conjunction with the deterioration of the
roads, so road users have largely been able to pass on higher
operating costs to consumers. Road use patterns have shifted to the
detriment of rural operators dependent on a single agricultural
production area and in favor of urban traders with the flexibility to
trade where they choose.
23
Most agricultural produce is collected for Zaire's major urban
areas by urban traders with few rural loyalties or commitments.
Worsening terms of trade and cash flow have made new vehicles and
spare parts increasingly unaffordable, so as existing vehicles age and
break down (a process accelerated by deteriorating road conditions),
rural organizations are left unmotorized, or to prolong the life of
their surviving vehicles by retrenching them to Kinshasa or
Lubumbashi. 77% of Zaire's trucks are now based and in most cases
operates entirely in the Kinshasa metropolitan area. Another 4%
belongs to the national mining company, GECAMINES. This leaves
only about 19% operating in the rest of the country (including the
large Shaban city of Lubumbashi).17
My interviews suggest that organizations are continuing to
disinvest in both Bandundu and Shaba rural areas, and that their
logistical capacity for road maintenance will continue to decline.
Furthermore, the decline of perennial crops (palm fruit and manioc)
relative to seasonal crops (maize, cotton and coffee) has reduced
traders' commitment to rural roads not only geographically but in
time. Many rural roads now only see motor traffic for two or three
weeks a year.
The current pattern of rapid trading forays into rural areas
implies that trucks will collect produce only where they think the
roads are best, and sometimes have an interest in leaving damaged
roads behind them for their competitors. A merchant has
considerable flexibility to choose where he will leave the ORmaintained primary road network to collect produce on agricultural
feeder roads. Rural market areas with poorly maintained roads offer
the highest margins, due to the isolation of the local population and
their scarcity of buyers. Yet merchant operating costs and time
delays increase with road roughness and distance. Most importantly,
a merchant must factor in the greater likelihood of breaking down
on poorly maintained roads, and if so, the greater difficulty of
finding help. Because of the costs in vehicle replacement - a recent
study shows the average age of Bandundu trucks to be thirteen18 market strategy generally favors less deteriorated roads, although
24
not by as much as a long term concern for vehicle wear might
recommend.
Merchants take advantage of their mobility to avoid heavily
deteriorated roads. They rarely are under compulsion to pay for
road maintenance themselves. Merchants would often rather not
make the profitable roads they use more attractive to competitors.
Unless awarded government contracts, most merchants will perform
virtually no road maintenance short of emergency repairs by truck
crews just to get through.
While it is very rare for rural organizations to refuse road
improvements, many do find themselves in the paradoxical position
of wanting to improve a road for themselves, but not for others.
This was well explained to me by a powerful merchant in Kongolo
(north Shaba) who habitually repairs bridges at his own expense, and
then breaks them after his vehicles pass. Some of the demand for
improved road maintenance retains a preference that the
improvements do not induce new traffic, and thereby additional
competition and road damage. A merchant with a comparative
advantage in quality of vehicles and repair facilities may not wish
that certain road links be improved, because increased accessibility
would increase his competition more than it would reduce his
operating costs.
Do rural organizations not driven by the profit motive show
greater commitment to maintaining specific road links? Missions
have a particularly long and illustrious history of providing road
maintenance in Zaire. Unfortunately, their reputation for
effectiveness is receding in most areas as experienced missionaries
have retired and financial pressures have increased.
I found most missions in Bandundu and Shaba currently to
perform at their own expense a bare minimum of maintenance
essential to keeping their supply lines open. The most capable
missions seemed the most wary of taking on extensive additional
road work, considering such responsibilities merely a practical
necessity for which religious orders should not be logically
responsible.
25
Like church groups, PVOs are particularly sensitive to
irregular government contract payments. They greatly fear being
accused by the local population of pocketing road maintenance
money. Many consequently prefer funding a minimum, but regular
level of maintenance themselves.
Large agribusinesses dominating road use in a specific area
seem to have the best logic for maintaining the roads they use. These
firms must depend on themselves to cover the vast networks they live
on. Major agribusinesses often employ over a hundred cantonniers,
to which they provide significant light mechanical assistance (such as
transport to difficult crossings). I found that these few remaining
large rural enterprises may spend up to fifteen percent of their local
operating budget on road maintenance. Cantonniers are well
supervised and paid. Like other permanent employees, the company
provides them with medical care, school aid and pensions. Merchants
and villagers benefit greatly from agribusiness road maintenance.
Only directly competing companies might have difficulty using
public roads predominantly financed and maintained by private
agribusinesses.
Large engineering firms are the only group that I found which
finances significant levels of mechanized rather than manual
maintenance, and then generally only under contract. Mechanized
maintenance is furthermore largely restricted to southern Shaba,
where a few large engineering firms have lucrative contracts with
GECAMINES. In a few cases, these firms express self-interest in
road maintenance.
The most famous example is that of the Swanepo8l engineering
firm in Shaba, which was willing two years ago to resurface without
charge the national Likasi to Kolwezi highway, a very costly
procedure which would nevertheless save Swanepo6l money through
reduced vehicle operating costs. (OR Shaba was unable to provide
the bitumen, however, since all purchases must be centralized in
Kinshasa, and it cannot buy more conveniently from South Africa.
The road must now be largely reconstructed.)
Swanepo6 also provides an interesting case of a mechanized
firm also opting for manual methods. With only manual workers and
26
two tractor-grader passes a year, Swanepo l spends ten times less per
kilometer to maintain a public farm road it uses frequently than it
spends to maintain contracted roads of nearly equal volume
mechanically. This suggests that considerable savings might be made
by changing the maintenance technology standards of some of the
most expensive government contracts.
Contractor Interest
Current and potential contractors have two principal interests
in the contracting system: economic benefit from improved road
maintenance and financial gain from government contracts. They
favor expansion of the contracting system both as consumers and as
producers of private sector road maintenance. OR and SNRDA
unpaved road contracts now average about $150 per Km per year,
for an average of over 80 Km. Given that the value of a single
kilometer of contracted road maintenance is more than eight times
rural annual per capita income, most contractors profit far more
from the cash value of their contract than from the reduced
operating cost of their vehicles which might be gained through
contracted road maintenance.
One significant contractor advantage cannot easily be defined
monetarily. A government road maintenance contract is always, if
not a financial boost to the contractor, at least a subsidized
opportunity to cultivate commercial and other links with the local
population. If a powerful entrepreneur or politician wins a road
maintenance contract, he is in a privileged position to develop the
loyalties of the roadside population to future advantage. For
example, a farmer dependent on a maintenance contracting
merchant for his cantonnier salary is also more likely to sell his
crops to the same organization. In a competitive environment,
maintenance contracts, like any other infusion of outside resources,
may weigh on the local balance of power.
I found only one out of the 180 contractors whom I
interviewed last summer that kept a separate budget for road
maintenance. My overall impression, buttressed by a few cases of
27
careful cross-questioning, is that contractors in a narrow majority of
cases spend approximately as much on road maintenance as they
receive in government subsidy. A handful of large firms spend
considerably more on their attributed road links than they receive
from government subsidies, and close to half of contractors make a
substantial financial profit from their contracts (this is an intuitive
guess, I have no way to prove it). It can be assumed that many
contractors, especially those whose contract exceeds their previous
annual income, might be sorely tempted to cheat.
Most frequently, profit is generated when contractors fail
(deliberately or not) to hire the requisite number of cantonniers. I
also found frequent cases of cantonniers being hired but not paid
(some contractors, like the Grand Chef Kabongo in Shaba,
occasionally have the power to coerce their cantonniers to work
without pay). Inadequate contractor supervision makes the control of
such abuses extremely difficult. Neither OR or SNRDA has ever
brought a manual maintenance contractor to court for breach of
contract.
With either honest or dishonest motives in mind, most
contractors qualify their support for expansion of the contracting
system by insisting on better terms for themselves. Virtually all
contractors argue that they can only be expected to perform
adequately if government provides regular and adequate financing.
These wishes contrast sharply with the government's current
sporadic payments.
Contractor Capacity and Performance
It is unclear how much national government and donor
financing has boosted the production of rural road maintenance from
the minimal levels that private firms or local government might
perform on their own. The above analysis suggests that both
institutional and individual interests in the contracting system are
essentially grounded in the perceived benefits of tapping into
external funding, and in the increased influence that this funding
28
provides, rather than an economic calculation of of road maintenance
economic benefits.
To hedge against high economic volatility, most Zairean
private sector firms diversify heavily (agriculture, ranching,
commerce, construction). Nonetheless, they record very little or no
analysis on the merits of specific investments such as road
maintenance. I found organizations to know very little about how
much they actually invest in road maintenance, even when they fund
their road maintenance entirely by themselves. In general, large
companies mix in road maintenance with general administrative
costs.
Small traders do not register such costs at all, as they pay for
road maintenance only on an ad hoc basis, when faced with
impassable mud or other unexpected obstacles (some villagers
deliberately encourage these "hot spots" so that they can be paid for
their help). The extent of informal maintenance is not known,
although by one account smugglers pay well and regularly for road
maintnenace in border and illegal mining areas.19
A consequence of this lack of hard data is my difficulty in
estimating how much road maintenance the private sector actually
supplies. Much private sector road maintenance is funded
independently by firms, and not registered with the government.
Even for contracted road links, the actual supply and quality of
maintenance is poorly monitored and remains largely unknown.
The USAID-OR Road Maintenance Survey which I compiled
last summer does offer some useful data on the experience,
geography, characteristics, activities, and equipment of 210 most
promising of the 280 organizations in the Bandundu and Shaba
regions completing questionnaires on their suitability for road
maintenance contracts. Annex I includes a description of the survey,
a discussion of its limitations, and a comprehensive listing of its data.
The survey underscores how economically weak and underequipped
both past and potential contractors are. It also suggests that most
contractors do not have a vital interest in effective road maintenance,
as they are not geographically or economically dependent on the
roads that they maintain.
29
One third of the organizations responding to the survey have
some road maintenance experience. About one-sixth are or once
were contractors. Including participation in large road construction
and rehabilitation projects, the road maintenance of 56% of
Bandundu and 74% of Shaba experienced organizations is
government sponsored.
A major consequence of this central funding is that contractors
often do not live in the zone where they presumably work. 17% of
experienced responding organizations in Bandundu and 14% in
Shaba do not have a representation in the area where they request
road links. This suggests that a significant minority of past or
current contractors also executed their contracts from a distance.
66% of Bandundu organizations are represented in Kinshasa, which
in most of theses cases is the senior executive's primary place of
residence and work. Approximately the same concentration holds
true for Lubumbashi, the regional capital of Shaba. A majority of
contractors are thus not permanently in their zone of action, but
shuttle back and forth between their zone of interest and the
metropolis (and in many proven cases, do not personally visit their
allotted roads all).
Uneven access to survey questionnaires explains much of
disparity in zonal response levels. A few zones, however, appear
particularly promising in terms of interest and experience. Bulungu
(36%) and Idiofa (23%) in Bandundu, along with Kongolo (19%) in
Shaba, are in fact dynamic agricultural zones with comparatively
high feeder road transport activity (one to five vehicles per day).
For both Bandundu and Shaba, missions and private voluntary
organizations represent only 10% of road maintenance experience,
perhaps because many remote organizations did not hear about the
survey.
Experienced organizations requested a median 210 Km. in
Bandundu, and a median 165 Km. in Shaba. While the lower Shaba
request may seem as more realistic, cantonnier work is inherently
more difficult in Shaba due to sparser population. Shaba's median
request may be considered just as high if local conditions are
factored in. To an extent, smaller requests are a reflection of a
30
responding organization's seriousness in understanding the
difficulties in maintaining roads. As mentioned earlier, organizations
greatly inflate their requests relative to the number of kilometers
which they could realistically maintain.
Government organizations make up 5% of survey responses in
both regions, and private voluntary organizations 13%. More public
interest organizations would undoubtedly have responded if the
language of the survey were more explicitly inclusive of local
government and PVOs. By far the largest response (79% in
Bandundu and 62% in Shaba) was from organizations involved to
some extent in agriculture. Most are agricultural buyers and sellers
on their own accounts; only 33% of organizations, both in Bandundu
and in Shaba, consider transport for hire one of their activities.
Large agribusinesses represent 14% of Bandundu's and 5% of
Shaba's experienced organizations. While the number of kilometers
requested by these firms is large, most requests are from firms
primarily active in commerce (43%). Construction companies cover
16% of Bandundu and a surprising 29% of Shaba experienced
organization requests. 9% of Bandundu firms and 21% of Shaba
firms have performed mechanized road construction. Clearly, the
major engineering houses dominate this list. A surprisingly large
percentage of voluntary organizations in both Bandundu and Shaba
(33%) have experience in bridge construction. Many organizations
also expressed a priority interest in rehabilitating water crossings
rather than an interest in general road maintenance. Water crossing
rehabilitation and other "special works" can generate government
contracts far more lucrative than the fixed rates for simple road
maintenance per kilometer.
31% of Bandundu and 24% of Shaba respondents are selfemployed. 52% and 60% respectively consider themselves
"enterprises," which may range from meaning international firms to
remaining essentially self-employed. My interviews suggest that most
road maintenance contracts have essentially been managed by
individuals as individuals.
67% of the organizations list themselves as having annual
contracts between 1,000,000 and 20,000,000 zaYres ($2,500 and
$50,000). Only 19% in Bandundu and 5%in Shaba consider
themselves "small" organizations with contracts of less that
1,000,000 zaires a year, and only 15% of Bandundu and 26% of
Shaba firms list contracts of over 20,000,000 zaires a year. The
greatest road maintenance experience lies with medium size firms,
averaging 30 employees in Bandundu and 68 in Shaba.
28% of private firms are not affiliated with the national social
security system (INSS), although affiliation is technically required
for all firms with employees. Average seniority of organization
directors is 10 years, suggesting a high preponderance of family
firms.
Perhaps the most striking result of my analysis is that only
38% of Bandundu and 52% of Shaba experienced organizations have
one or more trucks. Only 72% in Bandundu and 55% in Shaba have
a jeep, pickup, motorcycle or car for road maintenance supervision
(cars are actually no longer practical on most unpaved rural roads).
Lack of vehicles despite road maintenance experience suggests two
things: considerable levels of road maintenance have been done only
by renting motorized vehicles, and firms in general have fewer
vehicles today than they did five years ago, when more road
maintenance contracts were undertaken.
Performance and Constraints of the Contracting System
The implementation of the current road maintenance
contracting system under either OR or SNRDA is far from a simple,
predictable process. Information must pass through several cycles of
local, regional, and national hierarchy. In a country as vast as Zaire,
with limited transportation and communications, the informational
requirements of the current system are daunting. Few contractors
understand in any detail what happens to their application once they
petition for road links.
The complexity of the system's decision-making is grounded in
regulatory checks by hierarchical superiors. Unfortunately,
information moves so slowly that planned checks and balances do not
engage in time to be effective. While donors have been most critical
of clearly overcentralized planning at the top of the system (in
concordance with their vantage point), the critical breakdown has
been in organization in the field, as underscored by the following
overview.
1. Programming
In principle, OR feels that it is most cost effective for all of its
strategic network to be maintained, as neglect of basic maintenance
dramatically raises the cost of future rehabilitation. Therefore, OR
has written into its work plan the intention to maintain most of its
roads. Unfortunately, OR has never had the resources to meet this
goal. The Office has consequently been caught in a web of limited,
expensive road rehabilitation.
OR budgets are approved by President Mobutu's Executive
Counsel, but actual released funds are generally far lower than the
approved allocations. OR's recent financial crisis has been prolonged
and profound, and work plans have become superfluous as
earmarked funds fail to arrive. In many instances, OR is still waiting
to fulfill its programming of three years ago, as proves its ancient
list of contractors.
SNRDA's work program is no longer generated on the
national level, but it is still determined through politics.
Prioritization decisions are concluded in the Regional Road
Commission, led by OR and SNRDA and including the Governor and
local representatives of the national business association (ANEZA).
Rural road link maintenance appears to be decided more in the
interest of linking the government's administrative centers than on
strictly economic grounds (however, political and economic
objectives may frequently match). Although SNRDA must sign road
work specifications, the Governor, as chair of the Commission,
generally has the final say.
Specification of a contractor's program is often inadequate.
Officially, OR road engineers must detail the state of attributed road
links before a contract begins. This record is essential to judge an
contractor's progress correctly. Yet such supervision is impossible.
33
Out of the country's 144 zones, only 84 have zone road engineers.
60% of Bandundu and 50% of Shaba zones have engineers, of which
only 13% and 18% respectively have engineers with functioning
vehicles.
2. Selection of Contractors
The selection of contractors is inherently political, as there are
no firm standards for their selection. In the current contracting
system's origins, Office des Routes intended to offer some legislators
a stake in building OR's budget and constituency through road
maintenance contracts. Hence, the first contractors were mostly
Commissaires du Peuple (who vote in the national legislative council)
and other highly placed politicians. This strategy to build OR's
political support was a disastrous failure, as the absence of results in
the field cost OR much of its existing support from the Conseil
Executif, where the real power lies.
For SNRDA, life also began with the obligation to dispense
from Kinshasa hundreds of contracts for road links it had no means
to investigate. The weak organization was overwhelmed in the
process, and early contractor selections were close to totally
ineffective. In the past year, selection has been decentralized from
the national to the regional level. The system currently operates as
follows:
The Regional Road Commission (RRC) draws up its
recommendations for priority road maintenance. Upon approval, the
list is distributed to the zone level, where the Commissaire de Zone,
ANEZA (national business organization) representative, OR Zone
road engineer and other interested parties investigate the road links
and propose potential contractors. Local government is invited by
the zone leaders to comment. Upon agreement of amendments,
ultimately decided by the Zone Commissioner, the priority road list
with proposed contractors is sent back to the RRC. Individuals who
felt circumvented by the zone level decision process can petition
directly to the RRC. Upon reception of all the zones'
recommendations, the Regional Commission, led by the Governor,
redrafts the list.
The following principles of contractor selection seem to be
agreed upon by virtually all officials we interviewed: contractors
should have a strong local interest, local representation, and at least
one small vehicle capable of road work supervision. Also,
contractors should not be given more kilometers than they can
adequately handle (about 100 Km per supervision vehicle). Finally,
contractors with a good existing track record with OR and SNRDA
should be preferred. Contractors with a bad track record should be
excluded.
Unfortunately, many poor judgments are still made, even with
the best intentions. SNRDA simply does not have the personnel and
vehicles to identify potential alternative contractors on location. I
found several contracts in Bandundu and Shaba which had been given
to "untouchable" politicians. Most of these distant individuals were
collecting their payments without ever personally inspecting their
work. We also found that contracts for special works (bridges and
culverts) were often given to organizations with marginal resources
and no experience. Finally, we found that the RRCs are still
approving contractors which were not first proposed on the zone
level. In some cases, these contractors are not even known by the
zone. Such preemption of the zone's prerogative to approve
contractors is extremely discouraging to zone leaders.
3. The Road Maintenance Contract
The standard OR and SNRDA contracts have numerous weaknesses.
First of all, the technical French is barely understandable to most
contractors. In signing the contract, most contractors have little idea
of what they have committed themselves to. They are much more
sensitive to the historical lesson of what they think a contractor is
expected to do -- or what a contractor can get away with.
OR and SNRDA officials consider standardized contracts to be
administratively convenient. In particular, fixed rates greatly reduce
the complexities of negotiation with contractors. Most OR and
35
SNRDA officials do not think that contracts can be made more
flexible in the near future without sharply increasing chaos and the
potential for corruption. Yet all recognize major problems with
standardization.
Inflexibility works to the disadvantage of areas where roads
are particularly hard to maintain. This is one explanation of why, for
example, there are so few contractors in heavily forested
MaYndombe, the northern sub-region of Bandundu. In many areas
with low population density or high traffic rates (more than five
vehicles a day), the case for some mechanization strengthens. Yet
there is currently no flexibility to include different rates,
mechanized, or semi-mechanized options into standard OR and
SNRDA road maintenance contracts.
Fixed rates often preclude contractor interest in areas with
manual labor costs significantly above the mean. While contractors
in poor areas are sometimes overpaid, contractors in rich areas often
cannot find cantonniers at the contract rate. Many contractors in
eastern Bandundu and northern Shaba expressed satisfaction with
SNRDA's new cantonnier rate of twelve dollars a month; in fact,
they probably could continue to hire adequate cantonniers for less
than the twelve dollar rate. Contractors in western Bandundu and
southern Shaba, however, argue persuasively that they cannot find
sufficient cantonniers at current rates.
4. Payment Levels and Regularity
Cantonnier rates under government road maintenance contract
are low compared to the privately financed road maintenance of
some large firms. Yet the major complaint about government
funding of contracts is not over its level, but its regularity.
Contractors have been often compelled to withhold payment to their
cantonniers, as they themselves have not been paid by government.
Many organizations have dropped out of the contracting
system, or never dared to enter it, for lack of confidence in
government payment. I found several PVOs, along with a few
commercial firms, who insisted that they would not renew
government contracts until regular government payment could be
guaranteed.
Contractors complained to me that OR and SNRDA have often
been misleading, in that they do not warn when central government
allocations are delayed. Lines of communication are so thin that,
even when warnings do come, it is too late to sustain a relationship
of confidence.
Not only have OR and SNRDA delayed in notifying
contractors of suspended payments, but contractors have done the
same to their cantonniers. Some cantonniers have worked for months
before knowing that they would never be paid. Not surprisingly,
many such often highly capable and devoted cantonniers now vow
that they will never maintain a road again.
5. Managing the Contractor: Monitoring and Training
I found the assistant SNRDA regional coordinator in
Bandundu to be constantly on the move, visiting as many contractors
as he could. Such valiant road work makes a significant difference,
but it cannot replace regular local supervision.
Lack of motorized road engineers has made a program of regular
contractor supervision impossible. Many contractors rarely see an
OR or SNRDA official after their contract is signed. Some mobile
OR zone engineers try to cover neighboring zones, but the sheer
number of kilometers to inspect makes adequate coverage impossible
(particularly if the roads remain unmaintained). Also, the first
priority of most mobile road engineers is to preserve their extremely
valuable vehicles.
OR engineers have been asked by both SNRDA and regional
government to supervise contractors themselves. In some cases, zone
road engineers have indeed been able to contribute significantly to
contractor effectiveness. On the whole, however, they have limited
capacity and interest in supervising contractors regularly. Some zone
commissioners in fact depend on rare OR zone engineer vehicles for
their own circulation needs.
Many contractors themselves request government supervision.
Even for contractors performing poorly, such calls are usually not
contrary to their interests. Contractors officially cannot be paid until
an OR engineer inspects their work. This rule is being increasingly
enforced. Also, some contractors for special works may be wholly
dependent on OR expertise for construction or repair to advance. In
such cases, supervision is a direct prerequisite to payment.
Occasions have been noted of OR engineers writing
unrealistically positive contractor reports, presumably not without
returned advantages. Such cases are sure to increase as the
contracting system is expanded.
An increase in the number and value of road maintenance and
rehabilitation contracts with private sector enterprises would
seriously strain the inspection capability of the two primary road
organizations [OR and SNRDA]. Concern has been evidenced over
the possible fragility of inspectors faced with the prospect of signing
off on contractor operations that could easily exceed 5 - 10 million
zaire per month (compared to the average monthly salary for a Zone
Engineer of approximately 60,000 Zaire) [$100].20
Contractor reports now have to be countersigned for
verification by the zone's commissioner. While this control is
considered necessary, it is not clear that commissioners have the time
or inclination for adequate verification. Also, obtaining the extra
signature generates additional delays to contractor payment,
especially if the zone commissioner tries himself to inspect the site.
Rural networks are simply too extensive given the limited mobility
of government officials for adequate road maintenance supervision.
There is some hope that contractor training may significantly
improve the effectiveness of their work, but I believe such an
expectation to be unfounded. Many contractors expressed interest in
some technical training at the zone level, for themselves and for their
capitas. This request was particularly strong with potential
contractors, who thought that training might improve their chances
of winning new contracts against experienced contractors. I consider
it doubtful that inexperience, rather than lack of motivation for good
performance, is a significant cause for poor road work.
The Need for an Alternative Approach
This Chapter has shown that the contracting system suffers
from three fundamental flaws: a) its support by the Zairean public
and private sectors is based far more on external financial
opportunities and needs than on a belief that the the system can work;
b) what there is left of the rural private sector does not have the
resources or in some cases even the self-interest to maintain roads as
contractors to the levels for which government pays; c) the
contracting system as currently conceived is virtually impossible to
implement and to manage effectively.
Support for road maintenance contracting ultimately stems
from the World Bank's perception that there is extensive evidence
that force account maintenance has largely failed, whereas the
limited Zairean experience in contracting provides room for more
future improvement. Yet force account and contracted maintenance
need not be considered the only alternatives for Zaire. Chapter 3
presents a basic rethinking of the premises and methods of rural road
maintenance, adjusted to reasonable expectations under current
Zairean conditions. While my solution is radical, I believe that the
model which I propose is a sustainable alternative to the current
contracting approach, and brings into line the interests and costs of
rural road maintenance while providing for the long term
institutional and economic development of Zaire.
39
CHAPTER 3. The Local Model
Any model for managing rural road maintenance in Zaire
must aim at economic, financial and institutional viability. I begin
with two basic questions: who pays for road maintenance and who
benefits from it? The current disequilibrium between the two
answers largely explains the ruin of current maintenance efforts;
addressing the disequilibrium provides the key to a sustainable
solution.
