Development in Physical Education

KNR 242
 Has the skills necessary to perform a variety of physical
 Is physically fit.
 Participates regularly in physical activity.
 Knows the implications and benefits of involvement in
physical activity.
 Values physical activity and its contributions to a
healthy lifestyle.
 Focus shift from product to process
 Fitness score factors
 Fitness testing should be used for
educational purposes not grading
 Biological
 Psychological
 Social and economic
 Growth Spurts: girls at age 9-12, boys at age 11-13
 Height: 98% of adult height achieved by  girls at age 16, final growth by age 18
 boys at age 18, final growth by age 20-21
 Weight Gain During Teens: girls ~35lbs., boys ~45 lbs.
 Overweight vs. Overfat
 Muscle Fiber Differentiation
Middle School
 Rapid swings in
Increased height and
Lack of coordination
Sexual gender
characteristics occur
Hormonal changes
leading to mood swings
Wide range of physical
High School
 Some may still
experience rapid growth
Boys gain more muscle
than fat; girls gain more
fat than muscle
High potential for
increasing muscular
strength and endurance
Bones are still growing
Loss of flexibility
 Maturation:
 Aerobic Capacity:
 Strength:
Middle School
High School
 Capable of abstract
 Reaching adult cognitive
 Beginning to question
and understand complex
cause and effect
 Curious
 Unlikely to be interested
unless material is
personally relevant
 Increase in ability to use
 Increased memory
 Increased interest and
capacity to understand
abstract thinking and
problem solving
 Physical education vs. Academic achievement?
Middle School
 Seeking independence
from adults
Can show both maturity
and immaturity
Very group oriented
Moody, sensitive
Views their problems as
Interested in opposite
High School
 Begin to break reliance
on peer groups
 Explore relationships
with opposite gender
 Can be expected to
display appropriate
social behavior
 Physical Education Dropouts
 Reinforcement of early maturing
 Fitts & Posner, 1967
 Cognitive Stage
 Motor Stage
 Autonomous Stage
 Development is content specific
 Importance of individualized instruction.
 Wide age range within a grade.
 Motor ability factors affect success.
 Importance of a varied curriculum.
 Exercise as punishment
 Choosing teams
 Elimination games
 Fitness testing by putting individuals in the spotlight
 Grading policies