File - NDSU Soc. 110 Break

Slide 2: What is family?
Family– ________________________________________________________________
All cultures organize themselves into family units
Household– _____________________________________________________________
Family of ______________________– the family in which an individual grows up
Family of ______________________– family formed when a couple has its first child
Slide 3: Some Types of Families
___________________ family- parent(s) and kids
___________________ family– family whose members were once part of other families
Increasingly common in the U.S.
_________________-__________________ family– family consisting of one parent and
a child/children
Typically a mother and kids
____________________ family– relatives outside of the nuclear family, such as
grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
Slide 4: What is marriage?
Marriage– _____________________________________________________________
Usually marked by a ritual of some sort (wedding) to indicate the couple’s new public status
Monogamy– marriage form where a person has only one spouse
Polygamy– ______________________________________________________________
___________________ – marriage where man has more than one wife
___________________ – marriage where a woman has more than one husband
Slide 5: Patterns in Marriage
Endogamy– _____________________________________________________________
Religious group, racial-ethnic group, cultural group, etc.
Most common form of marriage
Homogamy– ____________________________________________________________
Largely due to propinquity (spatial nearness)
93 percent of Americans marry within their racial-ethnic group
Exogamy– ______________________________________________________________
________________ ________________ – prohibits sex and marriage among designated
Slide 6: Descent
System of descent– _______________________________________________________
Bilineal system– __________________________________________________________
___________________ system– way of tracing descent that counts only the father’s side
___________________system– way of tracing descent that counts only the mother’s side
Slide 7: Authority
Authority– ______________________________________________________________
___________________ – a group in which men-as-a-group dominate women-as-a-group
Authority is vested in males
___________________– a group in which women-as-a-group dominate men-as-a-group
Authority is vested in females
Slide 8: Marriage & Family: Functionalist Perspective
Family is universal because it fulfills 6 basic survival needs:
_______________________ production
_______________________ of children
Care of the sick and aged
______________________ control
_________________ _________________ prevents role confusion
Creates need for exogamy
Helps socialize children
Slide 9: Marriage & Family: Conflict Perspective
Struggles between spouses are part of married life
Power is oftentimes the most contested issues
Who makes the decisions at home in U.S. families?
__________%- wife makes more decisions
__________%- couples divide decisions equally
__________%- husband makes more decisions
Slide 10: Marriage & Family: Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Traditional family set-up:
Father worked and made money
Mother in charge of childcare and household chores
Current U.S. family set-up:
Fathers spend more time doing childcare and household chores
Mother spends more time at work
Gendered division of _____________ still exists
Both parents are spending less time at social activities, more at home raising kids
Slide 11: Love, Courtship, & Marriage
“Love sickness” is real
Love is addictive
Romantic love– __________________________________________________________
Psychologists _____________ ______________and _____________ _______________
found that fear can create attraction (1985)
Romantic love has two components: ___________________ (sexual attraction) and
___________________ (labeling it “love”)
Slide 12: Children and Child-rearing
Ideal family size is influenced by age and religious service attendance
Americans 18-34 years old prefer _____________ families
34 years+ prefer ______________ families
Couples who attend more services prefer _____________ families
Quality daycare = staff with early childhood development training and low ratio kid to
worker ratio
1/6 kids go to daycare
26-40% of kids are cared for by relatives when mother works
Slide 13: US Family Transition #1– Kids Staying Home Longer
Kids used to leave home after high school/college
Kids now often stay at home during college and beyond
Boomerang children– ________________________________________________
_________% of Americans ages 25-29 live with parents
“Adultolescence”– ________________________________________________________
Slide 14: US Family Transition #2– Adults Adjusting to Widowhood
Women are more likely to outlive spouse
Women tend to live slightly longer than men
Women tend to marry older men
Widowhood effect– _______________________________________________________
Worse in cases of sudden spousal death
Slide 15: African American Families
Upper class families of all racial/ethnic backgrounds– focus on preserving privilege and
family fortune
Marriage = merger of family lines
Marry later than other classes
Middle class African American families focus on __________________ and
Both parents likely work outside home
Impoverished African American families– very likely to be headed by a woman
Focus on stretching kinship (fictive kin) and sharing resources
Slide 16: Latino/Hispanic Families
Country of origin influences likelihood of families being headed by married couple
Fathers/husbands play a stronger role in family life than white or black fathers/husbands
Roman Catholic religion common  divorce very stigmatized
Loyalty to extended families
Obligation to help in time of need
Longer a family has been in the US, more it resembles a “typical” middle class American
Slide 17: Asian American Families
Most likely group to have kids raised by both parents
Sociologist ______________ _______________ (1985) identified distinctive traits:
Retain ___________________ values
Respect for _______________________
____________________ – each family member owes respect to other family members
Use of ______________ and _______________ to punish
Children of immigrants experience more family conflict and mental health problems
Slide 18: Native American Families
Most significant issue that Native American families face: assimilate into dominant
culture or follow traditional values?