Calculating Costs and Benefits
According to the 1990 USAID draft Transport Sector
Background Paper for Zaire, "The cost of the improvement of
infrastructure is radically out of proportion to what the farmertransporter-consumer chain can pay in return for reduced vehicle
operating costs."21 Most Zairean roads are so degraded that they will
require expensive rehabilitation before maintenance has any
favorable effect on rural traffic volumes and economic growth. Low
cost manual road maintenance financeable through existing fuel and
transport taxes could be effective for roads already in excellent
condition. Few Zairean roads, however, are in presently good
enough condition for this to be the case. Low cost contracted manual
labor, based on low cantonnier salaries and low contractor profit
margins, cannot be expected to turn the vast majority of roads
requiring major rehabilitation into roads merely requiring punctual
maintenance.
Major road rehabilitation therefore appears as an essential
prerequisite to effective contractor manual maintenance. Yet the case
against major road rehabilitation projects is strong. Even light, low
technology machinery for road rehabilitation (of which there is
comparatively little) disintegrates at a phenomenal rate in ZaYre. OR
has over $100 million of mechanized equipment, of which less than
40
half is in working order. The foreign exchange costs of fuel and
spare parts (when available) and prohibitively expensive foreign
technical assistance, are decisive arguments against existing donor
efforts at road rehabilitation.
In an annex to the 1990 World Bank Transport Reform
Program for Zaire, transport economist Erol Haker calculates the
economic rate of return of Zairean road rehabilitation, based on a
recent survey of road costs and benefits.22 He estimates that Zairean
road rehabilitation has a negative or less than 10% economic rate of
return (ERR), since average daily traffic on most Zairean roads is
extremely low. Office des Routes traffic counts estimate average
daily traffic of less than 64 vehicles per day on national roads, less
that four vehicles per day on regional priority roads, and less than
two vehicles per day on regional secondary roads (see Annex II).
Recent World Bank and USAID road rehabilitation projects have had
economic rates of return even worse than Haker's low ranges, as
rehabilitation has not generated 3.5% traffic growth per year as
assumed in Haker's calculations.
Table 3. ERR of Rehabilitation Work to Gravel Road Standard
Average
Daily Traffic
ERR of Rehab.
From Bad to Good
Standards from
Average to Good
Standards from
Bad to Average
less than -10%
less than -10%
less than -10%
21 to 50
-10% to 10%
less than -10%
less than -10%
51 to 150
25-40%
-10% to 10%
over 40%
over 40%
25-40%
over 40%
20 & under
150 & over
Table 4. ERR of Rehabilitation Work to Asphalt Road Standard
Average
ERR of Rehab.
Daily Traffic
Standards from
From Bad to Good
Standards from
Average to Good
-10% to 10%
-10% to 10%
less than -10%
150 to 350
25-40%
less than -10%
less than-10%
350 & over
25-40%
25-40%
over 40%
0 to 150
Bad to Average
For the above ERR estimates, Haker uses actual recent costs of
$30,000 to $50,000/Km for rehabilitation to gravel road standards,
and of $90,000 to $150,000/Km for rehabilitation to asphalt road
standards. Calculated economic benefits include induced development
as well a vehicle operating cost and time saved.
A detailed computation of vehicles operating costs using the
HDM-III model (Callaghan, 1990) confirms that user cost savings
through road rehabilitation are well below established costs for the
rehabilitation itself. With the economic crisis of the entire country
deepening, significant induced development benefits to road
rehabilitation are a difficult assumption. If the beneficiaries of road
transport had to pay the full cost of rehabilitation, they clearly could
not and would not. But there is a vast asymmetry of road
rehabilitation and maintenance costs and benefits.
The most important factor skewing rehabilitation investment
decisions is the weight of foreign aid. Donor commitments to Office
des Routes represent $245 million out of OR's conservatively
estimated projected budget of $451 million for 1990-1992.23
External assistance now finances through OR more than half of
ZaYre's non-urban road rehabilitation and maintenance. Donor aid
for SNRDA is even more overwhelming, with $17.9 million out of a
$20.8 million project being granted by foreign donors for
agricultural feeder road maintenance.
Such dependency on official external assistance is not only
economically unjustifiable but also absurdly unsustainable. While
rehabilitation is often viewed as a one-time activity, ZaYre could not
possibly meet even its most serious rehabilitation needs in the next
two years. Indeed, a World Bank "Second Transport Sector
Rehabilitation Project" with a foreign exchange component of $378
million is expected to come on line by 1992. It is clear that
dependence on foreign aid and loans will continue to increase,
against all sound principles that development aid should aim towards
its own graceful and successful exit.
The disjunction between road costs and benefits is reflected not
only in massive and unsustainable foreign subsidies and debts, but
42
between Zaireans in their contribution to road maintenance costs. In
addition to the problem of funding performance, there are great
inefficiencies in funding allocation. Urban road users and light
vehicles heavily subsidize rural road users and heavy trucks. The
fuel tax represents by far the largest source of ZaYrean proceeds for
road rehabilitation and maintenance, yet fuel consumption is
overwhelmingly urban. Gasoline taxes of 45% and diesel taxes of
45% reverse the accepted logic that large vehicles (generally burning
diesel) cause far more deterioration than small vehicles (generally
burning gasoline).
Althoug a small level of urban car to rural truck cross-subsidy
might be considered progressive, ZaYrean imbalances between costs
and benefits are far too significant to be justified in terms of policy.
The problem of cross-subsidies is well summarized in the World
Bank's 1986 Transport Sector Memorandum for ZaYre:
If the market is to generate the correct volume of transport
services, allocated among the various transport modes according to
their comparative advantages, road users should bear the full cost of
wear and tear for which they are responsible. If they do not do so,
the collectivity in effect subsidizes road transport, and goods that
would more efficiently be moved by other modes of transport,
principally the railway, or that would be produced closer to
consumers, are moved by truck. There are good indications today in
Zaire that road users, mainly truckers, do not pay for the real cost of
using the infrastructure. Although the effects of this distortion must
be weighed against those of other distortions affecting transport
enterprises, it should still be a priority for government to reduce it.24
The levels of distortion are then estimated as the following:
... (a) on the whole, road users pay only about 80% of the
cost of road use; (b) while passenger cars and light vehicles pay
about 2.5 times the cost of road use, trucks pay only about 50%;
and (c) vehicles travelling the inter-urban network pay only about
35% of the cost of road use, while users of the urban network pay
about 3 times the cost. Given the lack of a satisfactory statistical
base, the above figures give only an order of magnitude. They are,
however, evidence of a serious problem. 25
Although urban fuel taxes should remain high in order to
function as a congestion tax, the receipts should go to providing for
Kinshasa's gigantic road rehabilitation needs, rather than to sparsely
used rural roads. Trucks in particular should be made conscious of
the costs of their road deterioration to others, and be required to pay
for these costs themselves. If the market is still profitable, and
slower river and rail alternatives are not reasonable options, rural
road users will be able to pass on most of their increased cost to
consumers.
Despite higher costs on trucked rural goods, a fairer urbanrural and car-truck allocation of maintenance funding would on the
whole benefit consumers. Most consumers of motorized road
transport goods are urban, and they would gain from improved
inter-urban road maintenance and lower costs for urban goods more
than they would from improved maintenance on far less intensively
used rural networks.
Creating the opportunity for realistic decision making between
correctly costed transportation alternatives cannot be optimized
through the careful balancing of taxes and subsidies in the context of
Zaire. National government administration is far too disorganized
and unevenly implemented for rural road users to perceive
accurately how taxes and subsidies might cancel each other out at the
national level. For rural road users to even begin to make
constructive decisions according to real costs and benefits, both the
real costs and real benefits of their transport decisions and behaviors
must be made clearly visible to them. This requires that road use be
simply costed at the local level.
The Local Model
My approach takes the responsibility for costing road
maintenance away from national government and reassigns it directly
to local road users. The role of national government reverts from
one of implementing road maintenance in the name of the public
interest to one of providing an encouraging policy environment for
self-initiated rural road maintenance conceived through individual
interest. The key propositions for making the local model work are
summarized below. They require that national government not
44
merely disengage itself from rural road maintenance
implementation, but that it institute radical policy changes in support
of local efforts.
1. Local Model Strategies
The local model is based on the implementation of the following
strategies:
a)
Foreign donors would pull out of subsidizing rural road
rehabilitation and maintenance implementation, except perhaps
as part of an effort to keep open the multi-modal Voie
Nationale, where most traffic and transport value-added is
concentrated.26 Aside from the Voie Nationale, foreign aid
would largely concentrate on policy research and the
development of river, rail and non-motorized road
transportation.
b)
Special credits aimed at rural trucking would have little impact
on the rural economy so long as most vehicle owners choose to
concentrate their vehicle use in the cities because of the poor
condition of rural roads. The GOZ would therefore not develop
any special programs favoring cheap credit for vehicles and
spare parts. It would, however, pursue general efforts to revive
the Zairean banking industry and begin research into nonmotorized transportation and .
c)
Receipts from the fuel tax would be earmarked to regional
government according to approximate fuel consumption. Most
of the tax would go to urban transport infrastructure renewal,
while less than half of one percent would go to agricultural
feeder roads.
d)
To keep further deterioration of unrehabilitated roads at a
minimum, the import of new or used trucks designed for more
than 2.5 ton axle loads would be banned (this is the axle load
limit largely responsible for the success of colonial road
maintenance; research might suggest an even lower limit
because of current highly deteriorated conditions and more
destructive driver behavior). Outside of self-maintained
networks, oversize vehicles would, where implemented, pay
tolls even higher than the estimated cost of their road
deterioration.
e)
OR and SNRDA national headquarters would be stripped down
to mainly research, policy analysis, technical assistance and
monitoring organizations. They would compile and distribute a
full list of vehicle types used in Zaire and their recommended
maximum axle loads.
f)
Zone level government would have ultimate administrative
responsibility for monitoring road maintenance within its
circumscription, rather than OR, SNRDA, or another national
or regional authority. Zone government would receive no
national or regional subsidies for any of its roads. In compliance
with standards developed by regional government, zone
government could set tolls at the entrance and the exit of their
Collectivite and at bridges and ferries.
g)
Collectivit6 level authorities would be mandated to enforce rules
against overloading and speeding and to set up rain barriers
according to the OR and SNRDA guidelines. Collectivites would
also levy fines according to regionally established tariffs, but
would not levy any tolls or taxes.
h)
Vehicle owners within the zone, whether government, private
or voluntary organizations, would negotiate at the collectivit6
level on how to develop road maintenance efforts unsubsidized
by government. Organizations using the roads the most would
be expected to take the greatest reponsibility for maintenance.
Local representatives of the national business association,
ANEZA, who generally represent the larger firms which
dominate locally-based road use, would be expected to take the
lead along with Collectivit6 government in bringing together
organization heads for negotiation.
i)
Zone government would try to coordinate the Collectivit6 plans.
Failure to agree on a road maintenance plan or in its
implementation would simply mean that the Collectivit6 goes
without maintenance - which would encourage relocation of
motorized road transport to another zone, or its abandonment.
With time, most zones would develop an institutional
framework capable of providing voluntary maintenance,
although at minimal levels.
j) All ferries, which require personnel and expensive upkeep,
would be tolled by zone government. Additional cost of road
deterioration by transiting outsiders might be born in some
zones by a toll at the entrance and the exit of the zone. This toll
would be set by zone government, approved by regional
government, and levied equally for all vehicles according to
axle-weight. Many zones might decide not to establish tolls at
some or even all roads crossing their jurisdiction because of the
cost and unreliability of collection. The local model does not
require rural road maintenance spending by Zone government,
so the absence of tolls is more a problem of free-riding by
outsiders rather than a problem of inadequate resource
collection.
k)
There would be no tolls or taxes on non-motorized rural road
transport (animal, bicycle, cart) unless a new technology
develops which significantly deteriorates roads.
1) Office des Routes equipment would be progressively sold off at
the regional level to the highest bidder and with sale contract
clause that buyers use the equipment for road maintenance in
Zaire. Most of the proceeds of the sale would be used to pay OR
47
debts to contractors and suppliers, with the rest reverting to
regional government.
m)
OR facilities and employees would be turned over to regional
government, to keep on or dismiss as regional government
decides. A small group of the most qualified OR and SNRDA
officials would most likely be maintained to assist in developing
regional road maintenance policy. Regional government could
also choose to make OR and SNRDA engineers available to zone
government and to private organizations at marginal cost. This
might be particularly useful for maintenance of bridges and
ferries.
n)
Foreign and national subsidies to imported food would be
eliminated, so that domestic agricultural products might remain
competitive despite the lifting of rural transport subsidies.
The combined effect of these strategies is that government
organized road rehabilitation would virtually cease in the foreseeable
future. Maintenance would be done almost entirely by hand, at levels
barely adequate enough to get vehicles through in the best of seasons.
At the same time, road use behavior would become much less
damaging, both through more careful driver behavior and increased
reliance on transport other than motor vehicles.
How could such an extreme approach be expected to work?
The best answer is perhaps to rephrase the question: "How could a
less extreme approach be expected to work?" The key to my local
model is that it reverses the mentality perpetuated since independence
that rural roads are the national government's property and
responsibility. This mentality has caused road use behavior that is far
more damaging than it should be. Only road user accountability for
both the benefits and the costs of their actions at the local level can
provide a direct incentive for effective road maintenance. Damaging
road use and maintenance effectiveness must become local issues if
their real costs and benefits are to be determined and reasoned out at
a level where they can realistically be optimized.
Department of
Territorial
Finance
Administration
.
ln
Deateto
of
Department
.DepartmenttoffRural
OR Policy
Group
Department of Rural
Development
Transportation
7Group
SNRDA Policy
Regional
Regional
Emergency Fund
Government
kOSND
Consulting
Zone Government
--------
Collectivite
--
Consulting
Figure 5. The Local
Maintenance Model
Government
Authority Flow
Contracted
Rehabilitation
Motorized
Road User
Road SelfMaintenance
Financial Flow
Consultation Flow
49
both the benefits and the costs of their actions at the local level can
provide a direct incentive for effective road maintenance. Damaging
road use and maintenance effectiveness must become local issues if
their real costs and benefits are to be determined and reasoned out at
a level where they can realistically be optimized.
2. Institutional Structures
The institutional organization of the local model for ZaYre is found
in Figure 5. My aim is not to detail precisely how the local model
would be implemented in Zaire. This can only be decided by the
Zaireans themselves after considerable institutional negotiation.
Figure 5 does reflect, however, some broad institutional conceptions.
The most radical institutional change is of course that roads
would be directly self-maintained by motorized road users, rather
than maintained through government agencies or contractors. Nonmotorized road use would be encouraged not only through
government policy, but also through the tax-free status of nonmotorized road use at all levels of government.
OFIDA would be required to transfer fuel tax revenue directly
to the regional level rather than to Kinshasa. Although the allocation
for rural roads would be small relative to the allocation for urban
roads, I have left open the option for some rural road rehabilitation
to be privately contracted at the regional level. In general such
rehabilitation would not be cost effective, yet there may be some
critical cases where regional government chooses to keep strategic
roads open and has strong popular taxpayer support for doing so.
The "regional emergency rehabilitation fund" might also be a target
for matching foreign aid, but I have left donors outside of the local
model in order to emphasize that they are not a necessary part of it.
The extent of OR and SNRDA consulting would most likely
vary considerably between regions, depending on how well regional
government could establish correct marginal rates for OR and
SNRDA services. Some of the most experienced engineers will
undoubtedly be absorbed by the same large operators most tempted
to purchase OR equipment. Wealthier zones or even collectivities
might be willing to pay for an OR advisor, as might certain road
users who perform a considerable amount of maintenance themselves
but have not had access to government expertise in the past. For the
local model to remain solid on its local interest foundation, it is
essential that all technical services must be paid for in full and at
competitive rates.
3. Can the Local Level Be Trusted?
Much has been written on the predatory nature of ZaYrean
rural politics and economic relations (Nzongola-Ntalaja 1986,
Callaghy 1984, Gould 1980). A chief argument against the "local
model" might be that local government is far too corrupt and
incompetent to be given responsibility over road use tolling and
fines. Tolls were largely abolished in ZaYre in the early 1980's
because bribery and delays made a farce of honest collection.
I disagree with a refusal to depend on local government for
two reasons. The first is that local government is no more corrupt
and incompetent than national or regional government. If corruption
and incompetence is to be expected (which it is), the road user may
as well experience it on a local level, where he can argue with the
advantages of community and proximity for his rights.
My second point is more profound: corruption is particularly
widespread at the local level in ZaYre because individual action
depends on many levels of government, which all make their claims
on collected resources. After long delays and inefficiencies, the
regional and national governments redistribute funds and services
back to the local level. Through two or three layers of bureaucratic
costs and corruption, as well as over time with hyperinflation, the
actual value of goods and services returned is far lower the the initial
amount extracted from the rural population (this is particularly true
as a large part of rural investment in many rural areas comes from
international aid and private voluntary organizations). Local
authorities have every incentive to cheat in tax collection in order to
keep local tax resources locally. Davezies, Nicot and Prud'homme
(1988) estimate that more than 60% of local tax levies "evaporate."
This level of leakage for 1987 is approximately equivalent to $40
million, and is particularly high in terms of infrastructure
maintenance:27
Table 5. Percent of 1987 Budget Expended on Budgeted Items
Type of
Salaries and Infrastructure Investment
Accidental
Government
Benefits
Expenses
Maintenance
Other
Total
Region
89%
1%
24%
0%
24%
30%
city
55%
6%
0%
M
62%
42%
Urban Zone
38%
14%
0%
34%
21%
34%
Rural Zone
44%
25%
0%
1,921%
60%
48%
Collectivit4
55%
70%
0%
139%
0%
59%
Combined
58%
20%
8%
148%
25%
41%
The local model should actually reduce tax evaporation by
making local authorities fully responsible for the consequences of
their actions. If it becomes clear that road maintenance subsidies
from above will no longer support road maintenance, local officials
will begin to bear greater popular pressure for a more honest
allocation of taxed resources into effective government service.
Financing largely constrained to the local level would lead to
the positive threat of local reaction against corrupt authority - an
all too infrequent occurrence in Zaire because of the vast distances
which usually separate the masses and real authority. Local
regulatory mechanisms have been encouraged by the establishment
for the first time this year of ballot box elections for Collectivit6
level officials. Furthermore, Mobutu's recent decision to allow a
multi-party system will most likely further increase the pressures for
local level accountability.
The research on local taxation by Davezies, Nicot and
Prud'homme suggests that there is considerable leeway in local
budgets for increased attention to infrastructure maintenance - if
popular pressure were allowed to focus on local authorities for its
provision.
52
Table 6. Percent Allocation of 1987 Local Budget by Category
Type of
Government
Salaries and Infrastructure Investment
Benefits
Maintenance
Accidental
Expenses
Other
Total
Region
48%
1%
4%
0%
47%
100%
city
Urban Zone
79%
88%
4%
4%
0%
0%
3%
15%
100%
3%
6%
100%
Rural Zone
64%
9%
0%
24%
3%
100%
Collectivit6
63%
18%
0%
19%
0%
100%
Combined
59%
9%
1%
12%
19%
100%
$11.6 M.
$1.7 M.
$0.3 M.
$2.3 M.
$3.7 M.
$19.7 M.
57%
9%
1%
13%
20%
100%
Cost (1987$)
%of Expenses
Nonetheless, I would expect that most zones would estimate that they
can live with much less road maintenance than that assumed by
foreign donors. Most rural road use is by urban based traders, agroindustry and other parastatals who have been quick to switch zones
whenever road deterioration or local demands have cut profits. Yet
for the rural elites influential in local government to preserve what
profitable urban links they still have, they cannot overcharge their
urban counterparts too far beyond their fair share of road use.
Essential to my conviction in the local model's feasibility is the
close relationships between local government and the elites who use
and benefit the most from motorized road transport. In many cases
these individuals are one and the same. In cases where they are not
or cannot be, such as in the case of the few remaining rural
expatriates, the local model will encourage new local civic interest
and duty, as powerful non-governmental elites will no longer be able
to negotiate for subsidized maintenance over the heads of local
political leaders.
The deteriorating condition of each zone's road network will
become an increasing constraint to maintenance monitoring. Vehicles
needed for effective government or contractor management and
supervision of rural maintenance will become even more expensive
and increasingly scarce. I do not expect, or even recommend, that
local government use its collected tolls and road taxes in order to
take on the expense of road maintenance implementation itself. This
has been tried in the past and has failed. What I do expect, however,
is that local officials use both official and unofficial influence to
encourage self-maintenance by individual organizations with the
interest and capability to do so.
4. Estimated Social and Economic Impacts
The shift away from government road maintenance wage labor
is largely complete for the Zairean peasant, both because of
government lack of maintenance commitment and because of a
recognition of changing self-interest. As the number and quality of
schools, clinics and other social services has declined, along with the
rural to urban trade in goods, the peasant's stake in national
integration has fallen also.
Peasants who have applied themselves to road maintenance
with their own hands have not seen significant benefits in increased
trade or standards of living. On the contrary, roads have served
more as vectors for outside intervention and exploitation than as
vectors for new social services or manufactured goods. Those who
have been able to profit the most from the roads are rural elites who
in general have preferred to use their accumulated surpluses for
migration to Kinshasa rather than for rural investment.
To be sure, further declines in traffic because of government
cuts in maintenance subsidies will be a great blow to rural people and
their popular conception of the road as the "road to progress."1
Nonetheless, the economic impacts will not be so great as is imagined
by project writers who equate withdrawal from a national economy
in deep crisis as an unmitigated disaster. A major readjustment to
subsistence farming has already taken place, and the impact of
reduced motorized traffic levels is increasingly an adjustment which
rural people have already made.
Ultimately, I would expect that road deterioration will
generate renewed interest in transportation forms which can be
manufactured and supported locally. In northern Zaire, the
comparative advantages of barges and canoes will accentuate. In
southern Zaire, oxen and donkeys may play a significantly larger
role, as they do in geographically similar regions of Western Zambia
and Zimbabwe. 28 .
Animal traction is much more promising now than several
decades ago, because of advances against tropical diseases and
experience in introducing large farm animals to Africa. For
example, 29% of transport for farm to maize field trips in Western
Zambia are done by sledge (a V-shaped wooden frame with loading
shelves and sticks on its runners. Another 17% of trips are done by
oxcart. The sledge is the more popular mode, despite its slow speed,
because it is easily made and requires no spare parts. 29 Bicycles,
despite their foreign exchange costs, are also an appropriate
technology whose surprising absence in ZaYre is largely explained
through historical favoritism of motor vehicles affordable only to
elites.
From a case study of rural transportation patterns in rural
Kenya, Kaira (1983) argues that rural transportation development
should focus on intermediate vehicle technology using various types
of bicycles and animal traction, rather than on feeder roads
requiring much less affordable motor transport. Since most
transportation in rural areas is done on foot paths and over short
distances, local transportation - what goes on between the feeder
road and the homestead - is the most important link in the rural
economy. Rural transport development therefore would benefit most
from a program rather than a project approach: reducing road
construction and rehabilitation projects in favor of programs to build
research and disseminate information on intermediate technology
vehicles which would be most useful to farmers on their own land.
There have been virtually no initiatives in non-motorized
transportation systems since the Belgians gave up on elephants as
police vehicles in the 1920's. Despite the promise of appropriate
technology, the development and diffusion of new Zairean
transportation technologies would take years. In the meantime,
people may choose to relocate nearer to strategic arteries which they
believe will remain open for motorized trade. Increases in rural
densities along roads would make road maintenance more sustainable
by increasing the manpower available for their maintenance and
shortening the economic zones which they serve.
The impact of lower road maintenance levels on population
movement is not altogether clear. The essential question is whether
sporadically maintained, high operating cost roads are less likely to
promote urban culture and to attract peasants towards the cities, or
whether declining agricultural trade will force peasants to seek in
town the manufactured goods they need. These questions depend
themselves on whether agricultural production will plummet without
motorized transport and will force peasants to become urban
refugees, or whether road road deterioration will on the contrary
redistribute more transportation benefits at the local level by
encouraging the manual collection and transport of agricultural
produce.
My general impression is that rural roads in Zaire have served
as vectors for rural out-migration, and have increased the inequality
of the peasants who remain. By closing the rural economy back to a
common base of non-motorized transport, deterioration of rural
infrastructure has actually been a progressive rather than a
regressive trend. This interpretation runs contrary to the general
assumption in the international literature that infrastructure
deterioration is highly regressive, as elites are always able to pay
more than the poor in order to provide some of their own
infrastructure. I do not believe that this holds true in rural areas,
where the choice is often between expending local surpluses to
import of trucks and fuel if roads are well maintained or
redistributing transportation benefits to the poor if more manual
transport and road maintenance is required. For example, although
porterage carries a great stigma from the early colonial period, it
does offer the opportunity for the redistribution of wealth to an
extent which expenditure on fuel and other motor vehicle operating
costs do not.
The environmental implications of road deterioration need
also careful consideration. Roads have served as essential tools for
extractive industries. Logging roads in particular have had an
immense impact on the sociology and demographics of remote
56
groups living in the rapidly diminishing ZaYrean rain forest. To the
extent that the rapid deforestation of northern Zaire has reduced the
levels of wild game which hunter societies such as the Ituri
(Pygmies) depend on, the roads have forced dependence of these
groups on their agrarian neighbors.
In general, increased road deterioration can be expected to
slow the pace of logging and the clearing of forest for cash crops.
The impacts, however, should not be significant. The logging
industry largely finances its own roads, and is assumed to be
profitable. It therefore would not be largely affected by the cutting
of government subsidies to road maintenance. Also, traditional slash
and bum agriculture will continue, whether crops are traded for
urban goods or not.
The question of road impacts on rural population change and
standard of living is worthy of an entire thesis in itself. My general
impression is that, after a late colonial economic boom, most
outlying rural areas have now largely returned to subsistence
farming. If rural road quality continues to plummet because of a
general failure in the local model's implementation to provide
minimal levels of effective maintenance, the adjustment of rural life
to deteriorated road conditions which have already taken place would
nonetheless continue to mitigate any major impact on high
urbanization rates or worsening economic trends.
