Parts of a Speech THE BODY Purpose of the Body The Body of your speech is the heart, the brain, even the nerve center of the entire presentation. It is the place where you exhibit—in an organized manner— your powers of persuasion and reasoning. Audiences need to be convinced. They need to be informed. They need to be shown. After your audience hears your introduction and knows your thesis, you need to show or prove your point. Organizational Patterns Once you have gathered all of your supporting materials—details, research, personal ideas, etc—you must figure out how you are going to organize all of this information in the body of your speech. If you were to go on a road trip, there would be many routes you could take to get where you want to go. You would choose the route that best satisfies your needs in terms of time, scenery, road conditions, and points of interest. You will do the same when choosing an organizational pattern for your speech. Organizational Pattern #1 Chronological Pattern: The chronological pattern of organization puts things in a time sequence. This is an excellent choice if you want your audience to see the parts of your speech building into a complete picture from beginning to end. Example: The Evolution of Batman as a Heroic Figure 1. 2. 3. Initial comic book portrayal 1950’s and 1960’s TV show portrayal 1990’s movie portrayal Organizational Pattern #2 Climactic Pattern: In the climactic pattern, you organize your main points in order of importance—it gives your speech dramatic impact because it allows the speech to build in significance. This is an excellent choice if you want to save your most important point for last. Example: Types of Crime in America 1. 2. 3. Shoplifting White-collar crime Violent crime Organizational Pattern #3 Spatial Pattern: The spatial pattern of organization divides up your topic on the basis of space relationships. This is an excellent choice if you want your audience to see how the body of your speech fits together by the spatial layout picture that you create for them. Example: Introducing the Modern School 1. 2. 3. Library is the central hub Classrooms radiate from the library Offices are extensions Organizational Pattern #4 Cause-Effect Pattern: In the cause-effect pattern, you are saying to your listeners, “because of that, this happened.” This is an excellent choice if you are trying to show how one area (the cause) leads directly to the other area (the effect). Example: Anorexia 1. Causes Media influence 2. Low self-esteem 1. 2. Effects Physical problems 2. Emotional problems 1. Organizational Pattern #5 Problem-Solution Pattern: In the problem-solution pattern, you are presenting a problem and then providing ideas about how the problem can be solved. This is an excellent choice if you are putting together a logical speech that will show insightful analysis in areas that are easy for your audience to follow. Example: There is a need to recycle 1. Problems Lack of knowledge 2. Economics 1. 2. Solutions Education in schools and the media 2. Personal commitment 1. Choosing an Organizational Pattern Different topics call for different organizations. Combine your content with your originality and choose wisely. Organize your speech so that your audience enjoys the journey you are taking them on. Your next task…. Continue your practice speech with your group. Decide on an organizational pattern Decide on details and supporting information for each of your three main points. Write the body of your speech on your paper. Parts of a Speech THE CONCLUSION The Conclusion It has been said that if you want to deliver a good speech to your audience, you should “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em, tell ‘em, and then tell ‘em what you told ‘em.” This statement is not only amusing, but also contains a great deal of truth. The lesson? After a solid introduction and body, you need a conclusion to wrap up what you have said. Parts of a Conclusion 1. An effective summary of the major points of the speech and a re-statement of the thesis 2. A final clincher or final impression. Sample Conclusion #1 Over the past few minutes, you have seen how laughter can make you a more productive and effective worker, a more sensitive friend and family member, and even a healthier person. I think that after hearing that laughter can actually help us overcome serious illness and can help terminally ill patients live two to four years longer we should all start to smile. So, let’s establish and maintain a “laughing attitude.” We can all do it—and it costs nothing. #2 Therefore, the words that you heard at the beginning of this speech, “Let a smile be your umbrella,” might be sound advice. Go ahead and laugh! Hopefully, the world will laugh with you! The Summary The summary is the first part of your conclusion. It should: Remind your audience of your major areas you covered in your speech Possibly contain a particularly memorable or hard-hitting detail. (But avoid being too repetitive!) Re-state your thesis The Final Impression Just as it is important to make a good first impression, it is important to final a solid final impression Your final statement ends your speech, clinches your argument, and makes a memorable final impression. Things to think about with your final impression: The same things that can be used as ‘attention-getters’ work well here, too. Think about ending in a way similar to the way you began. Choose something that fits the mood of your speech, that makes sense, and that brings so finality to your speech so the audience knows you have finished. Your next task…. Write a conclusion (include both parts mentioned) to your speech. Read over your entire speech. Have someone read the speech and time it!! Everyone needs to take a turn ‘giving’ the speech to your group. Choose one person who would be willing to present your speech to the class. Help that person to prepare—give feedback! Think about what makes a good speech! Practice!