Andy Isaacson Traditional and Critical Theory Max Horkheimer Why-question: Why are social scientists and people stuck within a traditional conception of theory and not taking a critical approach to theory? Motivational mechanism: People are motivated… by the idea of individual freedom (230) and by the prevailing injustice in society to take a critical stance that looks toward social transformation (241), but “those that have [traditional] theory [, which was developed from the economic apparatus of the current society,] in their heads have it there in its totality and act according to that totality” (240). Key concepts: Harmony: The “basic requirement with any theoretical system must satisfy” is that there is a logical consistent argument. (190) Traditional Theory Goal: Created to represent society in a determinative, ordered, and unifying method that can account for all human effort (198). For the benefit of the industrial magnets (235) Essential law: The most fundamental characteristics for classification which are established to guide the observer and spare many steps (192) Causal Nexus: How historical events must be explained (193) Individual: seen as passive and independent (200) Scientist: Independent of theory and social action Ahistorical (194) Critical Theory Goal: The reasonable organization of society that will the needs of the whole community. Exchange Value: The economy, based upon exchange value (227), generates the whole culture as well as the organization which man sees (207). Individual: Organized around effort, activity, and will power to create social change, but at the same time connected to society through the content of mass belief (230; 237). Scientist: To intervene with society, via critical theory to be an actor in the future that is created. Future: There will always be a critical viewpoint of the current society. “…in regard to the essential kind of change at which the critical theory aims, there can be no corresponding concrete perception of it until it actually comes about” (220).