Sports & Entertainment Marketing PROFESSIONAL SPORTS Big League Sports – Top 10 Sports in the World • #10 – – – • #9 – – – Basketball Developed in America in the late 19th century • Originally dominated by Americans • Slowly spread throughout the world Growth spurred by urbanization International leagues in Greece, Israel, Japan Top talents from • Germany – Dirk Nowitzki • France – Tony Parker • Spain – Pau and Marc Gasol • Canada – Steve Nash – – – – Golf 450 Million Fans Dates back to 13th century Home of origin – Old Course at St. Andrews – has been used for the last 500 years Indirect nature of competition creates a lack of conflict or perceived competitiveness American players have dominated sport • Asian countries are beginning to catch up – • • #8 #7 – – – – – • #6 – – – – • American Football 400 Million Fans Evolved from rugby in late 19th century • Mainly a club or collegiate sport NFL established in 1920 No teams outside of North America #5 – – – 400 Million Fans 500 Million Fans Developed in from the game of rounders One of the longest-standing codes of play • Major rules have not changed since 1901 National League founded in 1876 Direct competition of single players – the batter & pitcher – within a team sport Global appeal • Leading spectator sport in Japan • National sport in a number of Central and South American countries • Cuba won numerous Olympic golds • Japanese won 2-of-3 World baseball Classics Table Tennis 850 Million Fans Hugely popular in China and gaining acceptance in Europe Been around for less than a century Attractive because of ease of play and inexpensive equipment International play dominated by the Chinese, particularly the women Volleyball 900 Million Fans Played around the world Simplicity of play and flexibility of what kind of playing surface has made game wildly popular Introduced into Olympic Games in 1964 • – • #4 – – – • • • #3 Pretty evenly matched over the years with numerous countries winning medals and no one country dominating Beach volleyball introduced as Olympic sport in 1996 • Dominated by the American and Brazilians Tennis 1 Billion Fans Top ranking solo competition Dates back before the 14th century • Modern rules written mid 19th century World appeal as no single player or country has truly dominated sport • Last 10 years, #1 ranking held by 14 different players representing 8 different countries – – – – – Field Hockey 2 Billion Fans Developed independently in Europe and Asia in the 3rd century B.C. Modern rules developed in the 19th century England Dominated by India & Pakistan mid 1900s Now Australia & the Netherlands a major force Viewed as a female-dominated sport in US, across the globe it is male-dominated – – – – Cricket 2.5 Billion Fans Thanks to the British Empire , this sport has spread across the globe th Played as far back as the 16 century, modern rules developed in the early 1700s Large teams and long games – sometimes up to 5 days in length England, India, Australia, South America top teams #2 #1 – – – Soccer 3.5 Billion Fans Simplicity of the sport and the ease of play make it the most popular sport in the world to play and watch Versions of a game kicking a ball towards a target have been around for centuries • Mid-19th century modern rules developed in England No particularly powerful clubs • Dozens in contention for international and top-league titles every year Soccer 260 million participants worldwide Truly global appeal o National, cultural, religious, gender, class Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) o $700 million annual income o World Cup most widely viewed sporting event in the world Highest paid soccer players in world 3. Zlatan Ibrahimovic, PSG ($40.4 million) 2. Lionel Messi, Barcelona ($64.7 million) 1. Cristiano Ronaldo, Real Madrid ($80 million) Top 10 Sports in the USA 10. Martial Arts 9. Wrestling 8. Motor Sports 7. Golf 6. Tennis 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. Soccer Hockey Basketball Baseball Football Financial Impact Most valuable NFL football teams Houston Texans ($1.85 billion) New York Giants ($2.1 billion) Washington Redskins ($2.4 billion) New England Patriots ($2.6 billion) Dallas Cowboys ($2.1 billion ) New Dallas Cowboy Stadium (2009) Originally estimated to cost $650 million, actual cost $ billion o Financed through approved sales tax increases by the city of Arlington; $325 million from city of Arlington (bonds); $150 million NFL loan; over runs paid by Jerry Jones o One of the most expensive sports venues ever built Seats 80,000 (110,000 including standing room) rd 3 largest NFL stadium o What is largest NFL stadium? AT&T Naming Rights Deal o $17-$19 Million/year for 20 years o City gets 5% to help offset cost to build Since opening, has hosted: o Super Bowl XLV (2011) o NBA All-Star Game (2010) o Highest attended basketball game in history o Big 12 Championship Game (2009, 2010) o Cotton Bowl (2010-2012, 2015) o Texas UIL State Championship (2010-present) o NCAA Final Four (2014) o C college Football Playoff Championship (2015) It’s All About the Money What sport had the most yearly revenue? How much? Which league has the highest average salary? How much? Which league has the highest salary cap? How much? Who was the highest paid athlete in 2014? How much? Highest paid NFL player? Highest paid NBA player? Highest paid MLB player? Which sport had the most players in the top 100? Which sport has more followers on social media? How Teams Make Money Ticket Sales Ticket Sales League MLB NFL NHL Average Ticket Price $ 26.98 $ 78.38 $ 57.39 NBA $ 48.48 Average Attendance 30,884 67,358 17,455 17,274 Average Ticket Sales per Game $ 833,250 $ 5,279,520 $ 1,001,742 $ 837,444 # of Games per Season 2,421 254 1,230 990 Average Ticket Earnings per Season $ 2,017,299,025 $ 1,340,998,090 $ 1,232,143,214 $ 829,069,085 What would it cost an average family of 4 to go to your favorite team’s game? List the team and how much. Merchandise What was the top selling NFL jersey last year? What was the top selling NBA jersey last year? Winning is Everything In order to keep ticket sales strong and charge high prices, owners must provide a winning team A team fresh off of a national championship will probably have sold-out games the next season because fans expect continued success Most Winning Teams Most Winning Teams League City Franchise MLB New York Yankees 27 NFL Green Bay Packers 13 NHL Montreal Canadienes 25 NBA Boston Celtics 17 Brazil 5 FIFA # of Wins Prestige, Power, Profitability The value of sports franchises has skyrocketed due to prestige, power, and profitability o Jerry Jones paid $140 million for the Dallas Cowboys in 1989 ($65 million for the franchise and $75 million for the stadium) o The Cowboys franchise is currently valued at $3,200,000,000 Perks and Payoffs Perk—a payoff or profit received in addition to a regular wage or payment Political Clout Franchise owners who bring millions of dollars in business activity to a city often find themselves with political clout or influence Political Clout is frequently associated with wealth The Bottom Line Winning is everything in sports Teams often provide players with special contract incentives for winning Competition or Collusion? Teams are paid big money to win Sports clubs cannot operate independently o Must cooperate with one another in order to sell their entertainment services to the public Role of the League Teams that are members of a professional sports league are contractually obligated another to one The league determines: o the of games o makes and enforces o sets the guidelines for new players o determines a new team will be admitted to the league and allowed to compete with its members League Rules Competition on the field would diminish if any club had the ability to hoard the best athletic talent League rules are designed to ensure that each club has the opportunity to employ and retain quality players o Contracts, Drafts, etc. Because specific clubs may hold the exclusive right to contract with a player, athletes are not always free to work for the highest bidder What Happens if No League Rules? More successful clubs would sell more tickets and team merchandise Earn higher profits Have the ability to attract the best players with higher salaries Over time, these clubs would become so much stronger than the less successful teams that competition on the playing field would deteriorate and become boring for spectators If spectators don’t come, then How Does it Work? Individual teams are separately operated businesses Cartel—a combination of independent businesses formed to and marketing of a product production, pricing, Cartels In the case of professional sports, the cartel is a number of independent sports teams grouped together and governed by a league agreement of operations The league controls the distribution of the teams, including the locations of the teams and the number of teams allowed to operate within the league Typically, Cartels are allowed in business o special legislation exempting the professional sports leagues from antitrust laws League MLB NFL NHL NBA Year Established 1869 1920 1917 1946 Commissioner Rob Manfred Roger Goddell Gary Bettman Adam Silver # of Teams 30 32 30 30 Expansion Plans Team owners must prove financial viability before the team can find a home city Owners and managers must convince the city that the costs of a team or new stadium will be repaid through increased spending by fans and by increased tax revenues An NFL team can be a financial asset to a city if: o Everyone and everything involved with the team stays within the home city area o The stadium/arena is used for events other than those for which it was built o The team attracts other business development like hotels, restaurants, and retail shops How Easy is it to Add a New Team? Bringing a new team to a city takes more than just an owner’s desire for a new team o League must approve expansion plans o Potential owners have to have the financing to pay the current NFL owners for an expansion team o The new team must have a place to play to attract fans o Since there are more cities that want pro teams than there are teams available, the leagues control the location of the teams based on the business benefits to the leagues and owners. o The leagues are in business to make a profit Cashing In Super Bowl XXXVIII was played in Houston’s Reliant Stadium in the venues 2nd year of existence o The Super Bowl deal was a part of the financial contract and agreement between the Texans & McNair & the NFL o Houston’s city government used the economic impact of the Super Bowl to justify tax support for the stadium o Taxpayers paid 60% of the $310 million stadium It Pays Off… In addition to the 69,500 ticket-holding fans (paying anywhere from $1,950 - $4,800+ per ticket), another 10,000 – 40,000 non-ticket holders visited the city during the weekend activities The associated business that benefited from the crowd-lodging, food, beverage, & entertainmentgenerated about $300 million for the host city McNair bought franchise in 1999 for $700 Million, Houston Texans now valued at $1.3 Billion Super Bowl To host the Super Bowl obligates to a city to meet 20 pages of NFL requirements including: Having at least 17,500 hotel rooms available 65 limos exclusively for NFL use 1,000 buses for transporting fans And many private and public golf course s for fan use If a city does a good job hosting the Super Bowl; then the host city can expect to host the Super Bowl about every five years What city has hosted the most Super Bowls?