By Sana Shigri
Isis was the Egyptian goddess of the moon, love, magic & fertility, she had wings, wore a
sun disk and one pair of cow horns. She also wore a crown similar to a throne, she was
associated with thrones because her lap was the first `throne` Horus sat on. She was the
daughter of Nut and Geb and had three siblings called Osiris, Seth and Nephthys, she
married Osiris and had a son who was Horus. There are a few famous legends about Isis, one
was about her, Osiris and Seth (Osiris` brother). Seth was jealous about his brother ruling
Egypt and decided to trap Osiris in a box that could never be opened once it had closed,
after that he let Osiris drift into the Nile river, but he cut up his body parts and hid them so
Isis couldn’t resurrect him. After finding all his body parts, Isis tried to heal him, she did heal
him, but he wasn’t a human, he became the god of the underworld.
Facts about Isis
• She sometimes defended herself using her magic spells
• In ancient Egypt when they did the mummification process, they put the pharaohs
organs in to four canopic jars and Isis watched over the jar with the liver
• Her priests/priestesses were known as healers
• She had lots of similar roles of the goddess Hathor
• Since she was Horus` mother, she was the mother of all living pharaohs
• There is/was a sanctuary for her in Pompeii
• She was also a roman goddess
• Her Latin name was Stella Maris or star of the sea
• Nephthys (her sister) was usually a companion to Isis
Anubis was a famous god of embalming the dead, his mask/face looked was most likely a
jackal. Many priests wore his mask during the embalming process, he was there to help
embalm Osiris after he got killed by Seth which is why he is known as the god of embalming
but before Osiris became god of the underworld, Anubis who watched over the
dead/underworld. In some myths he was known as the adopted son of Isis and Osiris, Seth
was his uncle and Nephthys was his aunt, but sometimes it was the other way around. He
was the husband of the goddess Anput and had had a daughter called Kebechet. Anubis was
also famous for creating the embalming process, according to Egyptian mythology he did
his first embalming process on Osiris` dead corpse.
• He used to judge the souls with a scale
• According to some Egyptian mythologies, Nephthys made Osiris
drunk and had Anubis
• There were lots of prayers to Anubis in Egyptian tombs
• Nephthys left Anubis alone and Isis adopted him
• After Seth had killed Osiris, Anubis helped Isis and Nephthys find his
body parts
• He guided/lead the dead to the Hall of Truths
• Created the embalming process and first did it on Osiris
Ma `at (she was also known as the eye of Ra) was the Egyptian goddess of truth, justice and
harmony, she judged the pharaohs who died. She had a feather on she head and wings on her
arms. Her father was the sun god Ra, she was the sister of the air god known as Shu, she
married the God of the moon Thoth and is known to have eight children, one of the well know
children were Amon. There is a temple to worship Ma`at, the Karnak complex at Thebes. A
famous legend was about how she earned her magical powers, one day (the sun god)Ra was
sleeping and she collected his drool and mixed it with Earth to create a serpent. Then the
serpent bit Ra and he became very sick, Ma`at said that she would only heal him after he told
her his secret name, Ra kept on refusing until he became extremely ill, he then told her his
name and she got her powers.
• Ma`ats symbol was known as a feather which later on became the hieroglyphics sign for
• One of the main roles of the Pharaohs were to make Ma`at ruled the world
• One of Ma`ats power was to give air to everyone to breathe
• Anubis, the god of embalming the dead, weighed the heart of a dead person against the
feather of Ma`at (worn as a headdress)
• Ma`at had a book called the 42 laws of Ma`at, of course it had other names such as 42
Admonition to Goddess Ma`at, 42 negative confessions, 42 Laws of Ma`at of Ancient Egypt,
the Laws of the Goddess Ma`at, etc. In the book it had things written like I have not stolen, I
have not cursed, I have not committed sins, I have not disobeyed the law and so on.
• She was worshipped/ honored at the Karnak complex at Thebes
Hathor was the Egyptian sky goddess of love, beauty, music,
dancing joy and fertility, she was known as Lady of Turquoise,
Lady of Faience, Lady of Byblos, Lady of Faience and Lady of the
West. There were two temples for her one of them were called
Dendera (North of Thebes) and the other one was in Byblos. In
most myths she was married to Horus (but in some myths she was
known as his mother) and had Ihy, Hapy, Qebehsenuef and
Duamutef also known as the four sons of Horus (the protectors of
the canopic jars).
• She was similar to the Roman goddess Venus and the Greek goddess
• She looked similar to the Egyptian goddess Bat, the only difference was
that Bats horns curved inwards and Hathor’s went slightly outwards
• Hathor was eventually taken by Isis
• The ‘Seven Hathors’ were similar to the Three Fates of Ancient Greece,
both of them new when everyone's life began and when it ended
• In Egyptian mythology Nebethetepet and Hesat were copies of Hathor
• She also welcomed the dead in to the afterlife
• She was also the Eye of Ra in some legends
Ra or Re the sun god is probably the most known god of ancient Egypt, in some legends he was
known as the first Egyptian god. He was the god of creation and the sun, he had two kids, the
god Shu and the goddess Tefnut, Ra/Ra had no parents (he was self-created), according to
Egyptian mythology he came out of the ocean called Nun, he was worshipped in a place in
Heliopolis. Re/Ra had the face of a falcon (or a hawk) with a human body and a sun disk as a
headdress. There was a famous myth where Ra got mad when the people of Egypt stopped
seeing him as a god, he told the eye of Ra (Hathor) to make the Egyptians fear him, Hathor went
down to Earth and started to slaughter many men, and when she came back she took the form
of Sekhmet and said I have made mankind fear you, and I enjoyed killing them. Ra then realized
that she was going to destroy mankind, which he did not want, he sent a servant to give Hathor
7 thousand jars of beer and dye it red so it would seem like blood of the ones Hathor
slaughtered, she drank it, became drunk and stopped slaughtering the people.
• Ra was related to Ennead (a group of nine gods and goddesses in Egyptian
• The pharaohs of Egypt claimed to be descendants of Ra
• He was very popular during the New Kingdom period
• When the Romans took over Egypt, Ra was forgotten and became ‘a thing
of the past’
• To worship Ra, Egyptians built solar temples
• In ancient Egypt, sacrifices were made to Ra mostly everyday
• He had eventually taken many attributes of Atum, Ptah, Horus and many
other famous gods and goddesses
• Ancient Egyptians said that any other type of god was Ra in a different form