“Author of Things Fall Apart, dies after brief illness”

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“Author of Things Fall Apart, dies after brief illness”

Chinua Achebe, 1930-2013

By Robyn Dixon (Los Angeles Times)

Johannesburg

He was often called the father of African literature.

Acclaimed Nigerian author Chinua Achebe, who wrote “Things Fall Apart,” died Friday after a brief illness. He was 82.

Achebe, often called the father of African literature was best known for “Things Fall Apart,” about the Igbo (Ibo) culture and the impact of colonialism in Africa.

The novel, published in 1958, sold more than 12 million copies and was translated into dozens of languages.

His last book, last year’s “There Was a Country: A Personal History of Biafra,” was about the

Biafran region’s failed war of independence and resulting famine.

In 2007, he was awarded the Man Booker prize for his life’s work.

Achebe’s family issued a statement calling him one of the great literary voices of his time.

“He was also a beloved father, uncle and grandfather, whose wisdom and courage inspired all who knew him,” the statement said.

The Nelson Mandela Center of Memory on Friday sent condolences to Achebe’s family, describing him as “a great African writer and thinker.”

The center’s namesake, former South African President Nelson Mandela, “referred to professor

Achebe as a writer ‘in whose company the prison walls fell down,’” said a spokesman for the center, Sello Hatang.

It was not immediately clear where Achebe had died.

Achebe lived in America after suffering a car accident in 1990 that lect him in a wheelchair, paralyzed from the waist down.

Achebe, who was professor of African studies at Brown University, loved and missed Nigeria immensely but condemned its authorities and widespread government corruption.

He twice rejected Nigerian attempts to honor him, most recently in 2011.

Achebe’s death was announced by a spokesman for the government in his home state of

Anambra, Nigeria.

Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathon on Friday called Achebe “a cultural icon.” Achebe’s frank, truthful and fearless interventions in national affairs will be greatly missed at home in Nigeria,” he said in a statement.

“Author of Things Fall Apart, dies after brief illness”

1.

What is the

central idea

of this passage? a.

Chinua Achebe wrote and published Things Fall Apart b.

Chinua Achebe, the author of things Fall Apart, a Nigerian novel, died at 82 years old. c.

Chinua Achebe’s legacy goes beyond his novel, and includes his positive impact on society. d.

Chinua Achebe won many awards and accolades for his wisdom and great writing skills.

2.

What

organizational strategy

did the author use in presenting information about

Achebe’s impact as an author? a.

He goes in chronological order, beginning with Achebe’s childhood, and moving b.

c.

through adulthood, to his untimely death.

He uses excerpts from Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart to support his claims of

Achebe’s artistic mastery.

He uses long sentences and very complex words to get his point across about

Chinua Achebe’s greatness. d.

He uses quotes from people whose lives have been deeply affected by Achebe to prove his worth.

3.

Using context what is the

best

definition of the word “icon” in paragraph 15? a.

a father b.

a genius c.

a symbol d.

a protector

4.

Using

context

, what is the

best

definition of the word “

condemned

” in paragraph 12? a.

criticize b.

reward c.

praise d.

cleanse

5.

By using

context

, what is an

antonym

for the word “

frank

” in paragraph 16? a.

unfaithful b.

irresponsible c.

dishonest d.

immature

6.

What is the

author’s purpose

for using the

metaphor

by Nelson Mandela in paragraph

9? a.

to inform the reader that Achebe helped Mandela get out of prison b.

to emphasize how liberating Achebe’s words are c.

to criticize Achebe’s uses of violence and bondage in his works d.

to emphasize the subtle irony Achebe adds to his writing

7.

Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathon, on Friday, called Chinua Achebe, “a cultural icon.” By using context, what is the best meaning of the phrase “

cultural icon

”? a.

a creator of African culture a genius about African culture b.

c.

d.

a symbol of African culture a protector of African culture

8.

What is

most likely

the reason why Chinua Achebe ‘. . . twice rejected Nigerian attempts to honor him, most recently in 2011.”? a.

He had always rejected his Nigerian heritage. b.

He had a distaste for his Igbo/Ibo roots since he is a Christian. c.

He did not want to visit his homeland since England colonized it. d.

He did not agree with the corruption in the Nigerian government.

Constructive Response Questions:

1.

Analyze the importance of Chinua Achebe as an author to, Africa, African literature and/or the world. Use textual evidence to support your ideas.

2.

In the article, Chinua Achebe is twice called, “. . . the father of African literature.”

Analyze what this means. Explain this statement citing textual evidence from the passage.

