1. Technological and Environmental Transformations 8000 BCE – 600 BCE • Of all the time periods covered in the AP World History curriculum, Foundations (8000 BCE - 600 BCE) spans the largest number of years. It begins with an important Marker Event - the Agricultural Revolution - and ends with the rise of three major classical civilizations - Rome in the Mediterranean region, Han China, and the Gupta Empire of India. • Ancient Empires – Four River Valley Civilizations – Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus, and Shang China plus the Olmec & Chavin in the Americas. • Classical Empires – Greece, Rome, Gupta of India and Han China. 2. Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies 600 BCE – 600 CE • Sometimes called the Classical Period, this time period traces the development and the fall of the major historical empires which shaped our own modern cultures and economies. • Classical Empires – Greece, Rome, Gupta of India and Han China. Also included here, although out of chronological context is the Mayan Empire in the Americas. • As states and empires increased in size and contacts between regions multiplied, religious and cultural systems were transformed and transmitted over wide distances 3. Regional and Transregional Interactions 600 CE to 1450 CE • It begins with the birth of Mohammed. Islam is the story of the Post-Classical period. Mostly because so many other stories are contingent upon it. Pay attention to how the religion operates as both a spiritual and secular force. We started with three principal classical civilizations and in this period we will see those three expand to breed other civilizations, • The world gets more complicated now. This is the period of "World Religions", belief systems being exported like trade goods. As you might imagine, at times, it causes some problems. • Interregional to Global Networking. The establishment of interregional trade networks that link areas far more expansive than we saw during the Classical Period. It ends with the new extended use of the Printing Press. 4. Global Interactions 1450 CE -1750 CE • In the preceding era trade was existent but was slow, different regions were connected but there wasn't a true, complete feeling of globalization. • In the pre-modern era, trade increased significantly due to maritime exploration by Europeans, who sought silver, sugar, slaves and converts. • Era of Absolute Rulers. • New ideals of government arose and led to revolutions in the Modern Period which replaced those Absolute monarchs. • It begins with the beginning of the extended use of the printing press to spread information and new ideas and with the discovery of the NEW WORLD. • It ends with the coming Industrial Revolution and the extensive use of the steam engine in industry and agriculture. 5. Industrialization and Global Integration 1750 CE – 1900 CE • This period begins with the Industrial Revolution and ends with the logical conclusion of Industrialization and Imperialism – The First World War – WWI. • It is a time when nations attempted to expand into empire in an effort to capture raw materials for industry and to find markets for their manufactured goods. 6. Accelerating Global Change and Realignments 1900 to Today • Two world wars and the Cold War marked the conflicts of the Twentieth Century. • Atomic Bomb and other WMDs. • TECHNOLOGY!!! SPACE!!!! • Rise and fall of Communism • GLOBALIZATION • ENERGY DOMINATONS. Rise of OPEC and Arab nations. • Populations continually moved and shifted. • Communications in the form of telegraphs, radio, movies, telephones, television and computers highlight the era.