Chapter 4, Our Gendered Identities

Chapter 4, Our Gendered Identities
Gendered Identities
Is Anatomy Destiny?
Gender and Socialization
Gender in Adult Lives
Masculine “Scripts”
No sissy-stuff - men are expected to distance
themselves from anything feminine.
Big wheel - men should be occupationally or
financially successful.
Sturdy oak - men should be confident and
Give ‘em hell -men should do what is
necessary to “make it”
Women should offer emotional support.
Ideal woman is attractive, not too competitive,
a good listener and adaptable.
Women are expected to be good mothers and
to put the needs of others first.
Superwoman - successful at a career and a
good wife/mother.
Male Dominance
Males tend to dominate verbally.
Male Dominance is evident in politics, religion
and the economy.
There are no known societies where women
dominate men.
Male Dominance - Economy
In 2001, women earned 77% of what employed
men earned.
In 2000, only 12.5% of executive positions
were held by women.
Even in the same occupational categories,
women earn less than men.
Old-fashioned Sexism
Measuring statements
 Swearing is more repulsive in a a woman than
a man.
 It is ridiculous for a woman to run a locomotive
and for a man to darn socks.
Old-fashioned Sexism
Measuring statements
 The father should have greater authority than
the mother in bringing up children.
 Women are generally not as smart as men.
 It is more important to encourage boys than
girls to participate in athletics.
Modern Sexism
Measuring statements
 Discrimination against women in the labor
force is no longer a problem.
 Women shouldn't push themselves where they
are not wanted.
Modern Sexism
Measuring statements
 Many men are inclined to overcompensate
women in order not to appear sexist.
 Due to social pressures, some firms have to
hire under qualified women.
Biological Theories of Gender
In order to continue their genes, individuals
maximize their own and their close kin’s
Men and women have different adaptive
strategies and skills encoded in the genes.
Male and female brains differ due to greater
amounts of testosterone secreted by a male
Society Based Gender Stratification
Foraging and Hoe Societies
 Food production is compatible with pregnancy,
and nursing.
 Women fully participate economically so
males are less dominant.
Society Based Gender Stratification
Agricultural Societies
 Food production is less compatible with
pregnancy and nursing.
 Men did the heavy work and women's
productive labor was less visible.
 Patriarchy became established and increased
the social control exerted over women.
Society Based Gender Stratification
Industrial Societies
 Status of women declined as work became
separate from home and family life.
 Women’s contribution to the economy through
domestic support and reproduction of the labor
force became virtually invisible.
Theories of Socialization
Social Learning Theory - Children learn
gender roles as they are taught by parents,
schools and the media.
Self-identification theory - Children
categorize themselves by age three and then
identify behaviors in their families, the media
and elsewhere that are appropriate to their sex
and adopt these behaviors.
Theories of Socialization
Gender Schema Theory - Children develop a
frame of knowledge about what girls and boys
typically do.
Children's Theory of Gender - Infants
develop a primary identification with their
primary caregiver and later must differentiate
psychologically and emotionally between
themselves and their primary caregiver.
Girls and Boys in the Family
Parents handle infant sons more roughly and
respond more quickly to crying baby girls.
Most parents discourage their children from
playing with other sex toys.
Parents allocate household chores according
to the child’s sex.
Socialization in School's
More men are in positions of authority
(principals and superintendents) and women
are in positions of service (teachers and
Teachers pay more attention to males than to
Males tend to dominate learning environments
from nursery school to college.
Gender and Stress: Women
Women are oriented to others at the expense
of self, leading to depression, boredom, and
Suicide attempts are more common among
women than men.
Women have higher rates of mental illness and
eating disorders.
Gender and Stress: Men
Overemphasis on production, competition and
achievement create anxiety and stress which
may contribute to shorter life expectancy.
Physically dangerous behaviors (smoking,
unsafe driving, drug use, violence) shorten
men’s lives.
Hiding their feelings can lead to hidden
depression and isolation.