CONCLUSION, Beyond the Road
Zaire today presents a dramatically different landscape, both
administratively and economically, from its successful period of
colonial road maintenance. The inevitable shortcomings of
centralized road administration , compounded by the advent of
trucks up to five times heavier (and thereby over fifty times as
damaging), largely explain the failure of the road maintenance since
independence. Although ZaYre is an absolutist state, government
control is nowhere as strong or stable as it was before independence.
If road maintenance now were to revive as a true national priority,
with strict regulations against damaging road use, there is little
chance that nationally enforced rain barriers or axle-weight controls
could be implemented honestly and effectively.
The best hope is to bring the costs and benefits of road use
together at the local level, so that beneficiaries pay the full cost of
and respond to damaging road use. There will be enormous abuses of
local privilege (as is already the case) and significant free-rider
impacts, but the local elites made fully responsible for maintenance
will have the most to lose if they do not replace some of the lost
government subsidies with their own pocketed wealth. Those who
can afford to perform some road maintenance on their own initiative
are also the ones who have the most to gain from such road
maintenance.
This thesis underscores the vast differences between what
development agencies sponsoring the rural roads literature (World
Bank, USAID) believe as policy and what they actually succeed in
carrying out. Incremental policy reform (decentralization,
contracting and manual technology) can accomplish little against
existing institutional interests and the larger political, moral and
economic environment. Reform, in fact, is not a sufficiently
powerful policy tool in the Zairean context - a more radical
approach is necessary for change.
It is impossible in the Zairean context to coax a nationally or
internationally planned work program into performing
decentralized, labor-intensive repair. Sustainable rural road
maintenance will only arise where its local advocates develop their
own projects which they can justify from the beginning in their own
minds. This requires from donors not just the spirit to reform the
public sector so prevalent in the rural roads literature, but the will to
allow the entire established rural maintenance structure which
donors have painstakingly overbuilt to radicalize itself so that
maintenance benefits meet maintenance costs.
Donors have taken years to adjust to less mechanized and less
centralized road maintenance projects, and they will probably resist
an approach which argues that their subsidies are part of the problem
rather than the solution. The distinction between investment and
subsidy is blurred in the ambitions of project planners, who always
believe in the worth of their efforts. There is an irrepressible
optimism in the development set that the next aid project will
succeed, despite all historical, economic and institutional evidence to
the contrary. Consultants and advisors fail to see that the more they
achieve, the more tragically unsustainable a situation their inevitable
departure will create.
The essential question is whether local management of rural
road maintenance will increase through government policy, or
whether it will become the de facto standard through the
abandonment of current maintenance structures. By promoting
appropriate policy while no longer subsidizing rural road
maintenance, donors can send a clear signal in favor of local
solutions and speed the transition to effective local maintenance
responsibility.
Will the established institutional and professional interests of
the donor community in promoting current approaches give way to a
longer view understanding and wisdom? My guess is that donors will
eventually give up on subsidizing rural road maintenance in Zaire
after the total failure of the next round of projects in five years.
Their abandonment will be a cataclysmic one, rather than a graceful
59
exit, as Zaire will have become even more dependent on its donors as
it is today.
I hope, however, that my pessimism is unjustified. Recent
project papers for Zaire show increasingly realistic concerns about
project sustainability. Donors may yet come to the sensible
conclusion that policy change can be advocated without also needing
to spend millions of dollars on the demonstration of its
implementation, such as the right way to subsidize road maintenance
contracts.
More research needs to be done on how local model type
strategies succeed in Sub-Saharan countries besides Zaire, as well as
in Asia and Latin America. My suspicion is that local approaches to
road maintenance are encouraging cost-effective road use throughout
much of the developing world. My intention is not to affirm,
however, that the local model is a broad solution to the road
maintenance crisis in developing countries. The experience of newly
industrialized countries has proven that the higher transportation
flows generated by healthy economies require the transition to
sophisticated, bureaucratic systems of road maintenance (generally
through very high government subsidies). Nor do I assume that the
local model provides a basic solution for the many economies with
few prospects for positive growth in the foreseeable future. My hope
is rather to help stir a debate about the value of the local model
itself, with particular interest in its development in Zaire and its
implications for foreign aid.
60
NOTES
1 World Bank, Road Deterioration in Developing Countries: Causes and
Remedies, (Washington: World Bank, 1988), p. V. Estimates considered to
now have more than doubled by Henri Pouliquen, Director of the World Bank's
Infrastructure Division, Lecture at the Center for Transportation Studies, MIT,
April 5, 1990. I use the doubled estimates.
2
Asif Faiz, Clell Harral, and Frida Johansen. "State of the Road Networks in
Developing Countries and a Country Typology of Response Measures" in
Transportation Research Record N* 1128, 1987.
3
World Bank, First Transport Rehabilitation Project., Report No. 7285-ZR,
(Washington: World Bank, 1989), p. 4.
4
Estimated from OR 1986-1988 traffic counts found in Annex II. National paved
road and national unpaved road traffic is not differentiated in the counts. Based
on the checkpoint maps, I use a paved road ADT of 293 weighed by 10
checkpoints and an unpaved road ADT of 19 weighed by 51 checkpoints in
order to meet the aggregate ADT of 63 for national roads.
5
The World Bank, Road Deterioration in Developing Countries, Causes and
Remedies, (Washington D. C.: World Bank, 1988), p. 41
6
Michel le Carri, R6flexions et 6tudes sur le cantonnage manuel, (Lubumbashi:
Offices des Routes Shaba, 1989), p. 1.
7
1930-1973 data from Bokemposila Ike Ofishe, "Evolution du parc automobile
de la R6publique du Zaire," in Kalongo Mbikayi, Ed., L'Automobile et ]a
securiti routibre en droit zaYrois, (Kinshasa: Presses Universitaires du Zaire,
1982), p. 22.
8
R6publique du Zaire, Departement des Transports et Communications, Bureau
du Commissaire d'Etat, Goupe d'6tudes 6conomie et Planification, Etude du
secteur priv6 dans le domaine du transport des marchandises au ZaYre.
Transport routier, 1985, p. 52.
9
Data for 1930-1973 from Bokemposila Ike Ofishe, "Evolution du parc
automobile de la R6publique du Zaire," in Kalongo Mbikayi, Ed.,
L'Automobile et la securit6 routiere en droit zaYrois, (Kinshasa: Presses
Universitaires du Zaire, 1982), p. 22. Data for 1977 and 1984 from R6publique
du Zaire, D6partement des Transports et Communications, Bureau du
Commissaire d'Etat, Goupe d'6tudes iconomie et Planification, Etude du
secteur privi dans le domaine du transport des marchandises au Zaire.
Transport routier, 1985, p. 54. The 1977 and 1984 data do not include cars,
motorcycles and buses, and are based on vehicle registrations rather than
location of vehicle use. Actual distribution may be somewhat less concentrated
in Kinshasa.
10
Michel le Carr6, Refflexions et 6tudes sur le cantonnage manuel, (Lubumbashi:
Offices des Routes Shaba, 1989), p. 1.
11 Aggregate OR and SNRDA received budgets are from Robert Hall, Louis
Siegel and Peter Maxson, Proposal for Regional Management and Finance of
Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation in the Republic of Zaire (Draft),
(Burlington: Associates in Rural Development, March, 1990), p. 13.I allocated
the budgets by road type according to percentage allocations cited in USAID,
Transport Sector Background Paper (Draft) (Kinshasa, USAID PDO, January
1990), p. 2. The percentage allocations are referenced as coming from Office
des Routes files.
12
Erol Haker, Transport Reform Program. Annex: The Transport Sector in Zaire,
(Washington: World Bank, 1990), p. 15.
13
Erol Haker, Transport Reform Program, Annex: The Transport Sector in Zaire,
(Washington: World Bank, 1990), p. 14.
14
World Bank, Transportation Sector Memorandum, Report No. 6317-ZR,
(Washington: World Bank, 1986), p. 17.
15
USAID-Zaire PDO. Transport Sector Background Paper. Draft. (Kinshasa:
USAID, January 1990), p. 1.
16
World Bank, Transportation Sector Memorandum, Report No. 6317-ZR,
(Washington: World Bank, 1986), p. 9.
17
R6publique du Zaire, D6partement des Transports et Communications, Bureau
du Commissaire d'Btat, Goupe d'6tudes 6conomie et Planification, Etude du
secteur privi dans le domaine du transport des marchandises au Zaire.
Transport routier, 1985, p. 47.
Callaghan, Curtis, Appendix on Road Transport (Annex to USAID Transport
Reform Program), (Kinshasa: Louis Berger International, 1990) p. 11.
18
19 Janet MacGaffey, "Fending for Yourself: The Organization of the Second
Economy in Zaire," in Nzongola-Ntalaja, Ed, The Crisis in Zaire: Myths and
Realities, (Trenton: Africa World Press, 1986), p. 149.
20
Robert Hall, Louis Siegel and Peter Maxson, Proposal for Regional
Management and Finance of Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation in the
Republic of Zaire (Draft), (Burlington: Associates in Rural Development,
March, 1990), p. 23.
21
USAID-Zaire PDO. Transport Sector Background Paper. Draft. (Kinshasa:
USAID, January 1990), p. 1.
The source of this survey is not specified, but it stems probably from USAID
road rehabilitation projects in Bandundu.
22
23
Erol Haker, Transport Reform Program, Annex: The Transport Sector in
Zaire,
(Washington: World Bank, 1990), pp. 39-40.
62
24
World Bank, Republic of Zaire Transport Sector Memorandum, (Washington:
World Bank, 1986), pp. 22.
25
World Bank, Republic of Zaire Transport Sector Memorandum, (Washington:
World Bank, 1986), pp. 23.
26
See Map 1 in Annex H. While all copper exports (the lifeline of ZaYre) could
transit through South Africa, such a policy would not be considered acceptable.
Also, the road parts of the Voie Nationale may sustain traffic of a high enough
value to justify rehabilitation. A thorough study of the Voie Nationale is found
in the World Bank's First Transport Rehabilitation Project.. Report No. 7285ZR. (Washington: World Bank, 1989).
27
Davezies, Laurent, Bernard Henri Nicot and R6my Prud'homme. Les finances
publigues rigionales et locales au ZaYre. (Paris: LOEIL, Institut d'Urbanisme de
Paris, December 1988), p. 36. Table 5 from p. 27
28
Ben H. Immers, Ems J. Malipaard, and Michel J. H. Oldenhof, "Transport in
Rural Areas of Developing Countries: Empirical Findings from Western
Province, Zambia," in Transport Research Record 1167, 1988, p. 54.
29
Ben H. Immers, Ems J. Malipaard, and Michel J. H. Oldenhof, "Transport in
Rural Areas of Developing Countries: Empirical Findings from Western
Province, Zambia," in Transport Research Record 1167, 1988, p. 55.
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World Bank. Transportation Sector Memorandum, Report No. 6317-ZR.
Washington: World Bank, 1986.
USAID. Central Shaba Agricultural Development Project Paper. No. 660-0105.
Washington: USAID, 1986.
USAID-Zaire PDO. Transport Sector Background Paper. Draft. Kinshasa:
USAID, January 1990.
ANNEX I, The 1989 USAID-OR Road Maintenance Survey
A. Description
The 1989 USAID-OR Road Maintenance Survey provides
much of the data for this thesis. While the campaign began as a
mechanism to meet an immediate need for information on central
Shaba, USAID Zaire's Program Development Office (PDO)
developed it into an opportunity for broad research on private sector
road maintenance.
In August 1988, USAID submitted to OR a Central Shaba
Project Implementation Letter to determine a short-list of qualified
contractors for road construction, rehabilitation and maintenance.
An advertizing campaign was to solicit responses from large
mechanized private companies interested in Project 105 Section III
road contracts. At the same time, the campaign would generate
interest from small and medium-sized private organizations who
might be useful for future OR-USAID projects.
At the beginning of September 1988, OR called a joint Conseil
d'Adjudication (contractor selection committee) which confirmed the
dual purpose of the survey: Project 105 Section III Preselection as
one goal, and general data collection for future road maintenance
projects as another. The Conseil decided to divide the two efforts, so
that a basic questionnaire for general information could be used in
both Bandundu and Shaba. The questionnaire was designed primarily
by Tom Driscoll of USAID's PDO.
In October 1988, OR released a total of 2,300,000 Zaires (at
the time $11,000) from USAID's Bandundu Transport Project 028 in
order to finance the Campagne d'Information. Local newspapers,
radios, and posters were used in Kinshasa, Bandundu, and Shaba for
a month of intensive advertizing.
Cit. Kabwenge Musungu of USAID's PDO distributed blank
questionnaires to 6 local OR offices in both Bandundu and Shaba.
Blank questionnaires were also available at OR's national
headquarters in Kinshasa. Because of time limitations, OR offices in
68
the northern and southern ends of Bandundu, as well as in eastern
Shaba, were not supplied with questionnaires. Interested
organizations from these areas had to travel substantial distances in
order to complete the information.
USAID extended the deadline for submission of completed
questionnaires from mid December 1988 to mid January 1989. Even
afterwards, most OR offices accepted late questionnaires. In total,
OR and USAID received a total of 280 questionnaires: 159
expressing interest in Bandundu, 116 expressing interest in Shaba,
and 5 expressing interest in both regions.
Given the unexpectedly high response rate, USAID took the
opportunity to expand the Campagne d'Information into a full-scale
research project. PDO hired me (John Brown) to assist Kabwenge
Musungu in analyzing the survey's results. This process included 32
days of field work in Bandundu and Shaba, and benefitted from
considerable participation by OR and SNRDA.
B. Quantitative Analysis
The original foundation of this thesis is the database of
answered Campagne d'Information questionnaires. The database is
subdivided for the two regions of Bandundu and Shaba. For each
region, organizations are classified as a) organizations with
experience in any type of road or bridge work, b) organizations with
no experience but a substantial economic interest in local road
maintenance, and c) organizations with no significant local interest in
road maintenance. I entered the data from all organizations with
road maintenance experience into spreadsheet. Quantitative results
are found in the tables below.
C. Qualitative Analysis
In order to develop the greatest possible contextual
understanding of private sector road maintenance, Citoyen
Kabwenge and I completed my quantitative analysis by interviewing
17 organizations in Kinshasa, 49 in Bandundu, and 44 in Shaba. We
also interviewed an equal number of OR, SNRDA, Territoriale,
USAID and other officials directly concerned with road
maintenance.
Virtually all interviews were held at the organization's or
official's place of work. Conversation times ranged from 30 minutes
to well over an hour. We provided organizations with a relaxed,
open-ended opportunity to define their local interest and experience
in road maintenance. We also checked questionnaire data
(particularly previous contracts and current equipment), and asked
numerous questions about road work organization, training needs,
and worker salaries and benefits. Interviews ended with my
restatement of the difference between questionnaire completion and
actual requests for road links made to OR or SNRDA.
D. Methodological constraints
1. Geographic and Temporal Restriction
The Campagne d'Information was targeted only towards
organizations in Bandundu and Shaba. Consequently, my conclusions
are made with Bandundu and Shaba specifically in mind, and may
not be relevant for all of Zaire.
For the follow-up interviews, Bandundu and Shaba's difficult
roads remained a major constraint. Although we spent much of my
time travelling (over 5,000 Km. in all, mostly at low speeds), Cit.
Kabwenge and I were unable to reach many responding
organizations in the northern and southern subregions of Bandundu
(Maindombe and Kwango), or in the east of Shaba. My overall
impressions of road transportation in Zaire are unavoidably
constrained by the boundaries of my travel.
The timing of my trips is also significant. I visited Bandundu
and Shaba in the dry season, when roads are at their best and most
actively used. No contractor work was currently in progress
however. In both regions, OR contracts were suspended since at least
May 1988 (OR made some new funding available August 1, 1989).
70
SNRDA contractors were also waiting for back payments, ranging
from one month in Shaba to four months in Bandundu.
2. Questionnaire Accuracy
a) Target audience
Despite the large number of returned questionnaires, the
USAID-OR Survey generated responses from less than two-thirds of
the organizations known to have contracts with OR or SNRDA.
While many of the least effective organizations did not respond,
some of the most highly reputed contractors did not also. The
database is far from a complete repository of Bandundu and Shaba
private sector road maintenance experience and interest.
The database reflects two major biases: towards urban
organizations and towards requests for remote road links. The
USAID-OR Survey inevitably favored organizations most likely to
hear about it: urban groups, with greater access to newspapers,
radio, television and business word-of-mouth through which the
questionnaires were publicized. Eleven questionnaires were
completed during my travels, mostly from isolated rural groups,
such as missions and farmers who had considerable road maintenance
experience and interest, but had not heard of the USAID-OR Survey.
The questionnaires solicited interest specifically in rural feeder
roads. Thus the vast majority of organization requests were for
SNRDA rather than OR roads. Had the questionnaires also solicited
interest in maintaining OR national and regional roads, many
responding organizations would have focused on less remote, more
heavily used road links.
b) Experience
Many organizations under-represented their qualifications by
not mentioning previous contracts. Either they did not understand
some of the technical language and phrasing of the sections detailing
contracts, or they strictly respected the instructions to list only
experience from the past two years.
By answering the questionnaires too strictly, many
organizations also omitted maintenance experience gained on private
farm roads, or when working as a road work supervisor or Chef de
Collectivit6. 25 responding organizations which I had originally
qualified as "unexperienced" were found after interviews to actually
have significant previous experience.
c) Interest
Requests to maintain road links were highly inflated relative to
the attractiveness of current contracts. The questionnaires' USAID
sponsorship suggested lucrative possibilities, attractive to many
incapable opportunists. Furthermore, some organizations requested
that every road link in their area be maintained, from a public
interest point of view.
Most organizations did not know before the interviews that
current OR and SNRDA contracts are designed with virtually no
margin for financial gain. After interviews, many organizations
decided to cut back on their road link requests, or to focus on
presumably more lucrative bridge construction. Even these revised
numbers of kilometers generally exceed what organizations would
actually wish to maintain if they expected to fulfill current OR or
SNRDA contracts to the letter. Consequently, the road link requests
listed should be considered close to absolute maximums.
d) Logistical capability
A major constraint to effective road maintenance is adequate
contractor mobility for supervision. Unfortunately, the database's
registration of numbers of vehicles is only a poor measure of logistic
capability. First, there is no indication of how far contractors must
travel to the road links they are maintaining. Second, information on
small (but often essential) means of locomotion such as bicycles and
motorcycles is not specifically requested. Third, information on
larger vehicles is ambiguous. I tried through the interviews to clarify
whether vehicles listed were actually used in the zone of interest. For
statistical analysis, I considered only vehicles available locally and
not permanently out of order. Organizations not interviewed were
given the benefit of the doubt.
3. Justification of limitations
Overcoming any of the above-mentioned limitations would
require considerably more time and money. As is, USAID has
invested about $12,000 in the original survey and $7,000 in its
follow-up (including my salary and in-country travel). I hope,
however, that more research will develop from the survey, as its
utility is far from exhausted.
E. Chronology of Research Trips
Bandundu Travel and Interviews
6/18 Kinshasa-Bandundu
1515 Office des routes
1015 Depart Kinshasa
1600 Ets. Muzinga Limputu (out of town)
1745 Arrivee Bandundu
6/20 Bandundu
6/19 Bandundu
0715 Office des routes
Cit. Kinsala, Conseiller financier regional
Cit. Maseko, Ingenieur inspecteur
Cit. Mayuma, Ingenieur de recherche
0815 SNRDA
Cit. Madrakile, Coordonnateur regional
Cit. Sebagisha, Coordonnateur regional
adjoint
1000 Gouvernorat
Cit. Samba Kaputo, Gouverneur de
Bandundu
1100 Office des routes
1300 chez le Directeur regional de la voirie
Cit. Balingi, Directeur de la voirie
0730 Union paysanne du Zaire
Cit. Wengesse, Dircteur regional de projets
0845 Ets. Banda Molende
Cit. Banda, Proprietaire-gerant et deuxieme
vice-president de
l'Assemblee Regionale
0930 SNRDA
1000 Ets. Kanus
Cit. Pupu, Gerant
1115 Societe Agricole et Commerciale
Cit. Kayinga, Directeur regional et VicePresident regional,
ANEZA
1230 Ets. UFMM & Fils (out of town)
1330 Ets. Toko Wangata
Cit. Toko, Administrateur-Gerant
1045 Depart Bulungu
1430 Office des Routes
1230 Arrive Kikwit
1600 ANEZA
Cit. Gwalumuna, Proprietaire, Ma-N'Gwalu
SPRL et Vice-President
urbain, ANEZA
BSU
Cit. Darfour, Directeur interimaire
OR
Monsieur Sheppler, Assistant technique
regional
6/21 Bandundu-Lunkuni
1510 Depart Kikwit
0715 Office des routes
Cit. Mukenge, Chef du chantier naval
1730 Arrive Idiofa
0800 SNRDA
1900 Hotel Ndia
Mr. Pappas, USAID
0900 Depart Bandundu
6/24 Idiofa
1200 Huilerie SICA SPRL, Kibay
Cit. Ngumina, Gerant
1400 Depart Kibay
1530 BAT Lunkuni
Cit. Kimwa, comptable
Cit. Mbay, Chef de Zone
0900 Ets. Ele
Cit. Mikwampaka, Administrateurproprietaire, President ANEZA
Idiofa
1130 Compagnie de Commerce du Bandundu
Cit. Sampungi, Directeur regional
interimaire
6/22 Lunkuni-Bulungu
0700 BAT Lunkuni
Cit. Kisilia President du Conseil,
Collectivite Wamba
1700 Diocese d'Idiofa
Abbe Kandong
Pere Debeaucor
6/25 Idiofa
0800 Depart
0920 Bac de Bende
Cit. Mbula, Capitaine de Bac
1500 Arrive Bulungu
15:45 Ets. Pakhe & Fils
(at Kinshasa)
1600 Societe Fernandes Irmaos & Companie
Cit. Mubiala, Directeur, siege Bulungu
2000 Hotel Isu Nka, roundtable
Cit. Makwala, Coordonnateur CODAL
Cit. Mafuta, Secretaire, Ets. Isu Nka
Cit. Nkoy, Chef de collectivite, Mateko
Cit. Kakesa, Proprietaire, Ets. Kakesa
6/23 Bulungu-Kikwit-Idiofa
0800 Ets. Belle-Vue
Cit. Ngayuyu, President, et President
ANEZA Kwilu
0930 Commissariat de zone
Cit. Mulomba, Commissaire de zone
1145 Ets. CEKO
Cit. Ondjieme, Gerant
1215 Ets. Kasanza Kakoy
Cit. Kasanza, Proprietaire
1330 Ets. Kapiten Lavung
Cit. Kapiten, Chef de collectivite, IdiofaMusanga
1515 Ets. Ansiem Ezung
Cit. Ansiem, Proprietaire-Administrateur
1730 L'Antenne de Bandundu
Cit. Kintolo, Editeur
6/26 Idiofa-Yasa Lokwa-Kikwit
74
0815 Ets. Ansiem Ezung
Cit. Ansiem, Proprietaire-Administrateur
0900 Ets. Sanga Sam
Cit. Ganampe, Charge commercial
0930 Depart Idiofa
1115 Mikwini bridge, Collectivite YasaLokwa
Cantonniers
1230 Arrive Kikwit
1245 BSU Guest House
Monsieur Scheppler
1655 Ets. Zuna
Cit. Zuyi, Proprietaire
1815 Maison Mungala Mukoy
Cit. Mungala, Chef de collectivite, YasaLokwa
1100 Ets. Soleil-Couchant
Cit. Kawata, Gerant
1300 Huilerie Kibolo (Kikwit office closed)
1400 Guest House
Monsieur Scheppler, Conseiller technique
regional, OR
6/29 Kiwit-Paroisse Yasa
0900 Guest House
Cit. Mukadi, Chef de division de
coordination regionale, SNRDA,
Counterpart of Mr. David Tighe
1145 Centre de Formation OR
Cit. Kabulia, Chef de Centre
Cit. Miankwikila, Ingenieur chef de
formation en genie civil
1300
Depart Kikwit
6/27 Kikwit
1630 Paroisse Yasa
Pere Duquenne, Curee Interimaire
0900 Interwood
Cit. Aka, assitant administratif
6/30 Yasa-Kingungi-Masi Manimba
0930 Kimbondja
Citnne. Kasongo, Gerante
0830 Depart Yasa
0900 cantonniers
1015 AUTOZA
Cit. Kasende, PDG
Cit. Kasende, fils, Directeur regional
1500 Gapak (not in)
1515 Manzanza & Fils (unknown)
1100 AMS
Cit. Kasongo, Secretaire
1215 Ets. Nunga-Lubeye
Cit. Nunga, Proprietaire-Administrateur
1530 Paroisse Kingungi
Pere
1800 Collectivite Bindungi
Cit.
