ªThe Nature of Science Chapter 1 Honors Earth Science

ªThe Nature of Science
Chapter 1 Honors Earth Science
Four major branches of Earth Science
_1._______________________________ªThe study of the origin, history, and structure
of matter on a solid celestial body
2. __________________________________The study of Earth’s
3. Astronomy ªThe study of
II. Earth’s system includes 4 spheres that interact
1. The Atmosphere consists of the _____________________________________
2. The ________________________(also called lithosphere) consist of the rocks,
minerals, soils, ocean basins and Earth’s interior
3. The ___________________________includes the water in oceans, rivers,
groundwater, clouds, lakes, ice caps and glaciers
4. The Biosphere includes all things __________________________________________
ªEarth’s Sphere’s Interact
ªAn erupting volcano releases lava, volcanic bombs
_____________________________________and gases and ash into the air
________________________________the animals are suffocated
__________________________plants burn up ______________________ash flows fill
rivers _____________________________________
ªMore interaction examples
ªPlants and animals take in ______________________from the atmosphere and release
ªPeople remove plants, release chemicals into the air and water
ªSpheres Continued
ªLithosphere is Rigid _________________________of the planet, broken into pieces
called plates . ªIncludes the __________________________________________
ªEarth’s Crust: Continents _________________________________________
ªOceanic Crust Made up of
mostly___________________________________________________, this is denser than
ªNext layer of mantle is called the
ªThis layer is a solid that flows like a _________________________________________
ª1600 degrees C but extreme ________________________keeps it solid
ªThe ______________________________ floats on the
ªEarth’s layers
ªEarths lower mantle is mostly very dense, dark rock called
ªBeneath the mantle is earth’s __________________________which is mostly made up
of _________________________________
ªOuter ______________________core and ªInner ____________________core
ªSteps used in Scientific Method
ª1ª2ª3ª4ªSelect ____________________________
ªDetermine ________________________________
ªRecord __________________________________________
ª5- __________________________________________________
ª6- _____________________________________________
ªLook at data and from conclusions
ªRe-evaluate _____________________________________
ªFormulate new ________________________________n
(See p. 930 Skills)
ªIndependent variables (also called experimental variable)
ªThe factor that is _____________________________________________________
ªIf you are testing the effect of adding specific amounts of fertilizer to water on plant
growth, and you measure the plants daily…
ªThe independent variable is ________________
ªThe dependent variable is __________________
ªExample 2
ªIf you are testing the effects adding acid to water on the breakdown of rocks and you
weigh the rocks daily…
ªThe independent variable is ________________
ªThe dependent variable is __________________
ªControl Group
ªUsed to prove that the results of and experiment are the actual results of a condition
ªWhat would be used for a control group in the two examples?
ªControl group Exp. 1 =
ªControl group Exp. 2 =
ªControlled Variables or Constants
ªWhat conditions would you need to control in order to make these valid experiments?
(These are called constants or controlled variables)
ªWhy is this so important?
ªControlled variables for Exp. 1 =
ªControlled variables for Exp. 2 =
ªHypothesis vs. Theory vs. Law
ªHypothesis is an
____________________________________usually comes first
ªInvolves ____________________________(If, then)
ªIncludes _____________________________not just a wild guess
ªCan be revised or rejected as new ___________________________provide new
ªTheory of ___________________________________
ªTheory of _________________________________
ªGerm Theory
ªAlso called ___________________________________________because they work
every time but are not always fully understood
ªEx. ___________________________________________ªEnergy cannot be created or
destroyed by ordinary chemical means.
_______________________________________________ A body in motion remains in
motion unless acted on by an outside force
ªSI Units
ªWhat does SI stand for?
ªWhat are the SI units for: