Freedom-Order-Equality - history-b

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Freedom ~ Order ~ Equality
(Part 2… Two Dilemmas of Government)
A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing
Government
 What government tries to do can be simplified into
three concepts: order, freedom and equality.
Two Dilemmas of Government
 Maintaining Order and Promoting Equality
 Require sacrifices in individual Freedom
 Leads to…
 Two major dilemmas confront the government today.
1. The first one, the original dilemma, involves tradeoffs
between freedom and order.
2. The second one, the modern dilemma, deals with the
balance between freedom and equality.
Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
3
Two Dilemmas of Government
 The Original Dilemma… Freedom and Order
 Involves tradeoffs between freedom and order.
 Protect life, property, and make citizens safe from
violence and spread of disease.
 Examples:
 Gun control laws
 Neighborhood checkpoints in high crime areas
 Mandatory HIV testing
Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
4
Two Dilemmas of Government
 The Original Dilemma… Freedom and Order
 How much freedom are people willing to give up to
achieve complete safety?
 How much insecurity are we willing to tolerate to
preserve our personal freedom?
 Conflict between values of freedom and order: policy
to strengthen one takes away from the other
Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
5
Faces of Order
Consistency
Control
Unity
Planning
Coordination
Integration
Stability







These faces of order create a world of rules, plans,
purpose, and coordinated action.
© Hoy, 2006
Faces of Freedom

Ambiguity
Autonomy
Diversity
Spontaneity
Communication
Specialization
Change






These faces of freedom create a world of imagination,
innovation, creativity, vision, dreams, and hope.
© Hoy, 2006
Order versus Freedom
Both order and freedom are necessary for effective social
functioning, but emphasis of one undermines the other.
THUS-Dynamic equilibrium, continuous adjustment, and
accommodation are essential for effective leadership.
© Hoy, 2006
Two Dilemmas of Government
 The Modern Dilemma… Freedom vs. Equality
 Deals with the balance between freedom and equality.
 Values clash when government enacts policies to
promote social equality
 Equal Pay Act
 School busing
 Discrimination (employment, public services, genetic
testing, etc.)
 Should government act to promote equal access by
women and African Americans to high-paying jobs,
even though this restricts the freedom of their
employers? Copyright © 2014 Cengage Learning
9
Freedom vs. Equality
 The Equal Pay Act requiring employers to pay women
and men the same rate for equal work
 Employers are forced to pay more than they would if
their pay was based on free choice
 Bussing of schoolchildren to achieve a fair distribution
of blacks and whites in schools
 Impaired freedom of choice for educational equality
When forced to choose, Americans are more likely to
choose freedom over equality
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