Chapter 3 ` ` ` Refers to the physical and biological attributes of men and women Includes: Chromosomal ◦ xx and xy ` Hormonal ◦ Testosterone, Estrogen ◦ And… ` Anatomical ` Gender : Social ` Psychological ` Cultural ` ◦ Masculinity and Femininity ` ` Gender reflects societal attitudes and behavioral expectations Gender identity : ◦ An individual’s view of herself or himself as feminine or masculine ` Generally, sex is considered to be an ascribed status ` Gender is an achieved status ` Examples of gender characteristics? ` What physical, emotional, or other characteristics are considered “Masculine” or “Feminine”? ` Gender Roles – Expectations regarding proper: – Behavior – Attitudes – Activities of males and females – Gender roles in work – How we react to others http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nIXUjz yMe0 ` ` ` ` ` ` Gender role socialization is “...a lifelong process whereby people learn: Values Attitudes Motivations Behavior Considered appropriate to each sex by their culture” ` Children learn proper behavior for girls and boys through: ` Parents/family ` Media ` Peer groups ` School 1. 2. 3. 4. No sissy-stuff – men distance themselves from anything feminine. Big wheel - men should be occupationally or financially successful. Sturdy oak - men should be confident and self-reliant. Give ‘em hell -men should do what is necessary to “make it” ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` Women offer emotional support. Ideal woman is: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYhCn0jf46U Attractive Not too competitive Good listener Adaptable Good mothers Put needs of others first Superwoman - successful at a career and a good wife/mother http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wjg_pmdX8no&feature=related ` http://www.pinkisforboys.org/2/post/2012/ 01/gender-in-baby-cards-1960-video.html ` ` ` ` ` Women give birth and nurse children, it is natural to provide care Natural division of labor ◦ Women more involved in domestic activities ◦ Preparing meals ◦ Maintaining a home Men Financial support for family Other economically dominant roles ` ` ` ` Parsons and Bales: Women--Expressive roles Men-- Instrumental roles Pre-industrial society=division of labor based on gender. ◦ Women nursed and cared for children ◦ Men responsible for material needs ` Industrialization made traditional division of labor less functional ◦ Belief system remains ` Focus-Gender inequality ` Men dominate women ` Greater control over: ` Economic ` Political ` Social resources ` No incentive for those in power to give it up or share it. Continued domination by males-` Requires belief system that supports gender inequality ` ` Two beliefs 1. Women are inferior outside the home 2. Women are more valuable in the home ` Gender and gender roles learned through socialization ` Women roles ` Men roles socialized into expressive socialized into instrumental ◦ Micro level of behavior (research results) x Men more likely than women to: x Change topic of conversations x Ignore topics chosen by women x Minimize ideas of women x Interrupt women ` Rubin, ` First 24 hours after birth ` Parents ` No Provenzano, and Luria, 1974 described girls & boys differently actual differences between them ` Boy babies thought to be more alert, stronger, and firmer ` Girl babies described as less attentive, weaker, and more fragile ` All newborns are fragile, weak, and generally inattentive ` Jacklin, 1984 ` Boys given blocks and tools ` Girls given dolls and easy bake ovens ` McHale et al., 1990 ` Boys mow lawn ` Girls do dishes and babysit ` Jacklin, 1984-parents give: ` Boys toys that encourage invention & manipulation ` Girls toys emphasize caring & imitation ` McHale et al., 1990 ` Parents assign boys maintenance chores ` Give girls domestic tasks ` Peers ` School ` Media ` In a typical day, 47% of babies and toddlers ages 0 through 1 watch TV or DVDs ` Those who watch spend an average of nearly two hours (1:54) doing so ` Nearly one in three (30%) has a TV in their bedroom ` (Knowledge Networks survey of 1,384 parents of children ages 0 to 8 years old, May 27-June 15, 2011 ) ` In 2005, among children ages 6-23 months, 19% had a TV in bedrooms. ` Current study: 6- to 23-month-olds in the current study, 29% have a TV in their bedroom. ` Two-thirds (65%) of 0- to 8-year-olds watch TV at least once every day ◦ 37% of 0-1 year-olds ◦ 73% of 2- to 4-year-olds ◦ 72% of 5- to 8-year-olds 1. How did the media affect your gender socialization? 2. Do video games socialize children? ◦ How? 3. How do movies socialize children? ◦What are the messages? ◦ Examples?