Rock Wall study guide

Rock Climbing
Development of Indoor Wall Climbing
The idea for indoor sport climbing grew out of two main
components of outdoor rock climbing. The first is the more tame
practice of bouldering, a technique used by mountaineers to hone
their skills on low-level rocks usually no higher than 4 to 5 feet.
Basic hand- and footholds and traversing techniques can be
practiced without the aid of a safety, rope, with little or no danger.
The second component is climbing well above the ground on rock
faces and cliffs using a climbing partner, a rope, and safety devices
to protect them from injury in the event of a fall.
During the mid-1960s, individuals in England united these two
aspects of the sport by fitting cement walls with bolted handholds.
The resulting "cliff" offered avid climbers a year-round training
ground. The French added refinements by incorporating
interchangeable handholds and by developing lightweight
compounds made of fiberglass, resin, and sand to simulate real
rock (Klugman, 1993).
Fitness Benefits
Four major fitness benefits from climbing have
been identified. Components of physical fitness
that are enhanced through climbing include
muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardio
respiratory fitness, and flexibility.
When muscular strength is developed, the climber
is able to generate maximal force in a single
movement and is better able to make dynamic
The Equipment
Open up the harness and step into the leg loops with the
belay/rappel loop centered and the buckle off to your right side.
There should be no twists in either the leg loops or waist belt.
Thread the waist webbing through the main buckle. Important:
Make sure you double back the harness. Most harnesses have a red
safety feature. Make sure the red is covered painted section on the
buckle is covered. At the Rock Wall we have two different harnesses.
Harness Key Points:
1. Make sure waist belt is tightened above
the hip bones and tightened to at least “2
finger” test.
2. Leg Loops should be tight but not
3. Make sure all buckles are double backed
and/or the cam mechanism works properly. C
= Closed
Tying in:
Always thread the rope through the waist belt tie through point and leg loop cross section.
Never tie into the belay loop! Repeat: Never tie into the belay loop! Make sure the
figure-8 knot is tied correctly, dressed, and backed up with a “stopper knot”.
The only knot allowed at the Rock Wall is the “Figure-8 follow-through”.
Always back up the knot with a “stopper knot”.
Figure 8 knot
Stopper knot
Proper Knot Tie-In
Climbing SAFETY Check
Before Belay/Climbing Check: B.A.R.K.
Use this simple acronym to make sure the climber and belayer
check each other before climbing. Do this every time you climb!
B. Buckles- Check climber and belayer’s Buckles (Make sure
double backed)
Also used for “brain bucket” make sure it is on properly.
A. Anchor- Check tether. Make sure “squeeze check”
locking carabineer in floor. Make
sure rope not twisted in anchor above. Eye Bolt Tight.
R. Rappel/ Belay Device- Squeeze check locking carabineer.
Proper Set Up of Belay Device and
rope going through the top.
K. Knots- Double check “figure-8 follow through” and
“stopper knot” . Make sure knot is
through both center of leg loops and waist belt. Knot Dressed
and close to harness.
Climbing Commands:
Communication between the climber and the belayer is very
important. The commands are:
Climber: “On Belay?” The question the climber asks to the
belayer to see if belayer is ready.
Belayer “Belay on” The response the belayer tells the climber
when the belay is set and ready
Climber: “Climbing” What the climber says to the belayer
indicating the climber is starting to climb
Belayer “Climb On” or “Climb Away” What the belayer says to
the climber to start climbing.
“Lower Me” A command to the belayer that the climber is ready
to be lowered
“Watch Me” Commands the belayer to pay close attention,
expect or be prepared for a fall
“Falling” The climber is falling-a statement of fact
Belayer “Belay off” The climber’s signal to the belayer that they
are ready to be taken off the belay
and that the belayer’s responsibility should end.
Climber “Off belay” The belayer’s response to the climber that
the belay has ended