Literature-Common Core (Tested) Goals

R1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences from the text.

textual evidence, infer

R2

R3

R4

Determine a

theme

or

central idea

, how it develops, emerges and is shaped and refined by the text.

theme, motif

Analyze how

complex characters

develop over a text, interact with other characters and advance the

plot

and /or develop the

theme

.

character, characterization, dialogue, dialect, epiphany, plot, subplot

Determine the meaning of words and phrases including figurative and connotative meanings and analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices (

diction

) on meaning and

tone

.

diction, tone, syntax, connotation, denotation, figurative language,

R5

idiom, epiphany, vocabulary in context, round and flat character, dynamic and static character,

Analyze author’s choices about text structure, order of events, and manipulating time, and how these elements create effects (on the reader).

mood, suspense, flashback

Analyze a particular

point of view

or cultural experience.

narrator, setting

R6

Informational-Common Core (Tested) Goals

R1 Cite strong thorough textual evidence to support what the text says explicitly and

R2

R3 inferentially (implicitly).

Determine a

central idea

(not theme) and analyze its development over the text, how it emerges and how it is shaped and refined by specific details.

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events including the

R4

R5

R6

R8 order in which points are made, how they are introduced and developed and connection that are drawn between them.

Determine the meaning of words and phrases used in a text including figurative language and the impact on

meaning and tone

. (connotative and denotative)

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed or refined by particular sentences, paragraphs or large portions of a text.

Analyze an

author’s point of view

or purpose and how an author uses

rhetori

c to advance the point of view or purpose.

Counterpoints

- When an author makes the opposite point or presents the opposite idea

2.

3.

4.

5.

English II EOC Test Taking Tips

1.

Read every passage and every part of the passage including the title (first, before the questions).

Read the questions carefully.

Read each answer choice carefully.

Choose the BEST answer.

Take your time. (You have 4 hours.)

Vocabulary in Context Skills

1.

2.

3.

Use context (the words around an unknown word).

Look for clues from the author (definitions or synonyms nearby).

Use word etymology, prefixes, or suffixes.

EOC question identifiers assumption compare contrast connect convey correspond describe develop enhance establish evidence explain impact infer imply justify reveal summary significance cause and effect effect of the . . . purpose of the . . . which quote or sentence represents. . . how does the author develop. . . how does the author show the importance of. . .

Constructed Response Tips

1.

Proofread your response, especially after you are finished with the test.

Flag

the constructed response questions.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Use the literary term and/or key words in the question.

Provide textual evidence to support your answer. Use quotes.

More writing is better than less writing. Too much writing is better than too little.

Never get a 0 on constructive response. Always define the literary term in the question. Then use examples from text to elaborate on the idea/point.

Examples of Constructed Response Questions

1.

2.

3.

Explain the theme, how it is introduced, and how it developed in the passage.

Analyze the author’s tone in the passage. Cite textual evidence of the tone.

Analyze the language in the passage. Analyze how the author uses language to

4.

5.

convey the theme or tone. Cite textual evidence.

Analyze the imagery in the passage Explain the author’s purpose for using imagery

(or the effect the author creates).

How does the author use language to advance point of view, purpose, suspense, diction, imagery, etc.

English II Literary Terms

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

allegory

allusion

anachronism antagonist archetype caricature- an exaggerated characteristic of a person meant to ridicule or demean him/her

central idea

character

9.

characterization

10.

counterpoints

11.

connotation

12.

denotation

13.

diction

14.

dialect

15.

dynamic character

16.

static character

17.

round character

18.

flat character

19.

conflict

20.

epic

21.

epic hero

22.

epiphany

23.

external conflict

24.

internal conflict

25.

idiom

26.

flashback

27.

foreshadowing

28.

hyperbole

29.

genre

30.

imagery

31.

infer

32.

irony (verbal irony-sarcasm, dramatic irony

)

33.

metaphor

34.

mood

35.

motif

36.

narrator

37.

1

38.

2

st

nd

person narrator

person narrator

39.

3 rd

person limited narrator

40.

3 rd

person omniscient narrator

41.

onomatopoeia

42.

personification

43.

plot

44.

protagonist

45.

repetition

46.

sarcasm-the use of ironic language usu. intended to ridicule, be humorous, or criticize

47.

satire (parody)

48.

setting

49.

simile

50.

stream of consciousness

51.

subplots

-conflict that takes place in the story that is not part of the main conflict

52.

suspense

53.

symbol

54.

syntax-the order of words in a phrase or sentence

55.

synonym

56.

antonym

57.

textual evidence

58.

theme

59.

tone

60.

tragedy

61.

tragic flaw-see hamartia

62.

tragic hero

Play/Drama Terms

63.

act

64.

aside

65.

catharsis- audience learns from the flaw of the tragic hero, purging=spiritual renewal

66.

chorus

67.

denoument

68.

dialogue

69.

dramatis personae

70.

hamartia-to miss the mark, tragic flaw/weakness that causes the protagonists downfall

71.

hubris

72.

in medias res

73.

monologue

74.

orchestra

75.

soliloquy

76.

stage directions

77.

author’s purpose-

why the author writes the passage a) b) to critique to entertain c) to inform d) to persuade

78.

author’s Point of View=narrator

(1 st

, 3 rd

person limited, 3 rd

person omniscient) Why? What effect?

