Chapter 22 Study guide 19. What communication invention coincided with 1. What were some of the features of the Industrial the advent of the railroad? revolution? 2. Who led the Industrial Revolution? 3. How did the Industrial Revolution affect the wage gap? 20. What was the most dramatic environmental change caused by the Industrial Revolution? 4. Which introduced crops hugely benefited the Agricultural Revolution? 21. List the problems associated with the poor urban neighborhoods in large, urbanized European cities. 5. Why were these crops so helpful to Europeans? 6. What five revolutionary innovations spurred industrialization? 22. What were most industrial jobs like? 23. How did industrial work impact the family? 7. Describe the ‘putting-out’ system? 8. How did the middle-class help spread trade during this period? 9. What kept other European countries from industrializing between 1789 and 1815? 24. How were women’s wages compared to those earned by men? 25. What was different about the reasons why single women and married women took jobs? 10. What was the first European industry? 11. What does division of labor mean? 26. Which American cotton mills at first combined profit with morality before giving in to greed? 12. What industry is a good example of mass production? 27. What did industrialization accentuate? 13. What is mechanization? 28. Who were ‘worst-off’ in industrial societies? 14. What was Abraham Darby’s discovery that revolutionized the production of iron in 1709? 29. What is the effect of business cycles on society? 15. How did Darby’s invention affect the iron industry and the environment? 16. What was the most revolutionary invention of the Industrial Revolution? Who invented it? 30. Did workers’ standard of living improve before 1850? 17. Who developed the first practical steam engine? 31. Who benefited the most by the Industrial Revolution? 18. How did the arrival of the steamship in America change American transportation? 32. What does laissez faire mean? 33. What does Adam Smith argue in The Wealth of Nations? 34. What was Thomas Malthus philosophy on modernization? 35. Who readily accepted the idea of laissez faire? 36. How did workers resist harsh working conditions? 37. What was the effect of Chartism on labor? 38. What did the Factory Act of 1833 do? 39. What did the Mines Act of 1842 do? 40. How did Great Britain keep Egypt from modernizing in the mid-1800s? 41. What ideas did the Industrial Revolution strengthen? 42. What is the theory of positivism?