Traditional: emphasize distinctive Native American values, often speak native languages
Native American parents are typically more ____________________
Avoid ____________________ punishment
Elders play extremely active role in their children’s families
Help raise, teach, and discipline grandkids
Extended family very important
Slide 19: Couples without Children
________% of married women do not give birth
Double the rate of married childless women 30 years ago
Childlessness varies with education level and race-ethnicity
More education = less likely to have kids
White women are __________ likely to remain childless
Asian American women are ____________ likely to remain childless
Some are infertile, but most childless couples choose not to have kids
Attain a sense of freedom
Postpone date of having a child until impossible or inconvenient
Slide 20: Gay and Lesbian Families
Most gay and lesbian couples lack legal rights (either marriages or civil unions) that
support the relationship
Main struggles for same-sex couples:
Problems with _________________
Sexual adjustment
Many same-sex couples choose to have children
_________% of lesbian couples, ________% of gay couples have/adopt kids
Slide 21: Changing Timetable of Family Life
Average age of first marriage is ________ for women, ________ for men
Average woman has her first kid at around age _________
12x more common now than in 1970
_______% of US kids spend time in a cohabiting family
Children of cohabitating couples tend to have more health problems than children of
married parents
Slide 22: Divorce
Hard to say what the exact statistic on divorce rates is
2 million couples get married every year, 1 million get divorced
Is the rate 50% then?
U.S. has 60 million married couples, 1 million get divorced every year
Is the rate only 2%?
Third way to measure: How many adults have ever been divorced in their lives?
_______-_______% of American adults
Percentage of divorce rates peaks in one’s 50s
Slide 23: Decreasing the Risk of Divorce
Some college (vs. high-school dropout) _______% decrease
Affiliated with a religion _______% decrease
Own parents of one or both spouses not divorced  ________% decrease
If both husband and wife come from families with divorced parents, own odds of divorce are
very high
Age 25+ at time of marriage (vs. 18 and under)  ________% decrease
Waiting to have a baby 7+ months after marriage  ________% decrease
Annual income $25,000+  _______% decrease
Slide 24: One-parent Families
Number of kids living in two-parent families has declined
________% of US kids in 1970, _______% in 2010
Parents of about ____________________ US kids divorce every year
Single women who give birth are waiting longer to marry
_______% of US babies born to unwed mothers
________% of kids of divorce live with their mothers
_________-________% of these kids function at the same level as kids from two-parent
_________-________% suffer long-term harm
Slide 25: Children of Divorce
More likely to have behavioral, mental, sexual, and physical health problems
Likelier to drop out and get arrested
Higher rates of divorce
Both for themselves and their kids
Girls start having sex at earlier age and are more likely to become teen parents
Kids adjust the best to divorce when…
Close to both __________________
Experience little conflict
Live with a parent who is making a ______________ ____________________
Have a ________________ __________________ they can count on
Have a consistent ____________________
Parents DON’T try to stick it out “for the kids”
Slide 26: Ex-spouses & Remarriage
Divorced ____________ more likely to feel divorce gives a “new chance”
Spouse who initiates the divorce gets over it and remarries sooner
Often divorce does not mean the total end of the couple’s relationship
Most divorcees who remarry do so with other divorced people
___________ more likely to remarry
Young mothers and women with less education are likelier to remarry
Divorcees who bring kids into remarriage have higher divorce rates
Slide 27: Dark Side of Family Life
Spousal battering studied recently (2011) by sociologist ___________ _____________
No gender difference in the ________________ of US spousal violence
Concluded that women attack their husbands as often as men attack their wives
Difference in the effects of the violence
_____________ more likely to be seriously injured or killed
Child abuse is extensive– 2 million reports filed of abuse/neglect every year
About 800,000 cases are substantiated
Slide 28: Dark Side of Family Life
Incest– _________________________________________________________________
Most likely to occur in socially isolated families
Most common form is older _____________ offender, younger _______________ victim
¾ of the cases, the brother is the offender and is 5 years older than his little sister
Most offenders are ________-_______ years old
Most victims are under _________ years old
Slide 29: Bright Side of Family Life: Happy Families
Sociologist ___________________ __________________ studied traits of happy
families in the US and South America (1992):
Spend a lot of time together
Are quick to express ___________________
Are committed to promoting one another’s __________________
Do a lot of _______________ and ________________ to one another
Are religious (any religion)
Deal with _______________ in a positive manner
Slide 30: Bright Side of Family Life: Happy Marriages
_________% of married American couples report that they are very happy
Sociologists ______________ _____________ and _____________ _______________
studied traits of happy couples married 15+ years
Think of their spouses as ______________ _______________
Like their spouse as a person
Think of marriage as a ___________-____________ ____________________
Believe that marriage is ________________
Agree with their spouses on ______________ and ______________
Believe that their spouses have grown more ___________________over the years
Strongly want the relationship to __________________
_______________ together