Science SCI.IV.2.1 Grade: 5 Strand IV: Using Scientific Knowledge in Physical Science Standard 2: Changes in Matter - All students will investigate, describe and analyze ways in which matter changes. Benchmark 1: Describe common physical changes in matter: evaporation, condensation, sublimation, thermal expansion and contraction Constructing and Reflecting: SCI.I.1.1 - Generate scientific questions about the world based on observation. • Construct questions for each of the investigations suggested below to guide the design of the investigation. SCI.I.1.2 -Design and conduct scientific investigations. • Investigate the solidification of various substances. • Design an investigation that shows how smells move from one place to another. • Experiment with ice to discover if ice will melt faster in fresh water or salt water. • Design and conduct an experiment to show that heat energy is required to change ice into water and water into water vapor. SCI.I.1.4 - Use metric measurement devices to provide consistency in an investigation. • Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of substances. SCI.II.1.4 - Describe the advantages and risks of new technologies. SCI.II.1.5 - Develop an awareness of and sensitivity to the natural world. Vocabulary / Key Concepts Context States of matter: • solid • liquid • gas States of matter: • solid • liquid • gas Process that cause changes in states or thermal effect: • heating • cooling • boiling Changes in state: • water evaporating as clothes dry • condensation on cold window panes • disappearance of snow or dry ice without melting • expansion of bridges in hot weather • contraction of balloons with heating and cooling • solid air fresheners Mass/weight remains constant during physical changes in closed systems. Knowledge and Skills Describe common physical changes in matter. Resources Coloma Resources: How Science Works – Readers Digest 1991 pgs 23, 34, 185 Other Resources: • • • MSU Matter & Molecules Bill Nye Science Explosion: “Physical Changes”, “Chemical Changes” • • Michigan Teacher Network Resources Steamed Up. NEW DIRECTIONS UNIT. http://www.BCMSC.k12.mi.us/ • Water, Precious Water. AIMS. http://wwws.aimsedu.org/aimscatalog/default.t pl Instruction Assessment Optional Assessment: Angelo wanted to make some spaghetti. He put a pot of water to heat on the stove. When he MATERIALS: 1 can butane lighter fluid, Ziplock returned he observed the following: the water bags, small pieces of dry ice. was bubbling, the water gave off heat, steam was rising from the pot, water droplets were on hood For safety precautions: This activity should be above stove, and the water level was lower in done as a demonstration only. pan. He was puzzled about the source of the water droplets on the hood above the stove. Zip a small Ziplock bag, almost closed, leaving Write a letter to Angelo explaining where the an opening just large enough to insert the nozzle water came from on the hood (you may also of a Butane can. Squirt a small amount of butane include a drawing) (about 1 teaspoon) into the bag and quickly seal (Give students rubric before activity.) it. The body heat of a student’s hands and Scoring Rubric fingers will cause the butane to boil, becoming a Criteria: Accuracy of explanation-evaporation: gas that inflates the bag. Discuss with students Apprentice - Explains the process of evaporation why the bag inflates (molecular motion). Rub the with many misconceptions/ contradictions. bag over a small block of dry ice to return the gas Basic - Explains the process of evaporation with a to a liquid state. Repeat as often as desired, few misconceptions/ contradictions. discussing the evaporation and condensation Meets - Explains the process of evaporation with process. Sublimation of the dry ice can also be one misconception/ contradiction Exceeds - Explains the process of evaporation with discussed. Focus Question: What physical changes does butane undergo during heating and cooling? Have the students draw a picture of the molecular motion for each phase change the butane undergoes. CAUTION: • Students to be aware of the dangers of butane gas (do not inhale, flammable). • Dispose of properly. • Ventilate room during activity. • Do not reuse bag for other activities. NOTE: Due to the porous property of the Ziplock bag, bags cannot be prepared in advance. no misconceptions/ contradictions and provides a labeled diagram. Criteria: Accuracy of explanation-condensation: Apprentice - Explains the process of condensation with many misconceptions/ contradictions. Basic - Explains the process of condensation with a few misconceptions/ contradictions. Meets - Explains the process of condensation with one misconception/ contradiction. Exceeds - Explains the process of condensation with no misconceptions/ contradictions and provides a labeled diagram. Teacher Notes: Physical changes are ones in which no new substance is produced; chemical changes result in new substances. The difference between physical and chemical changes can sometimes be subtle or obscure, but generally physical changes can be reversed more easily than chemical changes. Heat energy is involved in the physical changes of melting, evaporation, thermal expansion, etc. “Substances react chemically in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances (compounds) with different characteristic properties. In chemical reactions, the total mass is conserved. Chemical elements do not break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids. There are more than 100 known elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds, which account for the living and nonliving substances that we encounter.” (NSES) Focus Questions • • • What are the common physical changes of matter and the processes that occur? What are the reactants and products that are involved in a chemical change? How does the arrangement and motion of molecules change when heat is added or taken away?