Pantheon of the principal Egyptian gods and goddesses Name of God Ra Aten Picture What s/he is the Patron of The “all father” or “great she he,” the Atum (also referred to as Temu, Tem, Ra-Atum, and Atum-Ra) sun god emerged from the primordial mound (which in turn emerged from the primordial seas) in the form of an egg; he was the creator of the universe and is the chief god of the pantheon; rarely depicted as human, he was often portrayed as a double-plumed crown or as one of his many totem animals. Worshipped widely throughout Egypt, his cult centre was Heliopolis God of the disk of the sun; he formed the basis of the heretical monotheistic religion of Pharaoh Akhenaten Shu God of cool, dry air; he became jealous of the earth and sky and so he squeezed in between them; depicted with solar disk on his head Sekhmet Goddess of moisture and warm air; she supported the sky goddess (Nut) and the god of air (Shu) Geb God of the earth; he is represented in the form of a man. Husband and brother of sky goddess Nut. Also the father of Osiris, Isis, Nephthys and Seth. When Seth and Horus fought for the throne of Egypt, Geb made Horus the ruler of the living. Egyptians believed earthquakes were Geb’s laughter Goddess of the sky, the firmament; having swallowed the sun in the evening, the orb travelled through her and then each morning, she gave birth to a new sun. Depicted as naked and outstretched across the horizon with stars as clothing Nut Seth God of the desert, evil, strength, storms, winds, war, and conflict. Depicted as a man with the head of a jackal-like animal; also shown as a man with red hair and eyes, or wearing a red mantle. Egyptians believed that bright red was the colour of evil. Nephthys Twin of Isis; goddess of the dead, funerals, the house, and women. Osiris Isis God of past Pharaohs, agriculture, fertility, death, and resurrection; he alone was the “decider” if one was able to enjoy an afterlife. Worshiped throughout Egypt, cult centre was Abydos. Goddess of women, mothers, children, magic, and medicine; sister and wife of Osiris. Anubis God of embalming, mummification, and the path through the underworld; heard prayers for the dead. Depicted as a black jackal-headed god Horus God of the living Pharaoh, rules, law, war, young men, light, the sun. Most common form was a falcon-headed man. Ptah God of creation, craftsmen, and artisans. Man with a punt beard, wrapped up like a mummy, with hands free which grip a great staff made up of symbols for life, stability, and power. Thoth God of knowledge, secrets, magic, writing, scribes. Man with the head of an ibis holding a scribe’s palette and stylus. Worshiped throughout all Egypt, cult center was Hermopolis. Khnum God of the creation of people and animals, he molded human infants on a potter’s wheel and create one’s ka (“spirit double”). Depicted as ram-headed. Ma’at Goddess of truth, law, justice and universal, divine order (i.e. balance); known by her feather.