1545 Ets. Mwalejima Kampew & Fils
Cit. Kampew, Conseiller principal,
Proprietaire, Ets. Zangoi
1900 AUTOZA
Cit. Kasende, fils, Directeur regional
, Chef de collectivite interimaire
2045 Arrive Masi-Manimba
7/1 Masi Manimba
0900 Office des routes
Cit. Kingwaya, Chef de brigade interimaire
6/28 Kikwit
0900 JVJSIEFAC
Cit. Masungi, Chef de Poste
1000 Ets. Kimbonja
Citnne. Kasongo, Gerante
1245 Centre SVD Ngondi
Pere Hoff, Directeur
1600 Ets. Gusema
Cit. Lunzembo, Gerant
1630 Ets. Uyinduyala
Cit. Uyinduyala, Proprietaire-Administrateur
1545 Depart Misele
1700 Arrive Kenge
1700 Ets. GAPAK
Cit Yala, Chef d'agence
7/3 Kenge-Kinshasa
1730 HPK Huilmat
Cit. Kapay, Directeur d'exploitation
interimaire
0815 Ibeka & Fils
Cit. Kabeya, Gerant
2000 Hotel Relais Masi
Cit. Kingwaya, Chef de brigade interimaire
0930 Projet Alimentaire Kwango
Cit. Yangfu, Gerant
7/2 Masi Manimba-Masamuna-MiseleKenge
1015 HPK Huilmat
Cit. Kapay, Directeur d'exploitation
interimaire and staff
1230 Ferme Bamus & Fils
Cit. Mbala, President Delegue General
1030 Ets. Tout depend de Dieu
Citnne. Angarinaba Asseb, Comptable
1045 Office des routes
Cit. Thamba, Chef Unite de production,
Vice-pres. ANEZA Kwango
Cit. Suva, Adjoint technique
Cit. Masandu, Ingenieur de zone
1200 Ets. Musey Kavuka
Cit. Musey Kavuka
1345 Depart Masi Manimba
1415 Arrive Masamuna, Ets. MbongoMpasi
Cit. Gutumbana, Secretaire
1230 Maison Luthom
Cit. Lukengo
1315 Ets. Nki-Bibwi (no one available)
1500 Depart Masamuna
1330 Depart Kenge
1515 Arrive Misele, Ets. Mabeka Zaire
Cit. Ndombe, Administrateur-Directeur
1715 Arrive Kinshasa
Shaba Travel and Interviews
Cit. Nsitu, Directeur regional
7/21 Kinshasa-Lubumbashi
1120 Depart Kinshasa-Ndjili
1420 Arrive Lubumbashi (local time)
1430 SHADO
Bruce Spake, Shaba Development Officer
David Williams, Project Officer
1515 Office des routes
Francis Thomas, Conseiller technique
regional
1545 Office des routes
Cit. Ebengo, Coordonnateur regional
adjoint, SNRDA
1600 Office des routes
1645 Karavia Hotel
Tom Driscoll, PDO
Mr. de Palmas, Conseiller financier,
Direction generale, OR
7/22 Lubumbashi-Kipushi-Lubumbashi
0830 Gecamines Developpement
Cit. Kapend, President Delegue General
0930 M. Forrest
Mr. T. E. Forrest, Fonde de Pouvoir
1030 Construction Metallique au Shaba
Mr. Vaudano, Directeur, Domaine Agricole
de K, Directeur, CMS,
Representant, Lendor International Ltd.
76
Mr. Cillario, Directeur technique et Gerant,
CMS
1115 Karavia Hotel
Tom Driscoll, PDO
1300 Depart Lubumbashi
Cit. Morisho,
1045 Simwa (all representatives out of
town)
1050 Developpement Rural Integre KML
(all representatives out of
town)
1315 Arrive Kipushi
1315 At Cit. Mungala's residence
Cit. Mungala, Directeur de la division
maintenance, Kipushi,
Gecamines Developpement, Conseiller de la
zone de Kipushi
1100 Ets. Kaga
Cit. Bamba, Administrateur Directeur
1145 ACTS/TMK (not in)
1200 ECORBA (company not known by
owner's wife; owner not found)
1645 Kwete Minga (Not found)
1900 Depart Kipushi
1215 Nkulu Kilumba (company moved,
address unkown)
1915 Arrive Lubumbashi
1230 AKD (all representatives out of town)
1245 SHADO
7/23 Lubumbashi
0915 Groupe Kagri
Cit. Kisebwe, Administrateur Directeur
1615 SOTRACOMEZA (company moved,
address unknown)
1630 MMK & Fils (not in)
1000 Ets. Kisimba Mbaie
Cit. Kisimba, President Proprietaire
1115 Societe Generale du Commerce
Cit. Kalenda, Directeur General
1215 Entreprises Generales Sulka
Cit. Sulu, Entrepreneur Responsable
1645 AGETCO
Cit. Kabal'a, Directeur General
2000 Hotel Shaba
Cit. Mulopo, PDG MMK & Fils
2015 Hotel Shaba
Cit. Morisho, Ing. OR
1300 CMS-SAEZA
Mr. Cillario, Gerant
7/25 Lubumbashi-Likasi
1530 Ferme Katikula
Cit. Zongwe, Proprietaire
1630 ASSAGRIKI
Cit. Bodika, President
0830 Depart Lubumbashi
0945 Arrive Likasi
0945 OR
Cit. Mampuya, Chef de Brigade
7/24 Lubumbashi
1015 DAGRIM (not in)
0830 SHADO
Bob Braden
1030 Ets. Kalala (not in)
0930 SNRDA
Cit. Mwenge, Financier
Cit. Tsiumbu, Coordonnateur Regional
1035 Mukuna (not found)
1000 OR
Cit. Nsitu, Directeur Regional
1100 EIC
Cit. Halafu, Chef du personnel
1045 Swanepoel
77
1130 Manza (not in)
1200 Swanepoel
Cit. Muloway, President ANEZA, Chef du
personnel, Swanepoel
1445 Swanepoel
Mr. Vandentorren, Directeur technique
1630 OR road visit
Discussion with villagers, Pande
7/26 Likasi-Lubumbashi
0830 DAGRIM & AKD
Cit., Kafitwe, Directeur General DAGRIM,
Administateur AKD,
President Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
Agricoles,
1015 Depart Likasi
Cit. Lumbu Useni, Ets. Lumbu Useni
Cit. Kiyana Mangozi, Chef de Collectivite
Cit. Kimba Kalunga, Ets. Mali Ya Butoto
Cit. Mukome, Ets. Succes Ya Zando
Cit. Tambwe, Ets. Twende Mbele, President
ANEZA Kongolo
Cit. Twikwashene, Ets. Twikwashene
Cit. Kissimba Omari, Comite du
Developpement de Kongolo
Cit. Ngoy, Ingenieur de Zone Kongolo
1930 At. Cit. Nguwa
Cit. Nguwa, Adjoint Technique OR
Kongolo
Cit. Ngoy, Ingenieur de Zone Kongolo
Cit. Mulumba, Ingenieur de Zone Kabalo
2100 At Ing. Appelmans
Mr. Appelmans, Chief of Project 105
7/28 Kongolo
0830 Entreprise Kamwanga
Cit. Kamwanga, Directeur
1145 Arrive Lubumbashi
1145 SHADO
Tom Driscoll, PDO
Bob hall, Consultant
1345 Hinterland Minier (not in)
0900 Groupe Fallay
Cit. Fallay, Directeur
Cit. Boga, Gerant
0930 Ets. Succes Ya Zando
Cit. Mukome, Directeur
Cit. Mulimbi, Gerant
1400 SNRDA & IRIZ
Cit., Mukalay, Commissaire du peuple
Manono, Conseiller IRIZ
1030 Zone Kongolo
Cit. Mashaku, Commissaire de Zone
1530 Office des routes
Cit Morisho, Adjoint technique
1200 SOZADEV
Cit. Ndjubu, Conducteur des Travaux
7/27 Lubumbashi-Kongolo
0800 SHADO
1245 Depart Lubumbashi
1530 Arrive Kongolo
1630 At Cit. Nguwa
Cit. Nguwa, Adjoint Technique, OR
Kongolo
1645 Groupe Kibwe Sakina
Cit. Kibwe Moez, Gerant
1730 Roundtable, At Cit. Nguwa
Cit. Kamwanga, Ets. Kamwanga
Cit. Fallay, Groupe Fallay
1230 At Appelmans
Mr. Appelmans, Chief of Project 105
Mrs. Appelmans
Mr. Van Lock, Chief Mechanic
1515 Ets. Twende Mbele
Cit. Tambwe, President-Fondateur &
President ANEZA
1615 ESTAGRICO
Cit. Bosa, Directeur Production et Technique
1700 Ets. Lumbu Useni
Cit. Lumbu Useni, President
1730 Ets. Mali Ya Butoto
Cit. Kimba Kalunga, Proprietaire
Cit. Lumbu, Gerant
1800 Ets. MM
Cit. Katenga, Associe
1845 Ets. Eloba
Cit. Kayembe, Proprietaire
1800 Kime Base Camp
Mr. Bermont, Trainer CFER OR
Mr. Graf, Chief Mechanic 105 R
Cit. Kazadi, Adjoint Technique
7/31 Kabongo - Kamina
7/29 Kongolo-Kabalo
0745 Procure Kongolo
Msgr. Mwamba
Abbe Mbuyu
0930 Ets. Kissimba Omari
Cit. Kissimba, Proprietaire, President du
Comite de Developpement
0830 J. Andriamanantoa, Field Engineer 105
R
0930 Kabongo Zone
Cit. Ramazani, Comizone Assistant
1045 Depart Kabongo
1415 Arrive Kamina
1030 Depart Kongolo
1345 Arrive Kabalo
1430 At Cit. Kuispond, Chief Unite de
Production OR Kamina
1400 At Mr. Dai
Mr. Dai, Chief of Project, 105 Agriculture
1500 ECZ/Communaute Pentecotiste du
Zaire (In LSHI)
1615 Ets. Kabilwa (not in)
Cit. Kabilwa, Proprietaire
1630 Haut Lomami Sous-Region
Cit. Mulumba Kabwe, Commissaire Sousregional, Kamina
1730 Commissaire de Zone Kabalo
Cit. Betu, Commissaire de Zone
Cit. Mulumba, Ingenieur de Zone OR
1900 Paroisse Kabalo
Pere Van Damme
Pere De Jaeger
2100 Ets. Kalu & Fils
Cit. Kalumba, Pasteur Communaute
Pentecotiste, ProprietairePresident, Ets. Kalu & Fils
Cit. Mulala Amine, Proprietaire-President,
Ets. Mulala Amine
Cit. Kabilwa, Proprietaire Ets. Kabilwa
8/1 Kamina-Sandoa
0745 Depart Kamina
1145 Arrive Kayembe Mukulu
Cit. Kalenda Kabamba, Chef de Collectivite
1230 Depart Kayemba Mukulu
1815 Arrive Sandoa
1830 AIDRZ Base Camp
Mr. Pimet, Maitre Foreur
8/2 Sando-Dilolo-Kasaji
7/30 Kabalo-Kabongo
0830 Depart Sandoa
0645 Depart Kabalo
1200 Arrive Dilolo
1200 Mission Catholique Budi
Pere D'Hont
1215 Zone Dilolo
Cit. Dungu, Commisaire de Zone
1615 Arrive Kabongo
1630 Paroisse Christ Roi
Pere Cure Tenga
1330 Ets. Kapend Tshimpotoy
Cit. Kapend, Proprietaire
1445 Depart Dilolo
1700 At Cit. Ohenga
Cit. Ohenga, Ingenieur de Zone Kabongo
1700 Arrive Kasaji
1700 Project 0115 Base Camp
Cit. Ndelo, Adjoint Technique OR
Mr. Zanieri, Chief Mechanic
8/6 Lubumbashi
8/7 Lubumbashi-Kinshasa
8/3 Kasaji-Kolwezi
0800 SHADO
0900 Sous-Region Lualaba
Cit. Diangambi, Commissaire SousRegional
0900 SNRDA
Cit. Mwenge, Conseiller Financier Regional
1000 Ets. Tshifanaken
Cit. Tshifanaken, Proprietaire, Chef de
Groupement Nkambi
1000 Office des Routes
Cit. Morisho, AT
1030 Projet Hinterland Minier
Cit. Oyokololo, Adjoint Technique
1030 Depart Kasaji
1530 Arrive Kolwezi
1545 Unite de Production Office des Routes
Kolwezi
Cit. Mbongompasi, Chef d'Unite de
Production
1130 Ets. Kwete Minga
Cit. Kwete Minga, Directeur
1200 SNRDA
Cit. Tsumbu, Coordonnateur Region]
1230 Office des Routes
Cit. Kabongo, Coordonnateur Regional du
Cantonnage Manue;
8/4 Kolwezi
1430 SHADO
0900 Ets. Sambumba
Cit. Sambumba, Proprietaire
0945 MECLAMO,
Cit. Tshimbela, Directeur
1045 Ets. Matete
Cit. Ndumb Mukoj, President Directeur
Proprietaire
1130 SOZACOT
Mr. Panayotis, Directeur Gerant
1500 Visit of Nzilo SNEL road maintained
by Swanepoel
8/5 Kolwezi-Lubumbashi
0900 Ets. CBI
Cit. Chiwengo, Proprietaire
1100 Office des Routes Kolwezi
Cit. Mbongompasi, Chef d'Unite de
Production
1300 Depart Kolwezi
1715 Arrive Lubumbashi
1700 Depart Lubumbashi
1800 Arrive Kinshasa (local time)
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Lie
-de travauw:. de. cmsr~in
E-onomi.pues) pour .1a realization
u
_dU
rE':Lons-.
1e5
dari
routes
C
renabalitation, eL o'eritretalen deE
Un prog.ramm-e d!.en-trctijeln et CE, re~f-labil.tat1on
T
EBAnaundu et du -Shaba,.
1 ,de routes.-rurales est-, en e4fet, tnvisage et suscE~ptille, d'e'rre'.
de I 'Appel
i -employer sera relle
La .proceicdure
0
financ6 par..1.'USAIlD.
N
d'Of f rs 'a la concurrernce nationale,.des entrepr ises reten~tcS.
S
L'Of fice des routes et I 'U&* I.D dresset-cnt, ensuite conjoinieinent uric
drrivt's I
lisieL des*=perateur~s- econonmipues ",etenus. qui: pourrznt &tre
dans c~eiJs
aux -tonsult at-ions pou. r-les i-ravaui; E' ef i-cter
I Dates.
.
GENERALITESE:
TI
~.$NOM:.
b.
<Enterprlse,
A DRESE:
-..
TYPE
Yeuilllez
Repondre a Chaque- Question
Organisa~Tilov
(Adresse au
ci-arstn:
Partict1iliar)
Zaire)
(Enm
eu i.sn'ar
tr_=1 er -Dr gmaa15aL2nr
Benevole. missaonaire
etc..,
e.
de Votre Organisation selon 1 'impleu~r
Ces act~vite's L--ecut~E L dans le, passe.
-,P
AL
(Choisisse:-en Une)
FYE7N7
Contrat5 au Dessus de
-20.00(:c.000 Z-aires
Contrats entre
1.C)000.O00C et
2 o. 0 00C. 00(, 0Z a 1r e
PETTE
Des Marches Moims
de 1. 000. 00o Zai res
Nc-sC
--sPr
:
o1es
.MC
(
tE
rEN
e S L.
IE=hANCTRNS
-
I
-
-rZo7
.l4. !!?opJ
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c
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r e
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7== ~0
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at earn
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3
TRAVAUX cle CON~j"IRUCTIONS
En Cours
arh'
Vo-lmctnt.s
de
ou, At.ributeS mai.s .Non Encore Commences:
Ocie=l S;.WaLilf
d'E-ecutlot
es
Dat.~
tribution
;t
i.~Fur
-.
Mlt
se'-vice- 'LmrndUt
r
ec~pLicr'
Lieu de Proe
Ouvr age
aut-rfes
xr
quL- Ia k:On st r 1-Ct ion
-voir 5_2Ct L On
ews i1Lr e
Dt
Ouvr ac-e
j'itributltn
VI
~aie3&
Donne= la S_-:lL.It-Lcn de YokimLcrctsr
lneetE:
Lurs de Deu:.. Dernrures
K..
nie1
d uInqe
Marche
LiPr i%,
1-arcie
Diascr pt.i on,
Lieu de Pro iet
-
Ic~~u.
Responsalple
h
so
'__4~rI
.4G/~
services. ren 3us aLtr -S .qUe
'L.AUTREZ
IV~cntut~.nvz
ThAVAUX--
*1v'Donnez
tres oue la
e~ts~
I~~ra~~Sevce
I a CitL~aT.on d
C~nsrtira~n ~resrvt~ent.E, .ur.-et Rzallses Au .Cour.s d~Es Du:
Annees:
_Dernleres
1<
Zer v-:as
Desc~:pt-.on
LZ~
~
i - tre
-m.vcr arge
'Mont ant-
--
A
*I
I
I Utii.sez
.
cetSJAC!
-t2 f
pr-;.tr Itormations
i?,I
Su~emenars
re=t
:eu r
I9
j.
INTERETS
(A Remplir par Tout le honce)
Ireter~'Ls 1-7enerau:::
Donne= Quelques IntereLs Generaux qUe Repre'sentent 1,,s Tra'.1U:.
c'Infrastructure Routiere pour Ja Region de Votre Juridictci
1A~2~
r
dw o~z.
I
z ~~
e~d~
'1
bl
InL~r~ts S eciicues:
-Si On Vous AttrtbL~dtt des Travau:: RouLiers (SurtowIaquels sont les Tron~ons de
Rhaoalitation- et.12En~ret'ien),
Routes. Rurales Pr ioritaires
A~ mai~nenir.? --Pour'.Quoi'
1-ben Lfti e
Ze~~nn :eIfxirt~ e.~mbres ds
a1D&trs
sasaJitge
4,s
4'
Yv-a-a fi
Qc
-&
oc~L
azkE
00,
j
e6 ioa& aALr-"4N2
!.IDE:,-'Ai4;T
i
N: Rensei grnemnt.s Four-n is Sont Ver i
e
4
/v
(fvJ tin
b.
6
IE
FZ77c
rp
t' .fa
Compl1etz.E:r,
gasLa~L.
.dVft
on
i ques.
&Vm4za- t -
ET.CAIDLLAC
KXC-1*72
IdK237 KI
dL- I ' U r qo, n , L,
)JEW,
r
rt
C:RE:) I T eANLA 1 RE
(:-
I KL
le c as echeant pciu.r ind i qur Ii -aur face f Inanc, Dr e
ancaire daivent etre etablies sur paolera
banque.
en-t'9t-e dfune
que
ne scumettre
-o
-Nm
I.a
de
*
-
1
L-anqUe:
-'Date:
u ne i qn e dle rcr ena.t d'.uz mmntarimp ideM-6 mse ia -.a ~
~
*:-a
pour etre utilIisee en, tarn.L 1±e'
eSzin-pcu-r Line duree
Les _Actifs iapidernent realisab'les
pour guarantir la
*erinantisseelt
tndtq~tes ci-aessouS ont ete depmsL-5
ligne de Creicit Sl Van..e:
~~~a hq- e e: ~ntionbeec i-dIssuss a 4te" octroye2
cannaisace,. de cau..se. des -facililtes
atresp.&urs:bvus
(Eignatui'e
1DELLARATIDN
epiene
*:
SOUS -SEFMENT
(Nom)
me qu' ilI/e-i
1e.
est
pretesermeni-
drec lare
$Attestp..'eT sigrip par devyant
(Nomi de Banque)i
I- C2
___
..lur Oe .19
clans
1,;.
-
M~a.
(Sceau,
.+!
_
(Titr e)
Zon~e
an
de 1'Agent, det la E~nque'
ayant..unent
affr
de
O Mz SmIhns'7e x-p:
_______
REULIVtE DlU ZAIRE
R3GION DE
.S/REGION
29
AVRIL
N0v.12 .7
0
rC-8 8.
19880-
BANDUNDJ
DlE YAINDQO3E
'DRI ~TV
Z
IMA, le
*
-.
COLLECTIVI TE 'DEL LtAM U-
fransmix Copie -pour Infomation -I
-Au
Citoyen Pzrsident dui Comit6 poptilaiz'e
dui X.P.R.
et Comrissaire
de Zone
ielu
t-.
~U u Duzrecteurz Naional.du U~partement de
DdveJnppemen± .Rral
Objet i. Recommrantatizon.
Citoyen,
J'ai llhtineur de
youir
la
par
prediente
solliciter 1'appx± logiatique dufl6partenient de~6veloppement Rural poar l'6rectic
dais pants dans I& Colectivit6 de Liiabu et l'aminagement des Rouites do disserte
Ace-t atfet ,
aux
mons aeodxns -toutas lea prdogati
itayens JNbiakco-7podjah -et Lseia-Iae
'Iuz&
t
o
des-
int~irfts qu'ils mai±estent clans la Coliectivit6, do neigaoier et do conclur. tous
accords neocessaires avec le fl~partement de Ddveloppernent Ruiral et les entrep'riset
Buceti'bles dlgxdcutem les travax~
d'adnaement et l16rection des -pouts.
3_IP-ztS..fIM
*
A
4
Is'
*2--ponts sur. 2a route de
-I
-3
sentimeut a patriotques
*
*
N
''I
I
ponts do sortie de Tabo str la route Nord,
Citoyen, .1 'az'snce
. noz
1.~
*
*
W(ad#ok
pont d'aoccs aim village de Boku
agr~e.,
et-rim-mti=-"yx4resa.-Van~iez
- l Wl.*#I
DUCO)ITE
P'OLLTTL-r
-
(I
PO1PJ14IEE WU LoP4
DS_ WABO.
Table I.A. USAID-OR Contractor Survey Statistics for All Responding Organizations
I. Survey Responses
Organizations
Org's with rd. maint. experience INo experience, local eco. interest INo experience, no local interest I
Shabaj
Bandundu
Total Bandundu
S aba
Total Landundu
B
Shaba
T
quant %
auant % Iat
,
fnnt 0/nI nwmnt %/n uant % a
quant
Answering survey
86
Interviewed by John Brown
51
II.
%1
t
unt
%
quan
42 100%
100%
25
59%1
q
60%,
128
100%
76
59%1
q
50 100%
8
q
16%,
38
100%
14
37%,
28 100%
88 100%
22
3
25%
11%.
41
100%1
5
12%1
69 100%
8
12%1
Proximity to work zone
Org's with rd. maint. experience No experience, local eco. interest No experience, no local interest
Total
Shaba
Total Bandundu
Shaba
Total Bandundu
Shaba
Bandundu
Organizations with offices in quant
Kinshasa
Zone of rd. maintennace interest
III.
Activities
57
71
quant
6
36
66%
83%
%
quant
63
107
14%
86%
%
49%
84%
quant
25
38
%
quant
quant %
%
0%
0
38 100%
50%
76%
25
76
28%
86%
quant
19
10
%
quant
6
33
68%
36%
%
15%
80%
quant %
25
43
36%
62%
Org's with rd. maint. experience No experience, local eco. interest No experience, no local interest
Total
Shaba
Total Bandundu
Shaba
Total Bandundu
Shaba
Bandundu
Prime organizational activity guant
Agriculture (A)
Commerce (B)
Construction (C)
Rural Development (D)
Govemment(G)
Agro-Industry (I)
%
27
25
14
5
3
12
guant
%
31%
29%
16%
6%
3%
14%
6
18
12
1
3
2
guant
%
14%
43%
29%
2%
7%
5%
%
26%
33
34%
43
20%
26
5%
6
5%
6
14 11%
guant
26
18
5
0
0
1
guant
%
52%
36%
10%
0%
0%
2%
7
19
3
7
2
0
%
18%
50%
8%
18%
5%
0%
guant
33
37
8
7
2
1
%
38%
42%
9%
8%
2%
1%
guant
7
19
3
7
2
0
%
guant
25%
68%
11%
25%
7%
0%
3
26
9
2
1
0
% Iuant
7%
63%
22%
5%
2%
0%
10
45
12
9
3
0
%
14%
65%
17%
13%
4%
0%
Table I.B. Geographic and Experiential Distribution
USAID-OR Road Maintenance Survey Responses
'
I. Bandundu
Primary zone of interest
Without Experi. Without Experi.
Organizations
With Experience With Local Interes or Local. Interest
%
% quantity
% quantity
quantity
Bagata(BGT)
Bolobo (BLB)
Bulungu (BLG)
Feshi (FSH)
Gungu (GNG)
Idiofa (IDF)
Inongo (ING)
Kahemba(KHB)
Kasonga-Lunda (KSL)
Kenge (KNG)
Kiri (KIR)
Kutu(KUT)
Masi-Manimba (MAS)
Mushie (MSH)
Oshwe (OSH)
Popokabaka (PPK)
Road links not identified (XXX)
Anywhere in Zaire (ZZZ)
7
2
21
2
2
20
1
2
3
3
1
3
9
2
1
2
0
5
8%
2%
24%
2%
2%
23%
1%
2%
3%
3%
1%
3%
10%
2%
1%
2%
0%
6%
1
0
18
0
1
11
1
1
3
8
0
1
3
0
1
1
0
0
2%
0%
36%
0%
2%
22%
2%
2%
6%
16%
0%
2%
6%
0%
2%
2%
0%
0%
1
0
4
1
0
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
3
0
0
2
9
4
4%
0%
14%
4%
0%
11%
0%
0%
0%
4%
0%
0%
11%
0%
0%
7%
32%
14%
Bandundu Total
86
100%|
50
100%|
28
100%
II. Shaba
Organizations
With Experience
Primary zone of interest
Bukama (BUK)
Dilolo (DLL)
Kabalo (KBL)
Kabongo (KBG)
Kalemie (KLM)
Kambove (KBV)
Kamina (KMA)
Kaniama (KNI)
Kapanga (KAP)
Kasenga (KAS)
Kipushi (KPS)
Kongolo (KNG)
Lubudi (LBD)
Malemba-Nkulu (MLB)
Manono (MNO)
Mitwaba (MIT)
Mutshasha (MUT)
Moba (MOB)
Nyunzu(NYU)
Pweto (PWE)
Sakania (SKN)
Sandoa (SAN)
Road links not identified (XXX)
Anywhere in Shaba (SSS)
Anywhere in ZaYre (ZZZ)
Shaba Total
auantity
Without Experi. Without Experi.
