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Discovering Computers
Chapter 1
Overview
On-line materials
http://www.scsite.com/dc2011cp
Ch 1 – Overview
Ch 4
Processor
Ch 2 – Internet & WWW
Control
Control
Unit
Unit
Ch 3 – Application Software
Input
Devices
Ch 5
Ch 8 – System Software
Arithmetic
Arithmetic
Logic
(ALU)
Logic Unit
Unit (ALU)
Instructions
Data
Information
MemoryInformation Output
Data
Devices
Ch 6
Instructions
Data
Information
Storage
Devices
Ch 7
2
What Is a Computer?
 Electronic device operating under the control of
instructions stored in its own memory
Accepts data
Raw facts, figures, and
symbols
Processes data into
information
Data that is organized,
meaningful, and useful
Produces and stores results
Stores for further use
Communicates to other users
and computers
What are data and information?
Data
Raw facts,
figures, and
symbols
Information
Data that is
organized,
meaningful,
and useful
4
Information processing cycle
Process
Input
Output
Communication
Storage
5
What is hardware?
Hardware
electric, electronic
and mechanical
components
6
Hardware
7
Computer hardware includes:
Input devices
Output devices
Processing hardware (System unit)
Storage devices (magnetic, optical,
electronic)
Media devices
Communication (network) devices
8
9
What is an input device?
Hardware used to enter data and instructions
PC
camera
microphone
keyboard
mouse
scanner
10
digital
camera
What is an output device?
Hardware that conveys information to a user
monitor
speakers
printer
11
What is storage?
– Holds data, instructions, and information
for future use
Storage media
Physical material on which data, instructions,
and information are stored
Storage device
Records and retrieves items to and from
a storage medium
12
What is the system unit?
Processor
Also called a Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The electronic component that interprets and carries
out the basic instructions that operate the computer
Memory
Consists of electronic components that store
instructions waiting to be executed and data
needed by those instructions
What is communications hardware?
Establishes a
connection
between two
computers
using a modem,
cable, electric
grid, telephone
lines, wireless,
and satellites
modem
14
What are networks?
Collections of computers and devices connected
together via communication devices and
transmission media
15
What is the Internet?
 Worldwide collection of networks that connects
millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals
Networks and the Internet
People use the Internet for a variety of reasons:
Communicate
Online
Trading
Entertain
Research
Download
Music
Shop
Share
Videos
Bank and
Invest
Web
Application
A social networking Web site encourages
members to share their interests, ideas, stories,
photos, music, and videos with other users
18
What is the World Wide Web (WWW)?
Billions of documents, called Web pages, linked
together on computers throughout the world
Web browser
Web site
Collection of
related Web
pages
Web page
Program used to access
and view Web page
Contains text,
Search engine
graphics, sound, or
Program used to select
video and links to
Web pages according to a
other Web pages
criteria and evaluate them
19
What is software?
Consists of a series
of instructions that
tells the computer
what to do and
how to do it
Also called a
program
Software
High-level language program (in C)
swap int v[], int k){
int temp;
temp = v[k];
v[k] = v[k+1];
v[k+1] = temp; }
Assembly language program (for 80x86)
pusha
mov ah,2Ah
int 21h
mov byte ptr Place,'0'
cmp dh,9
ja M1
Machine code
000000 00000 00101 0001000010000000
000000 00100 00010 0001000000100000
21
What is software ( SW )?
Programs that
control the
operations of
the computer –
System
Software
Programs that
perform specific
tasks for users –
Application
Software
Installing is the process of setting up
software to work with the computer
23
What are the categories of computers?
Embedded Computers
Mobile Computers and
Mobile Devices
Personal Computers
(desktop, laptop, notebook, tablet )
Game Consoles
Servers
Mainframes
Supercomputers
What is an embedded computer?
 A special-purpose computer that functions as a
component in a larger product
Embedded Computers
Consumer
Electronics
• Mobile and
digital
telephones
• Digital
televisions
• Cameras
• Video
recorders
• DVD
players and
recorders
• Answering
machines
Home
Automation
Devices
• Thermostats
• Sprinkling
systems
• Security
monitoring
systems
• Appliances
• Lights
Automobiles
• Antilock
brakes
• Engine
control
modules
• Airbag
controller
• Cruise
control
Process
Controllers
and Robotics
• Remote
monitoring
systems
• Power
monitors
• Machine
controllers
• Medical
devices
Computer
Devices and
Office
Machines
•
•
•
•
Keyboards
Printers
Faxes
Copiers
What is a handheld (mobile) computer?
Small
enough to fit
in one
hand
Used
by mobile
employees such as
meter readers and
delivery people
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
Mobile
Computer
Personal
computer you
can carry from
place to place
Mobile
Device
Computing
device small
enough to hold in
your hand
Examples include
Examples include
notebook computers,
laptop computers,
Tablet PCs, netbooks
smart phones, PDAs,
handheld computers,
portable media
players, digital
cameras
28
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
iPad and iPhone by Apple
PDA – personal digital assistant
Tablet PC
Smart phone
29
What are smart phones?
A smart phone is
an Internet-enabled
telephone that usually
provides PDA capabilities
What is eBook?
Amazon Kindle
What is iPad? Who is he?
A tablet PC
What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?
 Provides personal organizer functions





Calendar
Appointment book
Address book
Calculator
Notepad
What is a desktop computer?
 Designed so all of the components fit entirely
on or under a desk or table
What is a notebook computer?
 Portable, small enough
to fit on your lap
 Also called a laptop
computer
What are game consoles?
Mobile computing device designed for singleplayer or multiplayer video games
Xbox-360, Sony play station, Nintendo, Wee
Servers
A server controls
access to network
resources and
provides
centralized
storage
Mainframes
Mainframe
Very
powerful,
expensive
computer
that
supports
thousands of
connected
users
Supercomputers
Supercomputer
The fastest, most
powerful, most
expensive
computer. Used for
applications
requiring complex
mathematical
calculations
Computer system includes
 Hardware - the physical components of a computer
 Software – programs to perform specific tasks
Computer architecture (outside view – what it
does?)
Computer organization (inside view – how it
does?)
What has to be added to get an
Information System?
40
Elements of an Information System
Hardware
Software
People
Data
Procedures
41
Who are users of computers?
Home user
SOHO user
Mobile user
Power user
Enterprise user
Computer Applications in Society
Education
Finance
Government
Health Care
Computer Applications in Society
Science
Publishing
Travel
Manufacturing
44
Appreciating the Gift
Crime
fighting
Tools for
disabled
Automation
Transportation
(efficiency and
safety)
Paperless
technologies
More efficient
government
Management
of economy
Fighting
enemies
Telecommuting
45
Appreciating the Gift
News,
research
Distance
education
Online
shopping
listen to
music
Surfing WWW
Watch movies
Health
management
Bank and
invest
Entertainment
games,
leisure
46
Computers add complexity
From natural to virtual
More consumerism
Public Safety
Impact on Labor Force
Weakening of local
communal life
Digital divide
Internet addiction
New kinds of crimes
Easy brainwashing
Advantages
Disadvantages
of Using Computers
Speed
Reliability
Health Risks
Violation of
Privacy
Consistency
Public Safety
Storage
Impact on Labor
Force
Impact on
Environment
Communications
49
Green computing involves reducing
the electricity consumed and
environmental waste generated
when using a computer
50
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