ppt - Idaho State University

GIS answers the question: Where
GIS helps to design and manage our
resources and help improve our world.
Our world faces challenges: natural disasters,
poverty, environmental degradation and etc.
GIS can be defined as a system for entering, storing,
manipulating, analyzing and displaying geographic or
spatial data.
These data are represented by points, lines, and
polygons along with their associated attributes.
Geographic data can be represented as 2 formats: 1)
raster data that are stored in a grid or pixel format
that is referenced to coordinate system (latitude,
longitude) 2) vector or polygon data which uses a
series of points (x, y) coordinates to define the
boundary of the object of interest.
Map projection and coordinate system: registering
spatial data to the ground requires transforming
data, recorded in digitizer inches, to some groundbased coordinate system.
A map projection is an orderly, mathematical system
of parallels and meridians that allows us to flatten the
earth only at the cost of one or more spatial
Common coordinate system: UTM (Universal
Transverse Mercator), state plane coordinates,
Question: Why is this important?
During 1950s, the quantitative geography
was reinforced.
The introduction of statistical methods and
computers, giving rise to analytical spatial
1960s, a computer
mapping program
(SYMAP) was released.
Pen Plotter nowadays
Plotter outputs actually
resembling traditional maps,
thereby initiating the era of
computer –assisted
During 1970s, digital cartographic files of
boundaries and entities included topological
information that enables them to be
“intelligent” and subject to query.
1980s, the vast majority of GIS incorporate
some generic RDBMS engine.
The software handles the geographic
attribute data and allow access to analytical
and computer mapping functions operating
on digital cartographic files and the
geographic database.
Over 260 vendors offering services covering,
digitizing, data conversion, consulting and
specializing in a particular application
domain, such as Trimble, IBM, HP, Microsoft,
ESRI, NAVTEQ and etc.
How GIS helps to us to face the challenges,
such as, natural disasters, poverty,
environmental degradation?
Idaho Falls Campus map:
Before making this map, what are the errors that we
need to take in considerations?
What can these 3D visualization tools contribute to
GIS world?
Cheetah Conservation Botswana a GSM collar from
African Wildlife Tracking to track the cheetah (Nala)’s
movement, a relatively recent development in satellite
collars which works via the cellular network. The
collar was programmed to send her location once
every 12 hours.
With this tracking device and Google map, they were
able to learn so much about Nala and her cubs with
this new technology that wouldn't have been possible
The greenbelt movement was founded 1977 by
professor Wangari Maathai who is the first
environmentalist to receive the Nobel Peace prize.
GBM began as a grassroots tree planting program to
address the challenges of deforestation, soil erosion,
and lack of water in order to support agriculture,
ranching, commercial plantations and development.
Through the use of GIS technology, GBM can monitor
and manage the rehabilitation process andn
demonstrate that with commitment and hard work,
these ecosystems can be restored.
Google earth