With Local Interes or Local. Interest
% quantity
% quantity
%
0
3
2
2
0
4
0
1
1
1
1
8
3
0
2
0
1
1
2
0
0
2
0
3
5
0%
7%
5%
5%
0%
10%
0%
2%
2%
2%
2%
19%
7%
0%
5%
0%
2%
2%
5%
0%
0%
5%
0%
7%
12%
0
6
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
3
14
0
2
0
0
6
0
3
0
0
1
0
0
0
0%
16%
0%
3%
0%
0%
3%
0%
0%
3%
8%
37%
0%
5%
0%
0%
16%
0%
8%
0%
0%
3%
0%
0%
0%
0
1
3
0
0
6
1
0
0
2
5
9
0
0
0
1
7
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
0%
2%
7%
0%
0%
15%
2%
0%
0%
5%
12%
22%
0%
0%
0%
2%
17%
0%
0%
0%
0%
2%
12%
0%
0%
42
100%|
38
100%|
41
100%
88
Table I.C. Statistics for Experienced Organizations
I. Survey responses
Regional totals
Organizations answering survey
Organizations interviewed by John Brown
II.
Shaba
Bandundu
Total
quant % I quant % quant %
128 100%
42 100%
86 100%
51
25
59%
76
60%
59%
Road Maintenance Experience
OR attributaire contract
SNRDA attributaire contract
Other government attributaire contract
Self-financed road maintenance
Charitable funding (domestic and/or abroad)
Government road/bridge construction contract
quant
18
9
13
29
9
8
%
Total
Shaba
Bandundu
Origin of maintenance financing
quant
10
9
4
7
4
8
21%
10%
15%
34%
10%
9%
%
quant
24%
21%
10%
17%
10%
19%
28
18
17
36
13
16
%
22%
14%
13%
28%
10%
13%
III. Geography
Shaba
Bandundu
Organizations with offices in
quant
quant
%
Kinshasa
57
66%
the zone of road maintenance interest
71
83%
%
Total
quant
%
6 14%
63
49%
86%
107
84%
36
Kilometers of roads proposed to maintain
Total
Median
Mean
Maximum
Minimum
IV
27,393
210
338
1,976
Km
Km
Km
Km
0 Km
Activities
Bandundu
OrganizationalActivites (not exclusive)
Mechanical road construction
Civil engineering
Topogaphy
Retail commerce
Wholesale commerce
Building construction
Bridge construction
Commercial transport
Wholesale commerce
Prime organizational activity
Agriculture (A)
Commerce (B)
Construction (C)
Rural Development (D)
Government (G)
Agro-Industry (I)
quant
8
10
7
41
68
26
31
28
23
quant
27
25
14
5
3
12
%
9%
12%
8%
48%
79%
30%
36%
33%
27%
%
31%
29%
16%
6%
3%
14%
7,682
165
248
710
Km
Km
Km
Km
39 Km
35,075
198
293
1,976
0 Km
Total
Shaba
quant
9
12
6
17
26
18
15
14
7
quant
6
18
12
1
3
2
%
21%
29%
14%
40%
62%
43%
36%
33%
17%
%
14%
43%
29%
2%
7%
5%
Km
Km
Km
Km
quant
17
22
13
58
94
44
46
42
30
quant
33
43
26
6
6
14
%
13%
17%
10%
45%
73%
34%
36%
33%
23%
%
26%
34%
20%
5%
5%
11%
89
Table I.C. Statistics for Experienced Organizations
V. Characteristics
Classinlcation
Corporation
Sole proprietorship
Government organization
Non-profit organization
Religious (missionary) organization
Size
Annual gross over 20 million Zaires
Gross between 1 million et 20 millions Z.
Annual gross less than 1 millions Z.
Mean seniority of the top 4 executives
Median number of permanent employees
Mean number of permanent employees
Subscribe to social security
VI
Bandundu
quant
%
52%
31%
3%
7%
6%
45
27
3
6
5
%
quant
15%
66%
19%
13
57
16
%
quant
60%
24%
5%
5%
7%
25
10
2
2
3
%
quant
26%
69%
5%
11
29
2
55%
29%
4%
6%
6%
70
37
5
8
8
%
quant
19%
67%
14%
24
86
18
10 years
40 empl.
245 empl.
92 72%
Shaba
Total
Bandundu
Offices
Hangars
Garages
Bulldozers
Ciment mixers
Vibrating compactors
Mobile cranes
Mechanical shovels
Cars
Agricultural tractors
Commercial stores
Tool shops
Tilting trucks
Graders
Water trcks
Pneumatic compactors
Shovel tractors
Pickup trucks (2 x 4)
Jeeps (4 x 4)
Medium and large transport trucks
Vehicles for road maintenance surveillance
quant
10 years
10 years
68 empl.
30 empl.
186.5 empl. 366.2 empl.
30 71%
62 72%
Equipement
Organizations with one or more
Total
Shaba
quant
74
67
37
7
14
5
5
4
27
16
52
21
10
9
10
5
6
13
43
33
62
%
86%
78%
43%
8%
16%
6%
6%
5%
31%
19%
60%
24%
12%
10%
12%
6%
7%
15%
50%
38%
72%
%
quant
38
30
25
8
15
8
7
7
15
15
14
15
15
11
10
8
6
15
21
22
23
90%
71%
60%
19%
36%
19%
17%
17%
36%
36%
33%
36%
36%
26%
24%
19%
14%
36%
50%
52%
55%
quant
%
112
97
62
15
29
13
12
11
42
31
66
36
25
20
20
13
12
28
64
55
85
88%
76%
48%
12%
23%
10%
9%
9%
33%
24%
52%
28%
20%
16%
16%
10%
9%
22%
50%
43%
66%
Number of transport trucks
Total
Median
Mean
436 Cam.
233 Cam.
203 Cam.
1 Cam.
1 Cam.
0 Cam.
2.7 Cam.
4.8 Cam.
3.4 Cam.
Vehicle adapted to road maintenance surveillance (car,4x4, pickup, motocycle)
Total
Median
Mean
410 Vehi.
2 Vehi.
4.8 Vehi.
475 Vehi.
2 Vehi.
11.3 Vehi.
885 Vehi.
3 Vehi.
6.9 Vehi.
Table I.D. General Information, Organizations with a local econ. interest in road maint.
90
Vehicles available
Wholesale|Bridges |Mech. Rd. Constr
Requested
|Bridgens
Or nization T Main Work Activitv Aaric. -Transoort TOpoor. -oad Maintenance Experience Km. RoadsRmquested
Work Zone
Short Name
9
199
I Interest but no experience
VI
Commerce
Corporation
I
Agri Kumutaka Kongolo
1
3
120
Office desRouteo
I
Rural Development
Missionary
Lubudi
AKD
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Commerce
Corporation
5 AmaniRenove Kongolo
1
identified
Not
410
des
Routes
7Office
Commerce
Corporation
Bulungu
I AMS
4
Notidentified
106
Interest but no experience
SoleProprietor Commerce
5 Ansiem-Ezung Idiofa
Not
identified
120
no
experience
Interest but
Construction
Corporation
Bulunqu
ARTECO
i
Not identified
Interest but no experience 304
/
V
Agriculture
Corporation
Idiofa
7 Atatala Anipap
3
14
796
SNROA
Commerce
Corporation
Bulunqu
3 AUTOZA
Amount
Any
Any
Amount
bridge
constr.
road
or
Govt
Construction
Corporation
Anywhere in Zaire
)
AUXELTRA
8
180
ission or PVOfinanced
Construction
Missionary
Kutu
10 AZCBASBL
Not identified
Interest but no experience 272
SoleProprietor Agriculture
Idiofa
11 Bal-M ael
Not identified
Interest but no experience 494
Agriculture
Corporation
Inono. Mushie
12 Bama
1
Not Identified
183
Self-financed
V
Sole Proprietor Ariculture
Masi-Manimba
13 Bamus& Fils
2
32
Self-financed
Sole Proprietor Agriculture
Baata
14 Banda
Not identified
210
Office des Routes
Construction
Corporation
Bulungu
15 Baseho& Cie
6
Not identified
231
Self-financed
Agro-Industry
Corporation
Bagata
16 BAT/Lunkuni
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Construction
Idiofa
17 BATEC
Not identified
120
vt organization
7Other
Commerce
Corporation
Bulun
18 Belle-Vue
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Aariculture
Buluno
19 Biee Mafuta
2
Not identified
403
Interest but no experience
SoleProprietor Commerce
20 Bitshi Inoimbe Idiofa
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Auriculture
Bulungo
21 Bokoil
6
12
394
des
Routes
VOffice
7
AgrIculture
Corporation
Idiofa
22 Bongibo
2
Not identified
ovt roador bridge constr. 435
V
V
Construction
Corporation
23 Bonkui SPRL Oshwe'Kutu
0
Not identified
Ill
Interest but no experience
V
SoleProprietor Agriculture
Oshwe
24 Bosama
Not identified Not identified
interest but no experience
SoleProprietor Commerce
Idiofa
25 Bouryaba
0
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Commerce
26 Brig. Ari-Arti Konoolo
Not identified
75
Othergovt organization
I 7
Construction
Non-Profit
Idiofa
27 Bum
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Commerce
MAS/Mokamo
28 CADESCO
1Not identified 20
Mission or P financed
V
V
yA ONOr/Ti
Non-Profit T Commerce
29 CADULAC
4
9
1372
butSelf-financed
Agro- Industry
Corporation
GN/Punza
30 CAll/Punza
2
Not identified
265
but
Self-financed
Vnteret
Commerce
Corporation
31 Carri. Kisanga Kambove
I
Not identified
165
SNRDA
Commerce
Corporation
Mutshasha
32 CBI
Not Identified
657
ionSelf-financed
Agro-Industry
Corporation
Idiofa
33 CCBSPRIL
3
1l
477
Self-financed
Agriculture
Corporation
Bolobo
34 CEA
Not identified Not identified ___
Interest but no experience
Commerce
Bulungu
35 CEADER
Not identified Not identified __
lInterest but no experience
Rural Development
Kipushi
36 CEDECOM
1
5
400
Self-financed
Commerce
Corporation
Idiofa
37 CEKO
13
AnyShaba
Govt roador bridge constr. Any Shaba
Construction
Corporation
38 CMS-SAEZA Anywhere in Shaba
Not identified
195
Mission or PO financed
Ariculture
Non-Profit
Bulung
39 CODAL
l
Not identified
200
govt organization
V _Other
Government
Government
Idiofa/Banga
40 Colt. Banga
Not identified __
145
Other gov't organization
Government
Government
41 ColI. Kabongo Kabongo
1
Not identified
220
ov t organization
Ariculture--Other
Government
Idiofa
42 Coll. Kapia
1
Not identified
108
Other ovbtorganization
Government
Government
Idiofa
43 Coll. Mateko
Not identified
S97
Other govt oranization
Government
Government
44 Colt. Mwat-Yav Kapanoa
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Rural Development _
45 Comitede 0ev Kongolo
1
100
nerf-finyuced Not iontified
VrVcV.
Agriculture
Corporation
Bulunob
46 COMUELE
3
80
Mission or PVOfinanced
Commerce
Non-Profit
Buluno
47 COOPEMI
identified
Not
identified
Not
Interest but no experience
rDilooo Agriculture
48 Cooper.KasaPi
Not identified
420
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Non-Profit
BulungC
49 Cooper.Ndui
3
Not identified
642
Mission or Pel financed
Commerce
Non-Profit
Moba
SO COPAM
9
Any Amount
Any
Amount
constr.
road
or
bridge
Govt
Construction
Corporation
Anywhere in Zaire
51 CORETI
6
Not identified
226
7Self-financed
Commerce
Corporation
Idiofa
52 CPSACSPRL
Not identified Not identified
Interest butno experience
SoleProprietor Agriculture
ButungC
53 OAEP/Kwilu
4
Not identified
40
or P50 financed
VVMission
7Sole Proprietor Agriculture
Kambove
54 DAGRIM
3
Not identified
176
desRoutes
VOffice
Ariculture
Corporation
Lubudi
55 OAK
Not
identified
identified
Not
Interest but no experience
Sole Proprietor Rural Development
56 Dev. Rur.KML Malemba-Nkulu
7
Notidentified
648
- -__ Mission or P50 financed
VRural Development
Missionary
Idiofa
57 Oloc.d'Idiofa
1
Not identified
143
VSNRDA
Commerce
Corporation
Idiofa
58 EbanSobila
identified
Not
Not
identified
no
experience
but
Interest
Agriculture
Missionary
59 ECZMawanga Kasongo-Lunde
Not identified Not identified
Ointerest but no experience
Rural Development
raltmba-Nkul
KaminaC
60 ECZ/CPZ
10
Not identified
266
GMissionor Pbr financed
Construction
CES/SELEC
Missionary
Feshi
61
5
Not identified
75
Self-financed
Vt
Construction
Corporation
KambovP
62 EICSPRL
2
Notidentified
183
SNRDAb no
VnV
SoleProprietor Commerce
Idiofa
63 Eta
Not
identified
identified
Not
no
experience
but
Interest
Commerce
Kongolo
64 ELOBA
4
36
220
Self-financed
SoleProprietor Agriculture
65 EpabaMambe Idiofa
4
An Amount Not identified
Office desRoutes
Ariculture
66 ESTAGRICO Kongolo Nyunzu,Kabalo Corporation
Not
identified
identified
Not
no
experience
but
Interest
Commerce
r
Kasono-Lunda, Keno
67 FEARDE
2
60
7Self-financed
CSoleProprietor Agriculture
Idiofa
68 FERMAMI
Not i3nii
39
Self-financed
SoleProprietor Ariculture
69 Far3 Katikuta Kaong-Lunde
Not identified Not identified
interest but no experience
Igriculture
Bgauis
Nyunzu
70 FrAE S
6
Not identified
610
des Routes
Agriculture m tOffice
Corporation
Buuni
71 Fernandes
36
Gov't roador bridge constr. Not identified Not identified
v
V V V
Construction
Corporation
Anywhere in Shaba
72 Forrest
1
Not identified
575
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Corporation
Masi-Manimba
73 GAPAKSPRL
9
Notidentified
155
hSelf-financed
Agriculture
Corporation
74 0CM Develop. Lubudi
I
Notidentified
162
hSNRDA
Sole Proprietor Commerce
Kyunzu Kabalo
75 Or. Fabny
identified
119
Notidenified
Interest
butno
noexperience
experience Nid
Interest but
Commerce
KonioloaKabalo Fesh Corporation
Agrce
76
Or. Kibwa
KongoloMabao
76 Gr.Kiata
Not identified Notidentified
Interest but noexperience
Commerce
Nyunzu
77 Or. Masudi
1
Notidentified
245
SNRDA
Agriculture
Corporation
78 Or. Muwa-av KonGolo
Not identified Notidentified
Interest but no experience
ADriculture
Sandda
79 Or. Munun
Not
identified
identified
Not
no
experience
Interest
but
Agriculture
Kongolo
80 Or. NNM
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Agro-Industry
81 Groukat-Azaci Konuolo
3
Notidentified
180
govt organization
sOther
SoleProprietor Commerce
Masi-Manimba
82 Ousema
1
Not identified
1450
SNRDA
o'V
Agro-Industry
Corporation
Masi-Manimba
83 HPK
Not identified
295
Self-financed
Aro-Industry
Corporation
Bulunoa
84 CSK
3
Not
identified
210
buSelf-financed
Aro-Industry
Corporation
85 Duilerie Ylen. Bulungu
Notidentified
Misi roador bridge constr. 125
v
Construction
Corporation
Kengoe
86 beka& Fi
Notidentified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Commerce
Corporation
Bulungu
87 IBOLO
Not identified
Not
identified
but
no
experience
Interest
Agricul ure
Popokabaka
88 IBWE
Not identified
650
Self-financed
alVDevelom
Commerce
Corporation
Buluno
89 interwoad
1
Not identified
469
SNRDA
Construction
90 IRIZ Manono Manono Malemba-Nkulu Non-Profit
Not identified
80
but
no
experience
Interest
Commerce
Corporation
Bulungu
91 ISUNka
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Sole Proprietor Commerce
92 TUTUMbwi i Buluna
Not
Interest
7
a FehAgriculture4
I~Siadoa
790Gr
Munung
1
identified
Not identIfe
148identified 1Not
Missio
SNRDAbut no experience
Agro-Industry
Corporation
Bulun u
JL-SIEFAC
93
5
Not identified
274
Office des Routes
Commerce
Corporation
94 KabEmbaMal. Nyunzu
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Commerce
95 KabembaTat. Dilolo
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Construction
Kipushi
96 KAGA
1
3
62
Self-financed
Commerce
Proprietor
Sole
ulun
o
a
b
97 Kakesa
Not identified Not identified
but no experience
A
Construction
eInterest
r
o
u
n
Mutshasha
R
98 Kakwata
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Agriculture
d
Bulung
99 Kalema
Notidentified
153
S--f-fNRDA
Commerce
Corporation
Kabalo
100 Ka M& Fits
Not identified
136
SNRDA
V
Commerce
Corporation
Kongolo
101 Kamwanta
2
identified
289
R
sNot
Self-financed
Commerce
Corporation
Bulunqu
102 Kanus
2
Not identified
430
Office des Routes
Sole Proprietor Commerce
Diloin
103 apAnd
9
Not identified
61 7
Other ovt organIzation
SoleProprietor Rural Development
Idiofa
104 Kapiten
1
Not
identified
509
NR deoRoutes
Office
SoleProprietor Commerce
N zdiofa
105 Kasanza
Table I.D. General Information, Organizations with a local econ. interest in road maint.
91
Vehicles available
|Bridges Requested
Km. RoadsRequested
Work Zone
Short Name
3
15
380
Bulungu
107 Kimbondia
1
Not identified
316
Bagata
108 Kishwe
Not identified
198
109 Kisimba Mbaie Manono
Not identified
363
Kongolo
110 Kissimba
Not identified Not identified
Idiofa
111 Kumapende
24
Any Shaba
n Shaba
112 LendorInt'l Ltd. Anywhere in Shaba
Not identified Not identified
113Inoelo Gungu
Not identified Not identified
Bulunau
114 Limalou
Not identified
206
Gungu
115 Lozo
2
Not identified
163
116 Lumbu Useni Kongalo
Not identified Not identified
Konoolol
1 17 1uminaze
Not identified
143
Mshie
118 Luza
2
10
220
Bulunau
119 Me N'Gwalu
2
Notidentified
180
Masi-Manimba
120 Mabeka
Not identified Not identified
Bulungu
121 Mafuta Sala
Not identified
50
122 Maieb M'ake Kutu
1
Not identified
166
Kenge
Luthom
123 Maison
4
Not identified
93
124 Mali YaButoto Konolo
Not identified Not identified
125 Mambiki & Fils Kenga
Not identified Not identified
Kenge
126 Manzanza
Not identified Not identified
Mutshasha
127 Matete
Not identified Not identified
Idiofa
128 Matu Be-Endi
Not identified
100
Masi-Manimba
129 Mbongo
1
Not identified
861
Kenge
130 Mbuku Nuni
1
Not identified
40
131 MC Kabongo Kabongo
Not identified Not identified
Dilolo
132 MCKasai
3
Not identified
710
Sandoa
133 MC Sandoa
45
Any Amount
AnyAmount
Anywhere in Zaire
134 MDZ
identified Not identified
Not
Mutasha
135 Meclamo
Not identified Not identified
Bulunqu
136 Mindenga
Not identified Not identified
Kongalo
137 MM
3
Not identified
75
Kipushi
138 MMK& Fils
Notidentified Not identified
Bulunqu
139 Mombembe
Not identified
180
140 Mputu Mbwe Bagata
3
Not identified
137
idiofa
141 Mputu Mputu
1
Not identified
104
142 Mputu Nkanga Inono. Kutu
Not identified
100
Idiofa
143 Mudimu
Not identified
140
Kabalo
144 Mulala Amine
Not identified Not identified
Mutshasha
145 Mumba
I
Not identified
256
diofa
146 Mungela
1
3
210
Kavuka Kenge
147 Mu
identified Not identified
Not
Kongolo
148 Muyumba
Not identified
125
Masi-Manimba
149 Muzina
2
Not identified
65
Kasona-Lunda
150 MwakuYale
4
Not identified
604
Kahemba
151 Mwaleiima
Not identified Not identified
Kasonga-Lunda
152 Ndinga
Not identified Notidentified
Dilolo
153 Ne a
Not identified Not identified _
Dilolo
154 Naunza
Not identified Not identified
Kenge
155 Nki Bibwi
2
3
480
Feshi, Kasona-Lunda
156 Nkita-Zaire
1
Not identified
441
Kongolo
157 NMK
identified
Not
Notidentified
Idiofa
158 Nsankien
1
Not identified
1732
159 Nunoa-Lubeye Bulunau
Not identified Not identified
160 Nyembo Song Kongolo
2
Not identified
618
Popokebaka
161 Nzawa-Sunga
S0the
1rot
or anization
178
Not identified
2
162 Nzundu
Idiofa
Sole Proprietor Construction
linterestg but no experience Not identified Not identified
Commerce
Kenge
163 PAK ASBL
2
64
des Routes
I _Office
SoleProprietor |Agriculture
164 Pakhe& Fits Bulunou
1
Not identified
315
IMission or PVOfinanced
M
Missionary
165 Paroisse Budi Kabongo
1
Not identified
94
financed
PVO
or
-Mission
Development
Rural
Missionary
Masi-Manimba
166 Paroisse Yasa
identified
Not
351
financed
PVO
or
I
Mission
Rural Development I
Non-Profit
Kasona-Lunda
167 PDKASBL
identified Not identified
Not
experience
no
but
[Interest
Commerce
Kutu
168 Pokiabe
but no experience Not identified Not identified
-Interest
Aro-industry
Corporation
169 PRODECAT Kahemba
4
17
793
IMission or PVOfinanced
Rural Development
Non-Profit
Kasona-Lunda
170 Projet Vie
1
Not identified
195
[Other ov't organization
Commerce
Corporation
Popokabaka
171 RAK
3
identified
Not
8
I
Self-financed
Agriculture
Corporation
Baoata
172 SAC
167
Amount
Any
Amount
Any
constr.
bridge
or
road
Gov't
Iv
Construction
Corporation
Anywhere in Zaire
173 SAFRICAS
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Agriculture
Mutshashe
174 Sambumba
1
1
145
Self-financed
Agro-industry
Masi-Manimba, Gungu Corporation
175 Sampedro
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Agriculture
Proprietor
Sole
Baata
176 SangeMfumu.
7
identified
Not
198
Office des Routes
Commerce
Corporation
diofa
177 Sanga-Sam
Not identified Not identified
interest but no experience
Agriculture
Mutshasha
178 Sappe
3
Not identified
1976
Self-financed
I
Agro-Industry
Corporation
Bulungo
179 SICASPRL
Not identified Not identified
no
experience
but
Interest
Rural Development
C
Malemba-Nkulu
180 Simwa
4
identified
Not
238
Self-financed
Commerce
Corporation
Bolobo,Mushie, Kutu
181 SOCOA
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Commerce
Corporation
liulungu
182 SOCOBU
2
identified
Not
200
constr.
bridge
or
road
Gov't
Construction
Missionary
idiofa
183 SOGELEM
1
Not identified
412
I _Self-financed
_
Iv
7
SoleProprietor Commerce
184 Soleil Couch. Bulunqu
3
identified
Not
Amount
Any
I
VSelf-financed
I
V
Commerce
Corporation
Sandoa
185 SOZACOT
55
Amount
Any
Amount
Any
constr.
bridge
or
road
7Gov't
,
__
Construction
Corporation
Anywhere in Zaire
186 SOZAGEC
2
Not identified
81
Office des Routes
Commerce
Corporation
Konoolo
187 SuccessYa
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Construction
Kipushi
188 Sulka
57
Any iShaba
a
Office des Routes
I/
Construction
Corporation
Kambove
189 Swanepoel
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified __
--___
_
Construction
Bulungo
190 Tabasenge
identified
Not
identified
Not
experience
no
but
Interest
Commerce
191 TambweHana Nyunzu
7
192
Office des Routes
SoleProprietor Commerce
Dilolo
192 TambweTsh
2
Not identified
ISO
I-- Self-financed
SoleProprietor Agriculture
193 ThomsBi-Yam Bagata
A
I
identified
Not
340
Routes
es
Office
griculture
Corporation
194 TokoWangata Bagata
1
Not identified
170
VSNRDA
SoleProprietor Agriculture
Mushie
195 Tomanko
identified
Not
118
VSNRDA
Commerce
Corporation
Kiri
196 Tosangana
Not
identified
identified
Not
experience
no
but
Interest
I-Sole Proprietor Commerce_
Kenge
197 Toutde end
Not identified Not identified
Interest but no experience
Ariclture
198 Trans Kwango Kenge,Popo.,K.-Lunda
Not identified
371
Interest but no experience
Construction
Corporation
Kenge
199 TRAVAS
Not identified
88
des
Routes
_Office
SoleProprietor Commerce
Dilolo
200 Tshata
but no experience Not identified Not identified
Commerce---Interest
Dilolo
201 Tshifanaken
Notidentified
identified
Not
experience
no
but
Interest
Sole Proprietor Commerce
Kongolo
202 TwendeMbele
interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
SoleProprietor Commerce
Bulungu
203 UGZ
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Commerce
Kongolo
204 Umoia
8
Interest but no experience 85
Agriculture
Non-Profit
Kasonga-Lunda
205 UNIPAZA
I
Not identified
92
Self-financed
Construction
Proprietor
Sole
Masi-Manimba
206 iyinduyala
Interest but no experience Not identified Not identified
Construction
Bulungu, Masi-M.. Gunou
207 Vemaico
identified
Not
identified
Not
no
experience
but
Interest
SoleProprietor Agriculture
Idiofa
208 Zabi-Zabi
2
Not identified
535
SNRDA
V
SoleProprietor Commerce
Kaniama
209 Zaitchim
2
Not identified
120
SNRDA
Sole Proprietor Commerce
Kahemba
210 Zangio
5
identified
Not
555
organization
gov't
VOther
V
Commerce
Corporation
Bulungu
211 ZUNA
lWholesalelBridges |Mech. Rd.Constr
Buildiing Civil EFox
Retail
Tnpor -Road Maintenance Experience
-Transport
Agric.
