Plan for Today: Marxism and Dependency Theory 1. 2. Highlighting general principles of Marxist thought. Applying to international relations: 1. 2. Marxist theory on imperialist war. Neo-Marxist explanations for Third World underdevelopment. Marxi$m Introduction to Marxism Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto (1848). Ontology: economic classes main actors. Causal argument: Class conflict social/ political change. System of economic production institutional & ideological structures. Introduction to Marxism Impoverishment & growth of proletariat proletarian overthrow of bourgeoisie. Capitalism = exploitation of workers by bourgeoisie. Pay subsistence wage and pocket surplus. Introduction to Marxism Teleological theory: cycle of change as inevitable classless societies and peace. Marxist IR Approaches: Theory of Imperialist War John Hobson: Imperialism from problems in capitalism. Bourgeoisie acquires profits & system produces goods. Eventually low-wage working class can’t afford goods. Crisis of overproduction & underconsumption Need to invest in overseas production to maintain profits. Marxist IR Approaches: Theory of Imperialist War Lenin: Inter-state wars caused by imperialist expansion. Expansion to colonies necessary for capitalist survival (stave off workers’ revolution). Eventually all territory grabbed and capitalist states must fight one another to reallocate. Critiques of Marxist Theory of Imperialism 1. Empirical events: How to explain Soviet expansionism & conflicts among Communist states? 2. Most advanced capitalist states should be most imperialist – but not. 3. Few colonies profitable to colonizers. 4. Most wars in capitalist era not for economic motives. 1. Critiques of Marxist Theory of Imperialism 1. Theoretical attacks: Economic drive for imperialism only ephemeral – real timeless reason is hunger for power. 2. Business bourgeoisie not main foreign policy decisionmakers. 1. Neo-Marxist IR Approaches: Dependency Theory 1. 2. Flourished in 1970s. International system has own class structure: metropolis (exploiters) and satellite (exploited). Marxist IR Approaches: Dependency Theory Andre Gunder Frank Hypotheses: Metropoles develop; satellites underdevelop. 2. Satellites develop when ties with metropoles weakest. 3. Most underdeveloped regions today had closest ties to metropole in past. 1. Marxist IR Approaches: Dependency Theory How metropoles subjugate satellites: Foreign investment in poor countries limited to extractive industries. 2. Westernizing domestic elites in poor countries. 1. Marxist IR Approaches: Dependency Theory Critique of modernization theory. Modernization theory: 3rd world must emulate Western societies to develop. Problem is bad traditions. Development = Westernization. Marxist IR Approaches: Critiques of Dependency Theory 1. 2. 3. No direct relationship between states’ reliance on extractive industries and poverty/ underdevelopment. States are dependent because underdeveloped; not vice versa. Why do some satellite states escape (NICs)?