Sigmund Freud May 1856 – 23 September 1939 Early Life • Freud was born in Freiberg, Moravia in 1856 • When he was four years old his family moved to Vienna where he was to live and work until the last years of his life • His parents ensured his schooling and education • Studied at the University og Vienna Field of research • • • • Psychology was his main field of research Psychology is the study of the mind What motivates individuals What makes people “tick” Contributions • He founded the discipline of psychoanalysis • Psychoanalysis is a psychological theory conceived in the late 19th and early 20th • Basic Psychoanalysis includes…. Experiences which are largely determined by irrational drives, those drives are largely unconscious & Events in early childhood Unconscious Mind • Strongly believed in repression- "the psychical mechanism of (unconscious) defence“ • Wrote The Interpretation of Dreams (1899), and Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious (1905) o Dealt with unconscious mental activity Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jfP9AIJA72E Cocaine Use • Early user and proponent of cocaine as a stimulant • He believed that cocaine was a cure for many mental and physical problems How did he further psychology? • Refined the concepts of the unconscious mind • Created a reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions • Dream interpretation Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CWMEnkyL_qA Dream Theories • Maintained the notion that the dream fundamentally acts as the guardian of sleep • Believed that the body manufactured dreams to protect the sleeper from internal and external stimuli Composition of a Dream • Freud claimed there were 2 parts to a dream: • The Manifest: • content that a person would remember as soon as they wake - what they could consciously describe to someone when recalling the dream. • Freud believed the manifest content possessed no meaning. • The Latent Content: • holds the true meaning of the dream - the thoughts and unconscious desires. • disguised in the manifest content • Dreams which the manifest and latent content can be indistinguishable Freud referred to as “Infantile dreams” Dream Work • The process by which the latent content is transformed into the manifest content. • Works in 4 ways: o o o o Condensation Displacement Symbolism Secondary Revision Freud insisted that dreams are a form of fulfilling suppressed wishes. If a wish goes unsatisfied during the dreamer’s normal day, the mind reacts to this ‘internal stimuli’ by transforming it into a visual fantasy – allowing the dreamer to satisfy his or her desire. The result of which is a peaceful night’s sleep.