Activity
Organization Ty MainWork
des Routes
V VOffice
V / V
Commerce
Corporation
govt organization
I VOther
SoleProprietor Government
ther go't organization
V
Commerce
Corporation
or PVOfinanced
7iission
SoleProprietor Commerce
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Gov'troador bridge constr.
V
Construction
Corporation
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Interest but no experience
Commerce
Corporation
'ovtor ization
Other
Aro-Industry
Corporation
SNRDA
VV
V V
SoleProprietor Commerce
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Office desRoutes
7
SoleProprietor Commerce
Self-financed
V
Ariculture
Corporation
Self-financed
Agriculture
Corporation
Interest but no experience
SoleProprietor Commerce
Self-financed
Commerce
Corporation
Interest but no experience
Agriculture
Corporation
Self-financed
Commerce
Corporation
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Proprietor
Sole
Interest but no experience
Sole Proprietor Agriculture
interest but no experience
Commerce
Interest but no experience
Ariculture
Self-financed
Agriculture
Corporation
desRoutes
VOffice
SoleProprietor Agriculture
Interest but no experience
Rural Development
Missionary
but no experience
Interest
Rural Development
Office desRoutes
Rural Development
Missionary
V V ov't roador bridge constr.
Construction
Corporation
I interest but no experience
Agro-industry
interest but no experience
SoleProprietor Agriculture
Interest but no experience
Commerce
VSelf-financed
7
7
Construction
Corporation
Interest but no experience
Agriculture
Corporation
Office des Routes
VV
SoleProprietor Ariculture
Interest but no experience
V
V
V
Commerce
SoleProprietor
des Routes
VOffice
/ V
Sole Proprietor Ariculture
orgnization
'ovt
ther
1
V
Sole Proprietor Ariculture
V VSNRDA
Commerce
Corporation
Interest but no experience
Commerce
VSNRDAI
SoleProprietor Agriculture
des Routes
VOffice
SoleProprietor lCommerce
Interest but no experience
Commerce
-Self-financed
Agriculture
SoleProprietor
desRoutes
VOffice
V V
Agriculture
Corporation
Office desRoutes
7
Commerce
Corporation
Interest but no experience
I
Commerce
Interest but no experience
Commerce-interest but no experience
Commerce
Interest but no experience
SoleProprietor Commerce
Other govt organization
Commerce
Corporation
gov't organization
Other
Government
Sole Proprietor
Interest but no experience
Sole Proprietor Agriculture
des Routes
Office
Sole Proprietor Commerce
Interest but no experience
Commerce
des Routes
7Office
Sole Proprietor Agriculture
Table I.E. Addresses, Organizations with a local econ. interest in road maintenance
')ffice
Kinstasa
Full Organization Name
1
Agri Kumataka
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
AKD
AmaniRenove
AMS
55
HOAddress
HOP.O.
Kongolo
B. P. 157
Lubumbashi
Kongolo
KinshasaI
Idiofa
57
B. P.
Ets. Ansiem-Ezung
B. P. 9541 Kinshasal
3 Rte.Kimwenza, MontNgafula
ARTECO
B. P. 15466 Kinshasa I
RueNqinano. 38, Lemba
Atatala Anipap
B. P. 15554 Kinshasa I
Av.ColonelEbayano. 1060
AUTOZA
B. P. 2199 KinshasaI
AUXELTRA-BETON 292. Av.de la Justice
B. P. 16252 Kinshasa I
AZCB ASBL
B. P. 3955 Kinshasa I
Palais de la Nation
Bal-Mayel Murbal
Kin. Limete
B. P. 556
Eta. Borne
Masi-Manimba
Village Mambanzi,Kinzenzengo
Ferme Bamus& Fils
Bandundu
B.P. 445
209 Av.Bakali. Z. Mavovo
Ets. BandaMolende
B. P. 14651 KinshasaI
& Cie
Baoeho
Kinshasa I
P.
621
B.
BAT/Lunkuni SPRL
I
B. P. 15466 Kinshasa
RueNginano.38, Lembe9
BATEC
Bulunqu
Av.Losono. 8. Quartier Kabanqu B. P. 37
Ets.
Belle-Vue
Bulunqu
17
no.
Kasai
Av.
Mafuta
Bieve
Ets.
Idiofa
B. P.17
Bitshi Ingombe
Ets.
Kin. Gombe
B.P.1504
RueLokele no.4
Bokoil
Ets.
B P. 12822 Kinsh.-Gombe
Av.Kasa-Vubu no.2/B
BongiboSPRL
Ets.
B. P. 1282 Kinah.-Limete
42 Av. desForgerons,0.Funo
Bonkul SPRL
Oshwe
B.P. 26
& Fib1
Bosama
Ets.
diofa
B.P.42
Bouryaba
_
_.
.P. 166__ Kongolo
Brigade Agri-Artisn.
I
Kinshasa
13077
B.
P.
IX
Lemba
no.
100,
Ngina
Av.
Bumpay
Ets.
Kin.Kimbaseke
B.P.7909
Av. Ndjokuno.26
CADESCO
B.P. 9347 Kinshasa I
2272 Av. du Flambeau/Ndolo
CADULAC
,
B. P. 1134, Kinshasa
SPRL
CAICO/Punza
B. P. 1837 Likasi
Av.Kaponda no. 3
Kisanqa
Carriere
Kolwezi
62
B.
P.
153
no.
Kaiama
Av.
CBI
KinshasaI
B. P. 86
COBSPRL
B. P. 14196 Kinsh.-Gombe
Av. Ebavano. 2087/2
CEA
Kinshasa XXIII
B.P.327
CEADER
Lubumbashi
B. P. 609
CEDECOM
Idiofa
43
B.
P.
Commercial
Lavunguno. 1, Centre
CEKO
Av.Kasavubuno. 305
B. P. 2785
B. P. 273
B. P. 1098
CMS-SAEZA
B. P. 1455
CODAL Luung
lectivite doBangoa Secteur de Bongo
Col
B.P.6
Collectivite Kabongo
B. P. 13
Mukiamuni lyolo
Collecticlto Moteko
Chefde collectivite secteur Kapia
Matari. Collectivite Moteko
B. P.
Collectivite Mwat-Yav
_
I
B. P. 236
B. P. 2297
Comitedu Develop.
24 Imm. IMMOAF,Blv. 30 Juin
COMUELE
B. P. 270
COOPEMI
B. P. 38
c/o MissionCthol.
Coop.Ar. do Kosogi Localite oYa
RueSamuno.7, Kimpwanza
Cooperative de Ndui
B. P. 4337
Coop.Agr. Marungu
B. P. 20799
CORETI
Kipwanza76 Av. Victoire, KasavubuB. P. 231
SPRL
oPSAC
B.P.30
DAEP/Kwilu
B. P. 510
RouteLubumbashi no. 83
DAGRIM
B. P. 829
Av.Industrielle no. 120
DomaineKiankwadi
B,P. 3673
no.36
ARr.
InteoreKMLA.Circlaire
Dey.
B. P. 8251
Diocesed'Idiofa
20bis Av. Mokaria, Yolo-Sud
Ebangobila
B.P.4353
ECZMawanga
B. P. 380
ECZ/CPZ
B. P. 12232
Eglise Ev.S./SELEC
B. P. 626
Av. desChantiers no. 32
EIC SPRL
B. P. 24
Centre Commercial no. 72
Ets. Ele Mikwampaka
B. P. 129
Ets. ELOBA
1 bis RuePaka,0. Etudiants IPM
EpabaMambe
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66 ESTAGRICO
67 FEARDE
68 FERMAMI
69 FermeKatikula
70 FermeSagalis
71
5te.Fernandes& Cie.
72 Forrest
73 GAPAKSPRL
Devel.
74 GECAMINES
75 Groupe Fallay
76 GroupeKibwe
77 Groupe Masudi
roupe Muganga
78
79 Groupe Munung
80 Groupe N.N.M
81 Groukat-Azaci
82 Gusema udulenqi
83 HPKHUILMAT
84 HSKSPRL
85 Huilerie de Yelenge
86 beka& Fibs
87 Ets IBOLO
88 Ets. bwe
89 Interwood SPRL
90 IRIZ Manono
91 Ets. Isu Nka
92 Itutu Mbwisi
93 JVL-SIEFAC
94 Kabemba Maloba
95 KabembaTalaja
96 KAGA
97 KakesaLukumpiele
98 KakwataEncoka
99 Kalema Makola
100 Ets.Kalu & Fils
llunga
10 1 Kiamwanga
102 Ets. Kanus
Tshimpotoy
Kapend
3
10
104 Kapiten Lavung
Kakov
105 Kasanza
106 Kikata Ngima
Av. Likasi no.72, Lokolela
-
no. 3
Av. Masamba
Laba Makingi
17, AvenueLikasi
292, Av. de la Justice
V
V
V
V
B. P. 609
-
- Lavunquno
1,
Centre Commercial
Kabongo
-
Idiofa
- Chef decollectivite secteur Kapia
Colleclivile Mateko
- Matlon,
-
/
Kinshasa
V Mikwi
ocalite Y c/n
V Localite Ndui
-
I
Idiofa
Kongolo
Kinsh. Lemba
I
0.Chinois
COMUELE-RIZBAND,
-
V
- Av. desChantiers no. 32
- Centre Commercial no. 72
V Centre Commercial mateko
V
V
V
V
-
M.C.Mawanga
Kapia
Nsongo-Mbude,
Rue5 no. 16.KatubaKananga
Av.Victime de Rebellion no. 9bis
Ac. Kigomano. 22
Bld. Lumumbano. 10
GCMDevelop.
-
B. P. 2060
B. P. 150
B. P. 97
B.P.57
B. P. 199
Kolwezi
Kongolo
- Mission Catholique Makutane
Lubumbashi
V Av. Gd.Rte. no. 34A
Kinsh.-Neaba
V Fum- Polo
Kinsh.-Limele
Kikwit
- PosteYenge,Collectivite Kwenge
Kikwit
KengeI
ex-JYL (Sadiba),
Kish.-NgaliemV P1ant
no. I
- Av. Mayelamene
Bulunqu
V
Kin/Bandal
V
Kinshasa I
Manono
- Ac.Wenzeno. 3
Bulunqu
- Av.Luniunqu no.34
Bulungu
V Kimbilanqundu via Kikwit
Kinshasa I
B. P. 29
Nyunzu
-
B. P. 88
B. P. 159
Kasaji
Lubumbashi
Bulunqu
Kolwezi
Kinshasa I
Kabalo
V
B.P. 31
B.P.I 1657
B. P. 35
Konolo
B. P. 122
B. P. 12230 Kinshasa
Dilolo
B. P. 3
B.P.14173
diofa
Kinshasa I
Ave.Lavungno. 3
Idiofa
V
V
Idiofa
-
- 22161/632
Kinshasa XXIII
Lubumbashi
V
Idiofa
V
Lubumbashi
V
_
Kabono
V
_____
V
1apanga
Kongolo
Bulunqu
B.P. 29
B. P. 380
B. P. 12323
B. P. 626
B. P 24
B. P. 129
Idiofa
Kenge
Kamina
KinshasaI
Likasi
diofa
Kongolo
diofa
B. P. 96
Kongolo
If
V
V
I
V
-
_
B. P. 22
B. P. 42
B. P. 152
Kongolo
Nyunzu
Kongolo
B. P. 5
B. P. 87
B.P. 86
B. P. 150
B. P. 97
B.P.57
B. P. 15
Sandoa
Konolo
Kongolo
Masi-Manimba
Masi-Mnimba
Kikwit
Bulunqu
Kenge
Bulunqu
Popokabaka
Kikwit
Manono
Bulunqu
Bulungu
Kikwit
B. P. 29
Nyunzu
B. P. 52
B.P. 44
Dilolo
Lubumbashi
Bulunqu
Kolwezi
Kinshasa I
Kabalo
B. P. 122
B. P. 252
Kongolo
Bandundu
-
B. P. 12
Dilolo
B. P.3
B.P.14173
Kinshasa I
Ave.Lavungno 3
_
VI
V 446 Likasi
22/2286
V
V
V
V
-
V
V
V
V
Kenge
Idiofo
V
Lubumbashi
Koolo
B. P. 19
_ _b.
Bulun u
B. P. 14
V
B. P. 1531 Lubumbashi
Masi-Manimba V 27518
- 22.2118
Lubumbashi
B. P. 456
V
Kongolo
B. P. 163
-
1 2695 Ac. Kilidia/Kin Lemba
22305/598
Kinshasa
B. P. 38
B. P. 159
Av. Moerono. 52
Muzongono. 19, uartier Muyombo
B. P. 31
Av.Kaminano. 617
B.P.1 1657
70 Av. Bosobolo/Kin-Kasavubu
- Ac.Martyrs no. 17
I
B. P. 12
V
Kin.Kimbaseke
Kikwit-Lukeni
Kikwit
Likasi
Kolwezi
Idiofa
B. P. 25
B. P. 87
B. P. 311
B.P. 44
Idiofa
Kasajii
Bulungu
Moba
B. P. 21
B. P. 20799 Kinshasa I
Kinsh.-Kasavu
B. P. 231
V Av. Victoire no. 76-78
Bulunqu
B.P.30
- Localite Kimwanza
Likasi
B. P.510
- RouteLubumbashi no. 83
Lubumbshi
P.
829
B.
- Av.Industrielle no. 120
Malmb-Nk
K,..umba
oc.lieM.kan.aCo.l.
V Av. Deputeno. 6, centre commerc
V Mission Protestante MawanQa
V
Kutu
Oshwe
dm...
Bulunqu
MissionCahol
Kongolo
Nyunzu
Kongolo
B. P. 52
Idiofa
Idiofa
Idio10B.P I
B. P. 236
Kongolo
I
Kinshasa
Bulunqu
Bulunqu
Idiofa
Bulunau
11
Kikwit
dm10
B P. 13
Kapanga
Kasali
Kinsh.-Lemba
Lubumbashi
KinshasaI
Kinshasa I
Bulunqu
Likasi
Lubumbashi
Lubumbashi
I
Kinshasa
Kinsh.-Kalamu
Kinshasail
Kamina
KinshasaI
Likasi
B. P. 43
B P 541
Bulungu
Idiofa
Idiof
Field Office
Telephone
Field P.O. Field Location
V
Konolo
B. P. 157
Lubudi
Kongolo
B. P. 273
Kikwit
B. P. 130
V
Idiofa
B, P. 57
V
Kikwit
V
Idiofa
VI
Kikwit
B.P. 200
B. P. 2199 Kinshasa I
B. P. 16252 Kinshasa I
Idiofa
/______
Inongo *
Ploo-Monimba V
V
Bandundu
B.P. 445
Kinsh.-Limete - 77985
V 77285/516
Baga.
Bier via Mateko
V/ Nioki
- Av. Diyayalubwe no. 3
- 209 Av. Bakali, ZoneMayoyo
lere RueFunano. 9534
/ Lunkuni
V
- Av. Losono. 8, Ouartier Kabanqu B. P. 37
- Av. Kasaino. 17
B. P. 17
V
B.P. 17
V Dibava-Lubwe s/Kasai
V Plantation lbaku, Tolo
P.26
-.
BP.42
P. 166
. ____
V FermeCAK,Kumina, Kipuku
B.P.7909
V Av. Ndiokuno.26
V Placecommerciale Nina, Tolo
B.P.66
B. P. 1837
no. 3
- Av. Kaponda
B. P.62
- Av. Kaiamano. 153
B.P. 8
V Av. Ebavano. 2087/2, ZoneGombe B. P. 14196
B.P.327
V
B. P. 22
B. P. 42
B. P. 152
101Av. Ndambu,Q.Mateba
574 Ac. des Tropi_.es
,Ac. Kilidia no.2695/Kin Lemba
7
- Ac Bob-Bob no 43
- SecteudoBango
KinshasaI
Kinsh.-Lemba
13 Av. Ndombasi,0. Gombela
Lubumbashi
Rue 5 no. 16,KatubaKananga
Lubumbashi
Ruei no.39B, Q.Mampala,Kenya
B. P. 10544 KinshasaI
B. P. 1531 Lubumbashi
Av. Kioma no. 22
B. P. 7801 Kinsh.-Gombe
Galerie Pumbu5eme Etageno. 3
Lubumbashi
B. P. 456
Bat. Solbena.CoinLomami-Moero
Kongolo
B. P. 163
Av. Moerono. 52
19 Muzongo, 0.Muyombo
Av.Kaminano. 617
70 Av. Bosobolo/Kin-Kasavubu
Kansenia
-
B.P.3270
B. P. 2777
Av. Wenzeno. 3
Av.Luniunqu no.34
-
Lubumbashi
B. P. 12941 Kinshasa
Av. Likasi no. 8/A
40 Av. Lukala, Punda,Binza-Del
no.1
Av. Mayelamene
Av.Sundino. 18
Field Address
HOLocation
If
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
I
V
V
V
V
V 2591
V I
V 2347
-
V
Idiof
Idiofa
-
Table I.E. Addresses, Organizations with a local econ. interest in road maintenance
Kivns~asa
HOLoation
HOP.0.
HOAddress
Full Oroanization Name
Kikwit
B. P. 214
Av. Zongono. 126 Lokolela
107 Ets. Kimbondia
Kinsh.-Kintamb
75 rue Lubudi Babylon,Kintambo
108 Kishwe Mava
B. P. 1586 Lubumbashi
109 Kisimba Mbaie & Fils Rue Munamano. 19, Kenya
B. P. 100 Kongolo
110 Ets. Kissimba Omari
KinshasaXI
B.P.204
E12 Av.Odn.lkuku/Lemba-0omb.
111 Ets. Komapende
B. P. 3137B Lusaka/Zamb.
112 Lendor International
B.P. 1586 KinsiasaI
Av. Kltonano.4/Kin Gombe
1 13 I engelo SPRL
Kikwit
B.P.146
44 Av. la Clinique/Z.Lukolela
114 Llmalou
Klkwit
B. P. 253
Bld. Mobutu no. 142
115 Fts.Lozo
Konoolo
P.
231
B.
116 LumbuUseni
Konoolo
B. P. 6
2 AvenueNlemba/Q. Kandelo
117 Luminaza
Klnsh,-XX
B. P. I
13 fueTombe. Quartier 7. Ndiiii
1 18 Ets.Luza
B. P. 3767 KinstasaI
119 Ma N'GwaluSPRL
Kino-Setemba
fue Kidinoa no. 15O
ZAIRE
120 MABEKA
Bulunau
Av. Zaire no.21
121 Mafuta Sala-Wey
122 fMaiebMajake SPRL 8261 AvEnta]-Zaire. SalongoONL B. P. 15682 Kiosh-Lemba
B. P. 10175 Knshasa I
Quart. 0.N.l no.14/Kenae I
123 MaisonLuthom
Kool
B.P. 15
124 Mali Ya Butoto
Kenoe
12 CentreCommercialKolokoso
125 Mambikl & Fils
Kinqunzi
Centre Commerc./Kinounzi/Lufuna
& Fils
126 Manzanza
Kotwezi
79
B.
P.
Manika
Zone
No.9,
Av. Kawewe
127 Matete
Kin./Ndiili
B.P.284
Av.Kimbanai no.6 0.8/Ndili
128 Matu Be-Endi Nki
Kinsh.-Limete
B. P. 76
129 Ets. Mbongo-Mpasi
Kinsh.-Gombe
5526
B.
P.
Bumba
av.
Kulumba,
162.
Nuni
130 Mbuku
Kabonoo
B. P. 11
131 Paroisse Christ Roi
Kasai
P.
38
B.
132 Mission Cath.Kasaii
Sande
B. P. 20
133 Mission Cath.Sandoa
B. P. 8800 KinshasaI
134 Maurice DelensZaire Av. Bobozoo. 3555 Kingabwa
Kotwezi
Av. De Mangieurs, ZoneDilate
135 Meclamo
Bulungs
B.P.29
Av. Mubwano.18
136 MindangaMugabia
Konoolo
B. P.99
137 Ets. MM
Lubumbashi
P7268
B.
Lumumba
Blvd.
1242
&
Fits
138 MMK
Bandundu
B.P.380
139 Mombembe
Kins9,-Masina
Blvd.Lmumba no. 18
140 MputR Mbwe
Idiofa
B. P. 49
Quartlar Ongulamb
141 Mputu WeMputu
A
RueKitonano. 26. Lemba/Rihini B. P. 15540 KinshasaI
142 Fts. Mputu Nkang
Kinh.-Ndli
i_
7
S,
Quartier
no.
Tombe
de
1Rue
143 Ets. Mudmo
Kabalo
B. P. 55
Quartier Commercial
Amine
144 M1ulala
Kolwzi
B. P.57
145 MumbaMwamba
Idiota
Lokwa
Yssa
Collectisite
Mukoy
146 Mungala
B P. 4280 Kinsasa 11
.2
147 Musey Kavuka& Fils
-Lubumbashi
P.
2014
iB.
148 Muyumba Mutambezi
Kinsh-Ndili
on 12NL
flueOmbalino. 24, OSartier
149 Etc. MuzingeLimputu
Kinsli-Masina
Av.Bobozono. 24, 0. SansFit
150 Ets. MwekuYale
Kikwit
42
P.
B.
Kahemba
Commercial
151 Fiwaleiima Kamp1w Centre
B. P. 2940 Lubumbasim
152 NdingC
B. P. 230 Konoolo
153 Nea Kitunowa
Dilol
Localite Munguloone, Cot.Mutanda
154 NoAnzaKapidi
Kene
Bild Lumumbano.4 ub
155 Nki Bibwl
Kinsiasa I
P
285
B.
,
Masin
i
0.
Lummba,
A
34/62 Blvd.
156 Nkita-Zair SPRL
B. P. 107 Kongolo
157 NMK
idiofa
no. 30
Av. Cadeza
158 Nsenkien
Kikwit
B. P. 296
I I Av. de la Cabine.Lukslela
159 Etc. Nuncia-Lobeva
B. P. 107 Konolo
ba
u
Av. MatadiNo.12
136Myambo Songa
Popokabaka
B. P. 29
Contra Commercialno. 11I
161 Etc. Nzawa-Sung
Klkwit
B.P. 79
Av. Nay no. 213, ZoneNzinda
162 Nzundu Kpita
KinshanaI
B.P.1349
25_AsLondine/.Bano/Delvaux
163 PAKASBL
Kinsh.-Matele
Quartier Ngufuno. 15S/C
164 Etc.Pakha& Fils
Kabono
165 ParoissaBudI
B. P. 7245 KinstiesaI
166 Paroisse Yasa
KinnhasaI
P.
14030
B.
167 P0K ASBL
B.P.16649 KinshesaI
743 As. do Marchm/Kin Gombe
168 PokiabeSPRL
Kinshasa10
B.P.5230
169 PRODECAT
B. P. 11248 Kinnhasal
170 Projat Viet t Santa
B. P. 1456 Kinsh.-Limete
7 Av. Masitu, Qoartier Salongo
171 flAK
B. 8702 KlnshasaI
15 As. de lndustrie, Ndolo
172 SAC
Kinshasa
14 Av.Seroent Make,Z. Noaliema
173 SAFRICAS
Kolwezi
As. Manquiernno. 130-138. Dilate B. P. 200
174 Sambomba
I
Klnshasa
P.
3504
B.
be
Gom
Marche,
do
842
As.
175 Sampedro Freres
Bandondo
B.P.235
176 Sanga Mfumukento
Kiosh.-Mokola
177 Societe Sanga-Sam As.Soozono. 42
Kowezi
As.Lbudi no.348
u
178 Sappe
B P. 754 Kinshasa I
no. 35
As._doCommerce
179 SocieteSICASPRL
Kenya
87
Zone
no.
Kowwezi
As.
aumbmbashi
180 Simwa
B. P 12630 Kinshasa I
no. 68, Gombe
As. do Commerce
181 SOCQA
Bulungo
B.P.38
Av.flutshoru no.9/0.Potopoto
182 SOCOBU
Matadi
B. P. 292
As. Principale no.9. 0. Salongo
SPRL
183 SOGELEM
B. P. 192 Kikwit
As. Nselano. 12
184 olil Couchant
Kotwezi
P.
703
B
As. Salonoono.23. ZoneMacike
SPRL
185 SOZAGOT
4718. As. 24 Noembre, Gombe B. P. 7921 KnshasaI
186 SOZAGEC
Konoolo
B. P. 208
As. do Zaire no. 37
187 SuccessYe Zondo
B. P. 3484
Baeke no 197. Kamatond
lvbdmbashi
As.
