Chapter 4, Our Gendered Identities Gendered Identities Is Anatomy Destiny? Gender and Socialization Gender in Adult Lives Masculine “Scripts” 1. 2. 3. 4. No sissy-stuff - men are expected to distance themselves from anything feminine. Big wheel - men should be occupationally or financially successful. Sturdy oak - men should be confident and self-reliant. Give ‘em hell -men should do what is necessary to “make it” Femininities Women should offer emotional support. Ideal woman is attractive, not too competitive, a good listener and adaptable. Women are expected to be good mothers and to put the needs of others first. Superwoman - successful at a career and a good wife/mother. Male Dominance Males tend to dominate verbally. Male Dominance is evident in politics, religion and the economy. There are no known societies where women dominate men. Male Dominance - Economy In 2001, women earned 77% of what employed men earned. In 2000, only 12.5% of executive positions were held by women. Even in the same occupational categories, women earn less than men. Old-fashioned Sexism Measuring statements Swearing is more repulsive in a a woman than a man. It is ridiculous for a woman to run a locomotive and for a man to darn socks. Old-fashioned Sexism Measuring statements The father should have greater authority than the mother in bringing up children. Women are generally not as smart as men. It is more important to encourage boys than girls to participate in athletics. Modern Sexism Measuring statements Discrimination against women in the labor force is no longer a problem. Women shouldn't push themselves where they are not wanted. Modern Sexism Measuring statements Many men are inclined to overcompensate women in order not to appear sexist. Due to social pressures, some firms have to hire under qualified women. Biological Theories of Gender In order to continue their genes, individuals maximize their own and their close kin’s reproduction. Men and women have different adaptive strategies and skills encoded in the genes. Male and female brains differ due to greater amounts of testosterone secreted by a male fetus. Society Based Gender Stratification Foraging and Hoe Societies Food production is compatible with pregnancy, and nursing. Women fully participate economically so males are less dominant. Society Based Gender Stratification Agricultural Societies Food production is less compatible with pregnancy and nursing. Men did the heavy work and women's productive labor was less visible. Patriarchy became established and increased the social control exerted over women. Society Based Gender Stratification Industrial Societies Status of women declined as work became separate from home and family life. Women’s contribution to the economy through domestic support and reproduction of the labor force became virtually invisible. Theories of Socialization Social Learning Theory - Children learn gender roles as they are taught by parents, schools and the media. Self-identification theory - Children categorize themselves by age three and then identify behaviors in their families, the media and elsewhere that are appropriate to their sex and adopt these behaviors. Theories of Socialization Gender Schema Theory - Children develop a frame of knowledge about what girls and boys typically do. Children's Theory of Gender - Infants develop a primary identification with their primary caregiver and later must differentiate psychologically and emotionally between themselves and their primary caregiver. Girls and Boys in the Family Parents handle infant sons more roughly and respond more quickly to crying baby girls. Most parents discourage their children from playing with other sex toys. Parents allocate household chores according to the child’s sex. Socialization in School's More men are in positions of authority (principals and superintendents) and women are in positions of service (teachers and secretaries). Teachers pay more attention to males than to females. Males tend to dominate learning environments from nursery school to college. Gender and Stress: Women Women are oriented to others at the expense of self, leading to depression, boredom, and dissatisfaction. Suicide attempts are more common among women than men. Women have higher rates of mental illness and eating disorders. Gender and Stress: Men Overemphasis on production, competition and achievement create anxiety and stress which may contribute to shorter life expectancy. Physically dangerous behaviors (smoking, unsafe driving, drug use, violence) shorten men’s lives. Hiding their feelings can lead to hidden depression and isolation.