79.

figurative language- simile, metaphor, hyperbole, personification

Rhetorical Devices

80.

logos-logical

81.

ethos-ethical

82.

pathos-emotional

83.

repetition

84.

diction

85.

parallelism

86.

antithesis

87.

rhetorical question

Time

Frame

First Six

Weeks

Unit weeks

1-3 weeks

4-6

Second Six

Weeks weeks

7-9 weeks

10-12

Third Six

Weeks weeks

13-15 weeks

16-18

RL 5

RL 9

RL 6

RL 7

RL 10

ELA 9/10 SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

Reading

Literature

RL 1

RL 2

RL 3

RL 4

Reading

Informational

RI 1

RI 2

RI 3

RI 4

Writing

W2 a,b,c,d,e,f

W4

W5

W2 a,b,c,d,e,f

W7

W8

Speaking and

Listening

SL 1 a,b,c,d

SL 2

SL 4

SL 5

RI 5 W3 a,b,c,d,e SL 1 a,b,c,d

SL 4

Language

L2 c

L4 a,b,c,d

L1 b

L2 a,b

L3

L1 b

L5 a,b

Review/

Testing

RI 6

RI 7

RI 8

RI 9

RI 10

Review/

Testing

W1 a,b,c,d,e

W1 a,b,c,d,e

W9 a,b

W10

Review/

Testing

SL 3

SL 6

SL 1 a,b,c,d

SL 4

SL 5

Review/

Testing

L1 a

L5 c,d

L4 a,b,c,d

L6

Review/

Testing

Persuasive Techniques:

Many speeches are examples of persuasion; persuasive techniques are the methods that a speaker or a writer uses to appeal to and convince the audience. Most speeches use a mixture of persuasive appeals.

A

logical appeal

builds a well-reasoned argument based on evidence such as facts, statistics, or expert testimony and usually follows a sensible progression of ideas. a) Induction- involves the compiling of evidence/reasons/examples that support an b) argument: the amassing of reasons. Usu. the more evidence the better, but often three good reasons or examples will do

Deduction-involves premises or statements upon which all parties agree, which, when considered logically, lead to a strong conclusi on

An

emotional appeal

attempts to arouse the audience’s feelings, often by using rhetorical devices that evoke an emotional response.

An

ethical appeal

is directed at the audience’s sense of morality or values. This type of appeal is often linked to the audience’s perception of the trustworthiness and moral character of the speaker or writer. a) b)

Divine Good- from God or other deity

Social Good- from society as a whole c) d)

Individual Good- this will help me and/or others

Virtuous Good (intrinsic, good for its own sake)- because it is the right thing to do

Rhetoric (Aristotle’s Definition)- to produce conviction (strong belief or agreement), especially among common men, in legislation, law and ceremonial speeches.

Rhetorical Devices – effective speeches/writing typically include rhetorical devices; special patterns of words and ideas that create emphasis and stir the audience’s emotions thus convincing the audience to agree with the speaker

1.

Repetition- restating an idea using the same words emphasis or importance, to make memorable, focuses on specific concepts

2.

Restatement- expressing the same idea in different words to clarify ideas or concepts, to make the information understandable by different people, memorable

3.

Parallelism- repeating a grammatical structure to organize and connect ideas

4.

Antithesis/Juxtaposition- using strongly contrasting words, images, or ideas to emphasize an idea or concept

(“It was the

best

of times, it was the

worst

of times, it was the epoch of

belief

, it was the epoch of

incredulity

, it was the season

Light

, it was the season of

Darkness

, it was the spring of

hope

, it was the winter of

despair

, we had

everything before us

, we had

nothing before us

, we were all going direct to

Heaven

, we were all going

direct the other way

…”A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens)

5.

Rhetorical questions- asking questions with obvious answers to make people think, to make an obvious point, grabs and refocuses the attention of the audience

6.

Allusion- a reference to a literary text or an event to connect ideas, to present information to the audience in familiar terms

7.

Diction- word choice, the use of specific words or phrases specific or certain words have different effects on different people; powerful, thoughtprovoking,emotional, direct, subtle, infer/imply

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