188 Sulka
Likasi
B. P. 88
As.de l'Abbatoir no. 42
189 Swanaoal
8 Kin/Lemba
B.P.2041
Ncaba
170 As. Mbe/Kinshasa190 Tabasana Mwaba
Nyunzu
B.P.33
Leb/
Hana
Tambwe
191
DiQloti
B. P. 22
As.do 24 Nov.no,94
192 TambweTshikwend
Bsaata
Colt. Manasay
Localite NdYna,
193 Etc. ThomsBi-Yam
B._P._234 Bandundo
194 Etc. TokoWngata
Bandnd
B. P. 445
195 Etc. TomankoZaire
Kinsti-Limete
RueKimbaono. 49
196 Etc. Toanana
Kange I
6/Kenoe I
197 Tout dependde Dies BildLomumbano.1I
198 Trans KwangoSPRL Bd Lmumba Parc 974/Kin-MasiniBP. 12343 Kinshasa
KinshasaI
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Same
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199 TflAYASSPRL
B. P. 61
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201 Tshifeneken
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206 Etc. UyindRala
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207 Etc. Vmaico
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B. P 253
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B. P. 231
B. P. 6
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Table I.G. Description, Organizations with a local econ. interest in Road Maintenance
18
19
20
Interviewed Foundinq date
F Size
Short Name
/
Medium
Agri Kumutaka
/ 67 Medium
AKD
Small
AmaniRenove -/ 74
Medium
AMS
/ 67 Medium
Ansiem-Ezung
85
Medium
ARTECO
Medium
81
Atatala Anipap
-1 67
Medium
AUTOZA
Large
- 60
AUXELTRA
- 73
Medium
AZCBASBL
Small
- 81
Bal-Mavel
Medium
80
Bama
Small
Samoa& Fits
V/. 85
-V1 88
Small
Banda
Medium
Basaho & Ciae - 65
V 50
Large
BAT/Lunkuni
SATEC
-__________
Small
Balla-Vue
-1 82
Bieye Mafuta
65
Medium
S
Sutshi Inombe
21
Bokoil
-
80
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
Bongibo
SonkutSPRL
Bosama
-
Medium Corn.prod. ar, at autras. huileria. antr. rto. OR
59
68
Medium Constr.gen..plant. Tolo. constr. rampesbac ORIlabs. nlr. rts.plant.
59 1Medium Culture cafa 1 10 ha. depuis59. taererecotte en 65, quantite70 sacs
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Brig. Agri-Artis
Bumpay
CADESCO
CADULAC
CAIOO/Puoza
Carri Kisana
CBI
OCBSPRL
CEA
CEADER
CEDEOI
CEKO
CMS-SAEZA
CODAL
n
Col. anga
Colt. Kabonoo
ColI. Kapia
Colt. Mateko
Call. Mwat-Yex
Comitedab
COMUELE
COOPEMI
Cooper. Kasai
Cooper.Ndui
COPAM
CORETI
CPSAC
SPRL
DAEP/Kwi u
DAGRIM
OAK
Dex. Rur. KML
Disc. d'Idiofa
Ebanoabila
-
/
Description of Activities
Construct. ponts,Maisons,inulins mais/manion. cierie, brisuetterle
Elevage.menuiserie. inulin, central hydro, cant. man.54km OR
Achatet yentaprduits agricoles
Ag., constr. immob., ventedetail denspropres magasins,SNRDA89
Bulwem KapiaSadzo
Plant Dalm/elev Musana. cen agKalanganda
Etudes architecturales. constructions immobilieres
produits agricoles at de traite
Transport mutter at commerce
Venteniecesauto. huileries, entr. routes SNRDA
Entreprise generalede construction
Construction de puntsen batonarmeeBokoro. Legson,Lenaw
Commissairadu Peopleavec onefarin
Plantation cafe
constr. pont propre frais
Elp. entretien anc.chef call. Kinznzeango,
10 haetmain manioc arich a partir '89 cafliers ec 10 empl. temp
Kinsh./Lingwala, OP
remnt
Partan. SAIBA, constr. immobl, crois
p sans prod tabac,entr. routes a propr fres
Encedrement
o
Comm.de detail, magasin,ferna cafe,Blev.
ntretien CODAIK
Administratur-Propritair
Bongibo Kumikiam
TanninRoer
Mpongo
Sonama
38 Km.
Librairia SEDISIdiofa,, caf., riz, man.,farina., attrib. CODAIK
Makuth Medimwar
Small
88
81
70
84
12
79
Small
Medium
Medium
Medium
Large
Medium
Saluka Masibina
Leveetopo9r.32 punts Luabu.tiraga plans, exac, 3 postsrte Mbastala
eac palmhuilrie Kiukmbe,comm.ag.nur 1372 Km, posts, entralian OhiofaShimuna 0.
Mona Katanga
0 Ha.mais, etranc, far CM.transp. mais at far, minoteri.
Chwenoo
Banda .
Dabrouss.SNCZ,rfect. batimnts, entr.OR86. SNRDAl88120 Km
comm.prod r
MasalaLaka
mac3 hutleries
Mingandii. Mwilu, aeoza
e palm
Pibi S u
r commga prod a q N
Plant. cafe,pisc., ale., constrei. refnct pots,
6
Dircteur General
39
Administr. Directeur Gerant
Administrateur Dir. General
Proprietaire
29
20
29
79
80
85
48
14
48
50
8
Medium
Larg
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Commerce
det.. transport, elev., constr. immob., Moulins maniocmain Ondlassilkwibi
Enformation. Materiel, grandeenper. constr. man.routas, bans,posts Valter Noca
M
nkwal
e
commercede detail
or. ealei., etci., rboismant finance Canada,
Ka
Agriculture, eletage,antretien routes de collectiviA
Komwtmba Kabonoo
Cllectivita, entr. routes OR'81 '83 200 Km., SNRDA175 Km.
Mukiamuni Iyolo
Chefde collectivite, entratian routes de la collectivite
Nkoy Ukum
Constr.ponts. variantes routes ntretiaengeneral
Mwanthay Kawql
Ouvrtures, entr, r. 22 Kmdensra collectivite
61
68
Large Plant. . anir. routes Haul-Zaire. divarsifi BulungrmachatrbRIZBAND J. Ch.de M wyder
____________
Medium Org. ban. Sous-traitant ZAIREAL.refection 8 Km Kinnoka '79
Administrataur Propriataire
_
Administrateur Delegue
Administrateur As. Do.(Kwt.)
Dircteur
Administrateur Gerant
Directeur General(Kin.)
Administrateur
7
18
4
16
9
__________
V
-
-
V
7
V
V1
Prafat ecolamaconLavungu
Directeur
general
Coordennateur
President
do C. P.
in
Chefde Collactivita
Chefdecollectivite
Chefde collectivite
Chefde Cllectivi e
8
4
8
11
13
Sm
-
A D. .
5
KasulaMumasa
KaputaKipepoSazita
Guisnat
ApissonOyungHampey
President
President- Fondataur
PDG
Directaur general
17
3
8
Kafitwe Wa Pa owa
haudans
Carlo
Directur eneral
Directeur General
9
70
71
86
80
88
80
83
67
62
SMall Coop,
main. manioc,cafe.arach.. bananas,pat. douce,alex., palm.
Medium Culture. achatat yenta prod. agr.. entr. banexoleroutes sporadigue
Etreprise generatedeconstruction intarnatinnala, 3 puntsOR
Lar
Large Eac._prod._a. farin, pisc., alex., antr. rts. at ponls pour ssi at minsic.
Medium
Medium 100 Ha.main, cntraLcharbon bois CM,rts. AK, pres PMEAgr
Medium eariculture, EleieK, Enr. route OR 86. Consrucion pints aviation
Medium__________
Medium Pastor., medic.,cultural., barra e hydro-ec. allie DPPconstr pons
Medium Ferms. commarce,entr. SNRDA
_
___________
Mar Bilalsi Onim
Ebanobila Lamiele
vegu dIdiofa
Gerant
18
27
KadimaBak ne-M.
Kahnoele M'Pan Lay
Mikwampaka Ela
Reprasentant legal-Fond.
Administrateur Gerant
Administrateur-Proprietair.
17
EpabaMambe
KalumaMwasa
Proprietaire
President CA
17
8
Cafe2mto es, lavagepetit betail. ploit. do hos, routes prives
oi-mem
d
e
Nouvellefpi.,
route 6 Km. amenaa
Minako mia Ndiandioko
Zondwekaku
a
Admnistrateur-Propr. (Kin.)
Proorietaire orgenisatur
4
Acu.
at exa prod. a. Kwilu, plant. at 2 huilrian, 30 maq.,enlr. OR
Grande
exp. entr. man.,interet antr. pastesLKS,KWZ,KMN,Kanasa
stimoler prod. aar.. elex., patites industries prod. locaso
Crae COOPEK
Culture Mc . main. industr. farin' ntr rts II Km.DA723 Km. pri
Collect mais, isulin, hotel, scierie man., nltr. SNRA8889 162 Km
Plus grandcomm.prod. agr. Kongelo
Frnands Abilo
George
A. Forrest
KasongoTuto-dia Kitutu
Kapnd Sakabwang-Mo
ni MuCgobwhla
Bin
ualla
Kiewn Amiraly
Asnocie-Gerant
Administrateur Gerant
Administrataur-Directeur
Cd
Pde C
Diracteur
34
24
2
Munoana Luhuso
President
I__
Mayma WaMayuma
Matanda-ma-Mboyo
i
Kwakenda
Mudi ikodm
Kilambala
MbosoN'kodia Pwanga
President Dirteur General
President Dirteur Gen.(Kin
President DelesaeGeneral
Dirantaur Gerant
Administrateur General
18
4
Muyulu
Dr Steiner
Iepnou
Actionnaire Relation
ranteur Chef de Proet
Adminstrateur-Proprietaire
23
lean VanLeockar
KabembaMaloba
Adiinistrateur-Dlaue
President
13
-i
ES/SELEC
EICSPRL
Eta/
ELOBA
EpabaMamba
ESTAGRICO
FEARDE
FERMAMI
Farn Katiku a
farina SagalisFernandes
Forrest
GAPAKSPRL
CM Deelo.
Or. Fallay
Or. Kibwe
Or. Masudi
Or. Mugange
Or. M nu
OrNM
de proits., elevctricit gen., constr. immob at ponts
80 1Large Eltudes
V
87 1Large Grandcontrat constr. manOCMKLZ. Intarat ear. anlr, route punctual
73 1Small Pharm , hotelI bar, farmes, pisc., comm.prod. asentr. SNRDA
V
________________________________
72
Small Aqr., pisc., comm.prod.aar.. constr. at anir. route farina 7 Km.
S3oc.
colon. encadremant
ear. cultures de rotation, entr.ORavant'88
v'80
Lao
n
a
w
msMediumelaLaka
-
8
-
/
V
V
V
1
84
86
Small
Small
44
22
87
84
80
85
Medium
Lag
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
8
-
_Z 87
7
Medium Elex.,pisc., antr. SNRDA'88 88 Km.
-
Medium
L78
Lae
Medium
Medium
Medium
Small
V
%1 28
54
62
V 84
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
Osema
HPK
HSK
Hoilarie hales.
Ibake & Fib
IBOLO
SBWE
1Intarwood
IRIZ Masons
ISUNka
TUTUMbwisi
JYL-SIEFAC
KabembaMal.
KabPmba
Tal.
KAGA
Kaksa
98
Kakwata
-____________
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
Kalama
Kalo& Fits
Kamwana
Kanus
Kapend
Kapiten
Ksanza
-
i
Idumunane
Inombe
85
ECZ Mawanpa
FKikata
Bithl
etDrcSmallteur
Douryaba
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
74
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
Nauo
_____________
Comm.detail at ar,, 9 magazins,ale. farinaMmoteur rizmre
59
Crokat-Azac
Senior ty #1
Title Executive # I
5
President
22
Archevaiue de LSHI
9
President
14
Administrateur Gerant
20
Administrateur Proprietaire
3
Administrateur Gerant
President
President Directeur General
PDO
9
Coordinataur
7
P. D.G.
Administrateur Directbtur Gas
3
P
Propriataire Gerant
28
Entrepreneur destravau
3
Administrateur Delue
NameExecutive #1
KayembeMukelenae
Songa-Songa
Kabanga
MutandaSheria
Mukwakani Gahungu
AnslemEzung
MpIsi Maki 0-n-A
Alatala Anipap
KasandeMayo
SangaraTabaro
Ikwo Lessoye
Bal-Mayel Murbal
Baluka Masibin
Mbala Musniapombo
BandaKusanza
EhomboBanaho
J. B Hll
-
86
Coin.gen, prod. ar., satalei., atrib. CODAIK
eac. palm.. entr. aiconnt. routes at posts 257 canton, 120 Knt NRDA
500 coup urs da noix depalme,manioc,mats, cafe,pic, maasins
huilerie. hotelsKinsh at Bulungo, comm.gen, entrelien 30 cantonniars
Plant. cafe, alex.. maux.refection hopitaux Kesga,rampeSacOR
________
-
-/
V
88
4
65
-
V
27
75
-resid
entretin beursroutes, plan minoeria Kikwi
Medium Scirie, comm.prod. agr. ,
Conner.3 hop.,6 centres sant , de. cam, central SNRDA'89188 Km
Large
s
Medium Plant. cafe., le., comm. elr.,hoteleri
Medium
'89 Masi-Mainimba
Medium Hoilerie palm, elex., commerce, antretian SNRDA
Medium Scieries. constr. immeubles, bar, aor., entr. OR
4
4
__
I
general_1
V
74
V 63
V 85
V 77
V 74
87
Vb 72
/
86I
Medium 1ant. cafe,iles., ntr. routes
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Comm.agr. at manufacture, astr. rts. SNRDA65 Km '89 loin du centre
Cgicut. prod.Ear. boulang.,bar, champs,entr NRDAp88 89 113 Km
di detail at ramas agedeproduits ricoles, PaPasins
Commerce
Comm.detail Dilolo evac. prod agr., entr. rts. OR 84-85 192 Km.
er Manul, demande
beauroupde routes
Chefdeclntivit , sailtr.
at rag7t.OR
Ele t fermes, commerce.entr.tnait 345 Km
KakesaLukumple
ProDrietairea
"Kalumba Wa Kalumba
Kamwanga
Ilungo
Mr Nones
KapendTshimpoloy
KapitenLavun K
KasbnzaKakoy
Proprialai re-President
Directeur
Asocie-Gerant
Adminisirateur Proprietaira
Administrateur-Prprietaire
President Direataur
25
3
12
14
2
16
97
Table I.G. Description, Organizations with a local econ. interest in Road Maintenance
Senior ty
Interviewed Foundinq date
107
108
109
110
111
112
Short Name
Kimbondia
/
Kishwe
Kisimba Mbaie -1
Kissimba
/
Kumapende
-
Limalou
-
115 Lozo
1 16 LumbuUseni
V
/
117
-
Luminaza
118 Luza
1 19 Ma N'Owalu
120 Mabeka
121
Mafuta Sala
/
-/
Mambiki & Fils
126
Manzanza
127 Matete
55
Large
Grandproiets routiers, ferrov., hydr. Afrique centrale et australe
#1
26
18
18
10
Directeur
A.J. Burton
82
81
Lozo
Medium Usinehuile de palme,comm.prod. aq.,fermes et elev., entr. anc.gouv.Ganzumba
'88 '89 163 Km. Lumbu Useni
Medium Comm.prod. agr., mag.articles detraite, entr. SNRDA
71
87
56
Medium
Medium
Medium
87
83
70
BAT,autres, entr. routes. plant. cafe 50 h. Kutu
Medium Transp. SOBRABAND,
petite moulerie manioc
Medium Plant. et elev., font camp.cafepour SITREX,
Medium Comm.mais. maq,a ouvert route 15 Km. '82 par cant, manuel
Comm.gen.Bateke,zoneMushie, entr. OR'71-'75
Commercegen,agr., hotel, entretien ferme
3 plant. cafe,evacuation et comm.tout prod. aq. fermiers Kinzenga
6
7
Administrateur Gerant
President
LuenbaNweDi Nzanza
Ngwalumuna Mbunzu
NdonbeKamalandua
18
Administrateur Proprietaire
2
Administrateur-Directeur
Administrateur Directeur (KIN)
Muke Mashiakee
LukengoThomby
KalungaKimba
Associe-Gerant
Administrateur -Proprietaire
Proprietaire
NdunduMadebisa
Mbuku Nuni
Pere Joseph Tenga
Administrateur Directeur (KIN)
6
Attributeur
4
Curede la Paroisse
Pere Francois Waelbers
Van Hauwaert Jacques
Missionaire
Directeur GeneralGerant
Small
-
Small
-
Small
15
8
18
V
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
MatuBe-Endi
Mbongo
Mbuku Nuni
MC Kabongo
MC Kasaji
MCSandoea
MDZ
-1
/
77
82
41
-
53
27
135
Meclamo
If
136 Mindanga
137 MM
138 MMK& Fils
Title Executive # 1
Administrateur Proprietaire
Administraterur Gerant
President Proprietaire
Directeur
Small
-
V
122 MaiebMajake
123 MaisonLuthom -/
/
124 Mali YaButoto
125
1
NameExecutive
Kimbondja
Kishwe Maya
Kisimba Mbaie
Kissimba Omari
-
Lendor Int'l Ltd. V
113 Lengelo
114
62
69
70
78
Description of Activities
Size
entretien ORet soi meme
1Medium Industr. huiliere, elev., comm.gen.,
pour Peres Sia
Medium Comiss.P., pisc., elev.,entr. Ponts&Ch.'71, demande
40 Km. '85
Medium Comm.prod. aqr., ferme, constr. immob.,entr. rts. Gouv.
Medium Comm.Mais, chapsmais,groupements precooperatifs (ComiteDev)
Small Agriculture. elevage,commerce de detail, entretienne leurs routes
Medium Plant., elev., construit 5 ponts,entret. 400 KmOR
Medium Evana.,ecoles,moulins, experience entr. rts. Tanzania
Small
Large
entr. rts. OR'77-'87
Grande
entreprise internationale deconstr., agencesdanstout Zaire
30
Small
-
V
/
-
139
Mombembe
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
Mputu Mbwe
Mputu Mputu
Mputu Nkanga
Mudimu
Mulala Amine
Mumba
Mungala
MuseyKavuka
Muyumba
Muzinga
Mwaku Yala
Mwaleiima
Ndinga
Nepa
Ngunza
Nki Bibwi
Nkita-Zaire
NMK
Nsankien
Nunga-Lubeye
Nyembo Song
Nzawa-Sunga
Nzundu
PAKASBL
Pakhe& Fils
Paroisse Budi
Paroisse Yasa
PDKASBL
168
Pokiabe
-
169
PRODECAT
-
170
171
172
173
174
175
Projet Vie
RAK
SAC
SAFRICAS
Sambumba
Smpedro
176
Sansa Mfumu.
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
Sanga-Sam
Sappe
SiCASPRL
Simwa
SOC0A
SOCOBU
SOGELEM
Soleil Couch.
SOZACOT
SOZAGEC
SuccessYa
Sulka
Swanepoel
Tabasenge
TambweHana
TambweT h
ThomsBi-Yam
roko Wanlata
Tomaeko
Tosanana
Tout depend
Trans Kwan
TR.AVAS
Tshata
Tohifanaken
TwendeMbale
UoZ
Umua
a
UNIPAZA
yinduyala
Vemapco
Zabi-Zabi
Zaitchim
Zanta
ZUNA
7
/
1
V
V
-
/
-
V
Medium Matiere premiere constr. , menuis.,concess.forrest., entr. 20 Km. farm Mulopo MawelaK.
84
PDG
5
Attributaire OR
Proprietaire
Proprietaire Gerante
Proprietaire
Prorietaire- President
3
9
25
27
25
Mungala Mukoy
MuseyKavuka
Chef de collectivite
President Proprietaire
32
Muzinga Limputu
MwakuYala
Mwalejima
Proprietaire
Proprietaire (Kinshasa)
Administrateur Proprietaire
10
9
BobaKiyeka Mwana
NiemboMafuta K.
PDG
Chef de Collectivite
NungaLubeye
Administrateur
9
Directeur General
Proprietaire
10
18
President Directeur
Eveguede Kongolo
Superieur
Chargedes missions (KIN)
3
President
Administrateur Directeur
A.D. Delegue
Administrateur Dir. General
2
9
22
Amilcar Dias Sampedro
Directeur GeneralAssocie
50
Soa Sam
Administrateur Gerant
20
P. D.G.
19
Col. LenghaLengha
P.D.G.
10
MbumbiMbambiLends
MbalaMuohikipwa
Souris Panayotis
Monali Emeka
MukomawaKibala
CoedinataurPrincipal
Chefdatabliosemant
Cirecteur Gerant
Administrateur-Delegue
P.0G. desEts.
1
20
Hendrik Swanepoel
Administrateur Delague
Tambwi A Tshikwand
TomhokaBi-Yam
TokoWangata
MankotoKabala
Imbuli
P0
Administrataur-Proprietaire
Administrateur Gerant
Region.
ler Secr.Aosemblee
Prorietaire
21
11
15
Kimbula yx Nqo
Tohala5akapumba
A.D, 0.
Directeur
3
0a. rural Integra, commercialisatioecereals, rebiosemeni, educol
DAes
HPK
Ateli r et colemac., mamtech., ferme, ales., anc.resp. ro
Mbongo
Wengesse
Mlyinduyala
.
Directeur regional d projets
PDG
6
6
etratiant
SNRDA'88 , rehab poent
Comm.detail at prod. ur , e
comm..120 Km SNRDA,frer da Mwaleima Kampew
lesp.
ntr. CODAIK
GAo. BRALMA,UNIBRA.SBK,comm det., anc.
shiuai Mukeba
Zani Kampew
Zuy Mami
i
Aministrateur Dir. General
Adminitrateur-Proprietaire
Adminitrateur Proprietaire
4
27
11
Medium
85
79
64
74
63
Medium
Small
Medium
Small
Medium
Mputu Mbwe
Commerce
detail, pharmacie, attrib. OR
Mputu Wa Mputu
Commerce
prod. agr., prod. pharm., elevage
Constr.mec.OR72-79, entr. man.74-86, deman.veh. pour entr. diffic MoaseMptu NkanQa
Mudimu Lin Iw'Esus
Hotel, plantation, pisc, avait contrat entretient route '74
Mulala Amine
Comm.agr., entr. rts. SNRDA
67 Km. '89 + 8 ponts
70
56
Medium
Medium
3 pontsSNRDA'88
Ancienagentterritorial pour cantonnage,
Ventearticles prem. nec.,elev., cafe,mais, manioc,constr. im., OR
70
78
79
Small
Medium
Medium
Elev., ferme Kongo,Mosahgo/Amsi/Masi, BMfin. PMevac.aq. Masi
Evac.prod. aq., elev.. comm.gen.,constr. immo., routes pontsOR
Comm.detail, plant. manioc,mais, palm, eles., entretien routes OR
-
1
V
/
79
Small
gen.,agr., elev., entr. 380 Km. ris. Dept.Agr. '85
Medium Commerce
Medium Activites Chef decollectivite, entr. route coll. iI millions '88
Medium
Small Transport commercial, entretien routes OR
78
70
Medium
Small
TuyabaLewula
Elev., cafe, evac.prod. Kwango,scierie Popo,peche,entretien OR
Agr eles., huil. arti., anc.chef s.-rea. TPAT,chef bur. tech.voirie Idiof. NzunduKapita
Medium
Medium
Medium
Small
Champscafe,manioc, arach., elev. USAID,entretien OR
Proi. ar. traction animale, entr. rts. avant '82 ouvriers mission
Apostolat at develop.scol, med.,aq.,entretien routes paroisse
Org. ben.constr. batiments pub. materiaux semi-durable, ponts, entret.
84
86
1
85
50
./ 24
1 86
v'
Medium
86
./ 70
1 77
23
I
44
1
4
68
Medium
Medium
Medium
Large
PakheKapuka
Msr. Nday
Mgr Mununu
Mvumbi Nsatisa
Ibula M. Katakanga
Sante,hydraulique, eles., pharm., entretien routier
D.M. Kabwe
Comm.prod. divers, entretien debroussaille Inga-Shaba depuis '75
Aar..elev. 9000 tetes, transp. comm.,entretien 40 Kmpropre reseau KayingaOsin
Dequel Henri
internationale, constr. route ORMwebe
Entreprise de constr. gen.
Lan
Hulleries, plant palm./cafe, alas 1100 tales. comm sen agr+, constr
Small
Medium Comm. od an , plant, cafe, elvev , atirib antretian CR , CODAIK
3
-
V1 85
./
%f 76
-
88
%f 69
85
73
1 75
V
V 56
Medium
Medium
Large
Medium
Medium
Small
Medium
Large
Medium
Huil. Kibay, Kisia, Ngongo,plant. palm.,mais, caf. , constr. ponts, ent. rt MususuB. Namwis
constr. ponts
SOCOA
plant., usine cafe,entr. route, division CORELEC
Ag.,comm.,constr. im., constr. at entretien routes poetsOR, SNRDA
Ing, voirie, hotel.mag., comm.prod. agr.,elev., enlr. 20 Km propres ira
Exploit. forestiere, scierie, achat prod our., enir. routes soi 95 Km
Grandeentreprise generale de construction, constr. rotes CR
tech anir. routes
Ariculture, commercededetail. bonneconnaisoance
Sintarasse constr. pots mainpandexperience
Large Travauxenir. mec.routes GCM,OR,SNEL,ferme 250 Ha
16
14
_
-____________
67
77
./73
-
85
-'88
V1
-
1
-
5To
87
61
Medium Comm.prod. manuf.at onr.,
elet., entr. rti. OR'74-75
Small Plant, cafe,entr. benevoleroutes densColl. Manzatry
Medium Ele. boesin,, farn 100 he., comm ge . at phar., entretient CR
Medium Plant. 36 ha cafe, petit commercede deail, entretien SNRDA
oe atrib. 60 KmSNRDAKip
ebolokala
Medium Prof. de philo. Kin, commisodo people.
Medium___________
Lr
Tauerm.otGMO
SEfr
5Hn
suns vet.
Medium Douane, imprimerie, plant., ales , evac.prodagr . aq. Kensle
Medium Comm.gen., antr. rts OR'84 169 Km.
kS
n
e
If____________
69
-
77
-
82
82
-
84
62
77
-
Medium
Small
Small
Medium
M
Small
Medium
Medium
Medium
98
Table I.H. Description, Organizations with a local econ. interest in Road Maintenance
Seniority #2
1
2
3
4
5
6
Short Name NameExecutive #2 Title Executive *2
Directeur
Agri Kumutaka Mibanqa Kinda
Kafitwe we Pa Bowa Administrateur
AKD
AmaniRenove Mwanangoy Subu Directeur
Directeur Gerant
Jose Americo
AMS
Seniority
Name Executive #3
5 Noy
22 Ndaywa Keembe
20 PungweNgongo
Title Executive #3
Financier
Commissaire du Peuple
Secretaire
14 Abilio Sobreira
10 Nshim
I Nsuka
Directeur financier
Secretaire
Ir. Topo. Chef des travaux
Seniority #4
-
#3
[Name Executive #4
5 Salumu Nyembo
22 Mwindia Kalevu
9 KapondaNgoy
14
Ngelese
Musiteke Mpey
Gerant
Architecte
7
8
9
Atatala Anipap
AUTOZA
AUXELTRA
Katundulu Ambus
Mundeke
Kasende
Patrick DeWilde
Directeur
Directeur Regional
Directeur General
10
AZCB ASBL
Frere Apie Van Wee Resonsable Technique
15 Buloba
Conducteur des travaux
7
11
12
13
Bal-Mayel
Bama
Bamus& Fils
Bal-Mayel Lukobo Directeur
Directeur Technique
NgengiSangala
Gerante
Muvuma
7 MpaleMpeab'Aten
Alozine Baluka
3 Pengele
Administrateur
Direur Admin. et Financier
Moniteur Agricole
7 Bier via Mateko
-Manima
3 NdungiMayaya
14
Banda
15
16
& Cie
Baseho
BAT/Lunkuni
33 Monzali
3 Mulumba Lukoji
Chefde Chantier
Administrateur
17
BATEC
18
19
20
Kisanfumu
Belle-Vue
Bieye Mafuta
Bitshi Ingombe
Mutshipule
8. B. Johnston
des travaux
Conducteur
Administrateur financier
Atatala AnipapOnsal Conseiller
Bokoil
22
Bonqibo
Mamoko-Mukwa MpiDirecteur Commercial
23
24
Bonkui SPRL
Bosama
Tassin Hubert
Nsama Bokulaka
25
26
27
Bouryaba
Bri. Agri-Artis.
NgungaPesanga
Bumpay
28
29
30
CADESCO
CADULAC
CACO/Punza
Associe, Gerant tolo
Capita
31
32
33
34
35
36
CEDECOM
37
38
39
40
CEKO
CMS-SAEZA
CODAL
Coll. Banga
41
Coll. Kabongao
42
43
44
Comptable
Impiobi
Coll. Kapia
Nkia LiangaBanaba Secretaire a taJMPR
Coll. Mateko
Coll. Mwat-Yav Mwin Kapang
45
Comite de Dev I
46
COMUELE
47
COOPEMI
48
Cooper. Kasati
49
50
Commissaire du peuple
Operant
Directeur administratif/fin.
Gestionnaire
Inoenieur Agronome
EdouardChvatal
Diecteur Financier
Secretaire Administratif
Secretaire
17 BongiboMankiem
Directeur Administration
16 Kwete Mbope
20
5 Noolenga
Capita
5
Secretaire de direction
14
Conducteur Adioint
Comptable
Chefsce cial et prod. (Idi
Chefde secteur/plateau
5
4
22
7
3
1 Lessedlina lkwame
1
Pres. d'hon. du com. de gest.
1
7
KonkaKipay
ChiwengoKazadi
ShangoLoby
Nkie Mukoo
Conducteur
Superviseur
Dir. att. adm.cent. (Kin)
Conducteur
des Travaux
Munziema Zoba
Gerant(Kin)
4
4
2
5
18 Mulembwa
4 ChiwengoNtombo
17 Tumapidi Yumbu
4 MobaNsele
2
3 Kibala
16 Yonge
Coordinateur des projets
Comptable
10
Ndonda
Intendant
8
10 Kapala
9 KasalaMpa-Mpum
Mukoi Ntambu
Secretaire administratif
Chargetravaux publiques
9 Mumpenge
20
Greffier
7
GerantBulunqu
1
_
J. Ch.Dienst
D. 0.A.
3 Badibange
Fondede pouvoirs
4 M. Cornez
Cooper.Ndui
COPAM
KadasuMbabu
llungoaMathanga
Vice-President
Vice-President
17 KadiamtsaMbabu
3 KimembeZongwe
Secretaire
Secretaire-Tresorier
17 KadiambaGibuamuma Mandataire (Kin.-Lemba)
Kalinde Conseiller technique
3 Nsonkonsya
51
CORETI
Varlabedian
Administrateur
8
52
CPSACSPRL
lkwo Lessoye
Directeur Finance
1 Mvimvi Diamono
53
DAEP/Kwilu
9
54
DAGRIM
Mudimba
Administrateur
55
DAK
Franco
Vaudano
Administrateur Gerant
56
Dev. Rur. KML
Cillario Sabino
Dioc.d'Idiofa
AbbeKadongM. K.
Secretaire adioint
Ebanoobila
Lamiele
Directeur
27
ECZMawanga
60
ECZ/CPZ
61
EES/SELEC
KayembeKabamba Administrateur-Gerant
62
63
EIC SPRL
Ele
Kabwe Mputu
Nkoto Nsakang
ELOBA
65
Epaba Mambe
66
Mumbami Ingoto
ESTAGRICO RelecomMichel
67
FEARDE
NdongoMapepe
Directeur de Production
2
Surveillant (Idiofa)
4
Chefd'agence
Directeur Financier
Gerant
15
27
Bebe Directeur Technique
8 Paswanzambi
8
Halaf
Chef de Personnel
Ezey
Sentinelle
6
Gerant
7
Vice-President C A
8 Boudailler Bernard
Coproprietaire (Kin)
GerantdesFermes (ldf.)
4 Mingindu Ngwambanc
68
FERMAMI
69
70
71
72
Ferme Katikula Mutombo Kaeumba
Ferme Sagalis
da Silva Manuel
Fernandes
Forrest
A. Labeau
73
74
75
GAPAKSPRL du ChateauMarcel Consultant
GCMDevelop. Botula ManyalaL. L. DelequeGeneralAdioint
Chefdu Personnel
Fallay Abdal'la
Or. Fallay
76
77
Or.
Or.
78
Or. Muganga NyemboLubusu
79
80
Or.
Or.
81
Groukat-Azaci
82
83
84
85
86
3 Kapanga
Gerant (Masimanimba)
Gusema
Lunzembo
Dir. Adm.at Fin. (Fumu-Putu 1 KapayBin Karl
Verstraete Alfred
HPK
15 1laka
Gerant
Tukavenzi
HSK
4 Kitambala Khubi
Chefde PosteYelenge
Huilerie Yelen.Mudiemba
3 KabambaMapasi,Inq
Bilumbu Bia NzambiDirecteur Adm.et Finance
lbeka & Fils
87
IBOLO
88
92
IBWE
Herzog
Interwood
IRIZ Manono Mr. MenkenAlex
Kinkie Mubiala
ISUNka
ITUTUMbwisi
93
JVL-SIEFAC
94
KabembaMal. SengaMasuku
95
Kabemba Tal.
96
KAGA
97
98
Kakesa
Kakwata
99
Kalema
100
101
102
103
Kalu& Fils
Kamwanga
Kanus
Kapend
89
90
91
4 BosaNautani
10 Mbimi Malio
3
Secretaire de direction
Directeur Coordonnateur
Secretaire atcomptable
Mushota
Directrice
7 Mubiala Koraba
2 T. E. Forrest
Chef Service Technique
Directeur technique
1
Administrateur GOrant
58
59
Directeur Juridigue
Anibino
Direrecteur comm.et markE 1 Vungussako
57
Isasi
17
3
8
Dimier
5 AbbeEdzilambusi K. Procureur
64
3
36
M. Secretaire Administratif
31 MampamaNganga
15 MonsansaAmondala Directeur regional Lunku_
2
Mbumako
WmayaEkwok
Cillario Sabino
Munawele
LamesNgun Nkyr
Bolo
Vendeuse
Agronome
lpodjah Administrateur Directeur Fin.
Sanawa-NyamondoAdministrateur Ass. (Kin)
Carri. Kisanga MongaMwenzeM. Gerant
Membre du Conseil
ChiwengoAnimato
CBI
Directeur gen. adjoint (Idiofa)
Munzimi Intshimi
CB SPRL
Directeur Gerant
MuakaNzau
CEA
CEADER
Directeur Tech-Commercial
4 Kalabayo
Gerante
21
Imanzi
5
9
9
3
2
Ansiem-Ezung
ARTECO
Kayitana
Title Executive #4
Conducteurde travaux
Directeur
Gerant
Administrateur Deleque
2
Gerant ferme
Directeur Siege Bulunqu
Fonde de Pouvoir
x
3
2 Yala
Coordinatr ice
2 NdekeKake
1 Kiadi Matsuela numbAdministr. Dir. Technique 15 KasengeUteta
3 BogaKalunga
3 Amuri Kabombolima Secretaire
2
1
Kibwe
Masudi
1 MbayoWaMbayo
Directeur
Conducteur des travaux
1 Mulomba Kibanqula
Chefdes Chantiers
1
Munung
NNM
Jean-Pierre Daub
Mbalaka
Kasondit
I
MuhetaLuyinda
Kayenqa
6
Magazinier/Depot (Masin
Chef du personnel (Fumu- 4
Landia Kanika
KabeyaMarambila
Assistant gen. adioint
Gerant
Actionnaire Prod. et Techn. I Walmeier
Mukalay Mulongo
Commiss.peuple Conseiller
4 Mbwetete
Gerant
Directeur
13 MemboBaruti
ComptableChef
Gerant
10
Directeur
25 MwaywaMasimangoSecretaire-omptable
Chef de chontier
3 Mali ye Bwana
Gerant (Kikwit)
12 Mr. Gabriel
14 MunungaKasonoo Aoent Commercial
104 Kapiten
106 Kikata
3
1
14
13
3
I Burn
Mukalay Kahat
18 Kaifa
Actionnaire A provision.
Administrateur
Directeur d'exploitation
KongoloAmunazo Gerante
Siku Mbili MwambaChefdu personnel
Kamwanyi Mpiana Associe
MwadMukendi
Gerante
105 Kesanza
Secretaire (Masimanimba)
Direct. d'exploit. (Fumu-Pt
secteur comm.
Responsable
Ass. Ger. Av.Port no.10 But
Directeur Technique
10
Directeur Finncier
I
I
MateleLwanzu
I
Conducteurde Travaux
III
I0
11
3
1
Directeur Technique
Representant Lubumbashi
4
Transitaire
KalungaLwamba
Chef du Personnel
2 MwaywaWa Nkulu
2 loose Kombayutu
6 P
8
Capita
Secrataira
Chefdu Personnel
2
2
6
Secretaire
9
I0
_
_
Okoue Emues
_
99
Table I.H. Description, Organizations with a local econ. interest in Road Maintenance
Seniority
Short Name NameExecutive
#2
*2
Seniority
NameExecutive
Title Executive #2
#3
Title Executive
Seniority
#3
NameExecutive
#3
#4
Title Executive
#4
#4
107 Kimbondia
108 Kishwe
NtomoSukar
Directeur
109 Kisimba Mbaie Kisimba Kambatshur Directeur des Ets.
110 Kissimba
111
Kissimba Ngongo
Directeur Adjoint
10 NgamuBiemi
Agronome
5 Malanka Kisele
18 Kisimba Lumbu
Directeur des travaux
14
7 MandaptaMultemedi Superviseur des Travaux
Capita (Gerant)
7 MasudiWaLukoma Chef Comptable
2
8
Kumapende
1 12 Lendor Int'l Ltd M. T. Burton
Directeur
113 Lengelo
1 14 Limalou
Kabangu
1115 Lazo
1 16 Lumbu Useni Nyembo Kisholwa
Associe
6 Genzumba Sophi
Associe
Directeur
5 Nyembo Ombeni
Chefdu Personnel
3 MugeyaWaMbali
Comptable
6
117 Luminaza
118 Luza
119 Ma N'Owalu
120 Mabeka
LuembaM'Buela
Enfant
Mangome Mapetu
Gerant
SalaNtela
Secretaire
LuembaPuele
Enfant
Mabobo Nponda
Comptable
2
Mungena Kiaku
Chefdes plantations
121 Mafuta Sala
Conseiller financier
122 Maieb Majake Landia Kanika
123 MaisonLuthomNdikita Kahungu Directeur financier
Gerant
Lumbu
Mwendalobe
124 Mali Ya Butoto
125
126
127
128
Gerant (Bandundu)
Gerant
13 Abukani Mukweto
6 Mazunda Saala
I I LuhembweBukosi
Gerantedeleguee
Directeur commercial
Comptable
12 Kengbamgba
6 NzonzoMavula
2
Comptable
Inoenieur, Chefde chantier
Kitanbala Mananga Chargedesactivites
Pere missionaire, superv.
S VanAkker
7
Mambiki & Filt
Manzanza
Matete
Matu Be-Endi
129 Mbongo
130 Mbuku Nuni
Gutunbana El-Nzwei Secretaire
NsomweNsokango ingenieur, Dir. Technique
MampasiNguala
5 KasuwaMupanqi
131 MC Kabongo
132 MC Kasaji
133 MC Sandoa
Pere Thomas Tarimo Missionaire
101
134 MDZ
Boreux Eugene
30 Le Morvan Yves
135
136
137
138
139
Meclamo
Mindanga
MM
MMK & Fils
Mombembe
Directeur General
Kankolongo Kabengel Directrice Generale Adjointe
Dir. Gen.Commercial
20
4
5
Ingenieur
Gerant
Gerantadjoint et comptable
3 Masiba
9 Katulushi Mupota
5 MpaseBantone
-
Chargede transport
agricole (Ing.)
Responable
3
4 Kinaka Lutumba
18 Masumbrila
Conseiller
Gerant (Inongo)
Gerantde letablissement
4 NgoyKakudi
Vendeur
4 Nov Luembo
Vendeur
2
147 Musey Kavuka MuseyNgwange
Administrateur Deleque
15 LubanzaMvumbi
Gerant
12 Mafuta Teko
Presidente Adjointe
16
148 Muyumba
149 Muzinga
Kimpanga
Agronome zootehnicien
150 Mwaku Yala
151 Mwalejima
Uzange
KampewKabemb
Gerant
Directeur General
5 MauunQuMbunga
7 Kavula Sesemb'
Ingenieur
Comptable
5
5 Wadianga
Ingenieur Fonct. Dirigeant
4
140 Mputu Mbwe NsomweNsok
141 Mputu Mputu Mputu Kanku
142 Mputu Nkanqa Mukandikwa K.
5
28
143 Mudimu
144 Mulala Amine
NgoyKalala
145 Mumba
146 Mungala
152
153
154
155
Ndinga
Nepa
Ngunza
Nki Bibwi
156 Nkita-Zaire
157 NMK
_
Mosikwa Mbenga
Administrateur assoc.
Tshomba Lumbu
Directeur Adjoint
4 Ghislain ClaudeRoberAdmin. associe(Belgique)
4 Sorel Patrick Ghislair Administrateur associe
4
Mwana Ngoyi Bwemb Secretaire
158 Nsankien
159 Nunga-Lubeye
160 Nyembo Song
Chargedes travaux routie
7
Secretaire
3
2 MwanaNgudihika
Directeur de projet
1
15 Bauwens Christian
Ingenieur Principal
2
Caissier
7
Caissier des Ets,
13
Co-Gerante
10
10 Pindi MwanaZanqa Charged'exploitation
8 SaleUkuko
Ipume Kasana
Capita
18 Nzundu Kapita, Jr.
Capita
18
Pakhe& Fils
Mwanangombe
Superviseur
3 Muwala Loso
Directeur chantiers
3 PakheKapukafils
Paroisse Budi
Paroisse Yasa
Pere Joseph Hont
Abbe Guya
Cure Paroisse de Budi
PDKASBL
NkawaNdikuna
Secretaire de coordination
161 Nzawa-Sunga
162 Nzundu
Administratif
KabakaMwanaLoba Responsable
163 PAK ASBL
164
165
166
167
Curee Pere Le Jeune Cure, Paroisse de Yasa
168 Pokiabe
169 PRODECAT
3 Nkumbi Nzada
Secretaire Administratif
1 MawanguB. Ibanda
Tresoriere
170 Projet Vie
Pasteur Kitata band Vice-President
171 RAK
172 SAC
Kayinga Sosala
Directeur technique regional
9
173 SAFRICAS
Lienard Carl
Directeur Financier
10 Van BergClaude
Ingenieur Principal
3
174 Sambumba
175 Sampedro
NunoAmaro SampedrDirecteur Financier Associe 50 Carlos Amaral
Gerant(Masi-Manimba)
176 Sanga Mfumu.
177 Sanga-Sam
Nd.
Nganape
Chargecommerciale
15 Kabanqa
Secretaire Admin.
3 lbwidi
Tutu NsabarYul
Secretaire General
19 MuyenqaMuna
Administrateur
12
MalondaMalonda
Dir. technique (CORELEC)
8 Baya Di Mavinga
Resp. chantiers (CORELEC)14
1 MazulaNdombolosi
Coordinnateur Adm.et Fin.
178 Sappe
179 SICASPRL
1_1
180 Simwa
181 SOCOA
182 SOCOBU
LombeYatanda
Coordinnateur Technique
185 SOZACOT
186 SOZAGEC
Guilbeault Pierre
Ferretti Aldo
Directeur Adioint
Administrateur Directeur
187 SuccessYa
Kitenge Tuomeane GerantdesEts.
16 Ramasco Paolo
13 Muhi Mbi Mulobani
Johannes Bloemenda Admin Directeur Technique
30 Gerard Vandentorren Directeur Technique
183 SOGELEM
1
184 Soleil Couch.
188
Administrateur Dir. Techniq 16
Relation publique
Sulka
189 Swanepoel
76 Kitenge Borone
I1
190 Tabasengae
191
Tambwe Hana
KalengA Rshikwand Administrateur Gerant
I
Secretaire Gerant
Canseillere
194 TekoWangata Ngulamdoso
192 TambweTsh
193 Thoms Bi-Yam Kimfeme
195 Temanko
196 Tosangana
197
17 Muteb Sakaril
5 Kimfeme IlIl
IS TokoWeTile
Comptable
I5
Nkaj Tambwe
Moniteur aqricole
2
Comptable
IS__________5___________
__________
__________________
Bobuta Ntendy
Administrateur Gerant
5
Tout depend
198 Trans Kwango
Chef d'agence
3
Mukassa Ya Mantway Directeur financier
3 LukengoBikala
Directeur technique (Kenge 3 KungaUbaZando
205 UNIPAZA
Bwansa Annung
Administratrice
5 Mfumu Kwani
Planificateur
5
206 Uyinduyala
Kazaka
Gerantsdes Ets.
6 Mbala-Mayadila
Magasinier-Technique
6 KazanqaLumeya
Prefet des Etudes
2
209 Zaitchim
LukusaMutombo
Ing. Technique
3 Kalonjiwa Mukeba Conseiller Fin.
1 Mutombo Nsensa
Comptable
2
2
Zangio
211 ZUNA
Muzinga Mwandumb Gerante
Kimiangi Gambanda Secretaire
27
2 Kimbamfu
4
199 TRAVAS
200 Tshata
201
Tshifanaken
202 Twende Mbele
203
UGZ
204 Umoja
Ntwa Kebanzo
3
207 Vemaico
208
10
Zabi-Zabi
Charge des routes
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b
101
ANNEX II, Maps and Traffic Counts
Map 1 is copied from World Bank project documents. I
apologize for not asking for permission to copy it, knowing that an
exception could not be made for me.
Various factors should be considered in interpreting the traffic
counts in Table II.A (which are themselves derived from Maps 2
through 7). The checkpoints used are concentrated on strategic roads
and intersections, which would exaggerated average daily traffic
numbers relative to the many rarely used roads. The counts were
also done mostly in the rainy season (winter months), however,
which would significantly underestimate the summer traffic for
agricultural trade in seasonal crops such as coffee and maize, and
would also reflect left traffic because of impassable mud. A further
consideration is that traffic flows have undoubtedly further declined
in the two to four years since the traffic counts were made. While
my accumulated totals cannot be considered exact, they do
underscore that Zairean motorized road use is in general very low
outside of the paved road network.
The OR traffic counts do not include data for local interest
rural roads, so I use the World Bank's 1983 estimate of 0.25 ADT
found in the Transport Sector Memorandum. My travels in the
summer of 1989 suggest to me that actual levels are far lower.
Credit for making the traffic count maps goes to a French
engineer at OR Kinshasa whose name I have unfortunately lost, but
to whom I am extremely grateful.
Office des Routes Average Daily Traffic Counts
102
From 10-11/86 orl2/87 except for some 2/88 Equateur counts
Number of
Checkpoints
Shaba
National Roads
Regional Priority
1
1
Regional Seconday
Total Roads
National Roads
Haut-Zaire
Regional Priority
8
7
Regional Secondar
Total Roads
National Roads
Bas-Zaire
Regional Priority
Max
ADT
465
0.25
0.25
465
Min
ADT
0.25
0.25
Ave
ADT
84.1
0.3
0.3
68.9
40
12
2
40
0.251
8.9
83%
55%
1
0.25
0.25
2.6
0.9
4.3
19%
6%
100%
40%
57%
52%
824
16
5
16
342.0
99%
48%
16.0
1%
57%
824
5
287.7
100%
48%
7.5
2.6
3.0
5.4
80%
18%
3%
100%
70%
57%
56%
69%
92.0
0.4
1.0
53.9
100%
0%
0%
100%
41%
62%
55%
41%
23.0
4.4
3.4
74%
22%
10%
67%
53%
55%
0.251
9.0
100% 1 63%
70
9
8
6
25.3
3.6
85%
15%
60%
39%
70
6
13.2
100%
57%
51.0
2.1
0.8
26.2
97%
2%
1%
100%
53%
37%
55%
53%
63.9
3.3
1.9
32.4
96%
4%
1%
100%
55%
49%
53%
55%
2
0.251
Volume Portion
Distribut'n Trucks
100%
36%
0%
22%
0%
0%
100%
36%
Regional Seconda
Total Roads
Equateur
Kivu
National Roads
Regional Priority
Regional Seconda
ITotal Roads
1
11
7
1
19
33
6
3
33
I
490
1
1
490
National Roads
Regional Priority
Regional Secondary
,Total Roads
140
11
8
140
National Roads
Bandundu
Regional Priority
.RegionalSecondary
Total Roads
National Roads
Kasai-Occid Regional Priority
Regional Secondary
Total Roads
5
0
National Roads
Regional Second
,Total Roads
Total Zaire
National Roads
Regional Poriorty
Regional Secondary
,Total Roads
1
1
3
1 1
0.25
0.25
1
0.25
0.25
1
1 1.._
F
3
12
286
4
1
286
61
43
21
125
824
16
8
824
3
Kasai-Orien. Regional Priority
L1 1
L~L
2
0.251
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.251
0.25
0.25
1
Map 2. Maximum ADT Counted on National and Regional Roads
Equateur
Max Nat 33
Max Reg 6
Haut-Zaire
Max Nat 40
Max Reg 12
Kivu
Max Nat 490
Max Reg 1
Bandundu
Max Nat 140
Max Reg II
Shaba
Max Nat 465
Max Peg 0.25
IERE :
BAS
RIRE
KINSHRSA
BNDUNDU
IONAL
IONAL PRIORITRIRE
IONAL SECONDAIRE
-4/49%
.
Li3/42
TE DE TRAFIC
POSTES DE CDMPTAGE
DE BAC
1
V7
r4Z- IPRSSRGES
10/1986
12/1987
11/51%
us Ur
16/5?%neX
' KINSH
%
To
U01a
U
IlonT
r;
?/3
34%-
MD
A
Tma3%%%
3
P1""
seq
KISI-
2/32%
3/_44%
-
RE
- -----.
.......
.
-
1/-3-
.--.
E
-
< /22x|
3/4?%
77/44Z
DE COMPTAGE
S DE SAC
/
19/1986
12/1987
:
-
....
larnI--
I
*q
:
sesa0
ff
JX186/36s
y4
utawa
L 18
RR1
46/3X
------
----
i
1/45%
/3If/Sex
1/68%2/60
/52%p
ana
-- -----
--
-L-W
%t
%a
ARELI
FIND
3/30%P%/-
RAI
C<TEROTER46HUTZRR
REGONL/EC3DRRE..
3/9|CARTE
\RPGSTESLDEECOMPTBGE
DE
E TRAFIC AIR
--
L-- PASSAGES D3EBAC
/-98
12/1 987
QUATEUR
..--
ORITAIRE
CONDAIRE
*eDI*ZTE
L
FIC
I5%
POSTES DE CQMPTRGE
19/1986
PASSAGES DE BRC
2/1988
asiaa
r
-----
.00
-
~
r
3/88
/
4/58%
101
8/28%s-
-
-
-A-
2/35%
--F
"------K
S
\
6/70
-
~A
N~
,-
\
1%
I
I
\
I
/
N
r~'
/'
L~.
1
-,
--
9 I KV.~.,a
-
I1/29%i
3/56%
VU
RITAIRE
ONDAIRE
-.....
out
IC
POSTES DE
COMPTAGE
PRSSAGES DE BRC
11/1986
12/1987----
/
S/74%
NIIt
6
\
'*AUNDA
(1%
K'I
oi
4
Fou
1
j
'I'
I
/
kvxxz
I6~a~
I
K
--
KRSRI W
KASRI E
RIORITRIRE
ECONDRIRE
--
.
AFIC
POSTES DE COMPTAGE
10/1986
PASSAGES DE SAC
12/1902
1/28%
1/56%
I13/3911
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