File - Brandy Chevalier's Master of Education Program

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Final/Summative Assignment
Brandy Chevalier
Student #060923
04:757 Education of Children with Behavioural Disorders II
Mary-Anne Ploshynsky
August, 2012
• Eating disorders are constantly
glamorized by the media
• People who have high social status are
portrayed to have obsessions with
slenderness as well (Kauffman &
Landrum, 2013)
(upside of inertia, 2010)
• Anorexia Nervosa and
Bulimia Nervosa demand the
most attention from society
(Macera & Mizes, 2006;
Wilson, Becker & Heffernan,
2003)
• Anorexia and bulimia are
considered to be
predominantly a problem of
adolescent females (Robb &
Dadson, 2002).
(Eating Disorder Community, 2012)
• Obsession with low body weight
• Fear of gaining weight
• Extremely anxious about getting
“fat”
• Go to extreme lengths to achieve a
low body weight
• Females suffer more often from
anorexia nervosa in comparison to
males at a rate of 3:1
(Kauffman & Landrum, 2013)
(Helm, 2009)
• Binge eating followed by an
offsetting behavior
• Offsetting behaviors include
self-induced vomiting, use of
laxatives/enemas or extra
exercise
• Binges are often kept secret
(Kauffman & Landrum, 2013)
(Heart, 2010)
According to the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (2000), anorexia nervosa
and bulimia nervosa can manifest in the following psychological ways,
which varies from one patient to the next:
• May withdraw socially, be irritable, have insomnia, and
experience reduced libido
• Most people with eating disorders suffer severe forms of
anxiety
• People with eating disorders are often perfectionists
• People suffering from anorexia nervosa are often obsessed
with food, they may collect recipes or hoard food
• People with anorexia are often uncomfortable eating in public
• Emaciation
• Amenorrhea
• Hyperactivity
• Wear layers of bulky clothing
• Appear to be younger than their actual age
• Atrophied breasts
• Dry skin with a yellow tinge
• Lanugo
• Bulimics often have scarred fingers, tooth decay, extreme oral sensitivity
(HealthCommunities.com, 2011)
Many signs point towards a risk of developing an eating disorder. Parents,
health care providers, teachers and coaches should look for the following,
especially in teenagers:
• Weighing 15% below normal
• Eating in secret (bulimia)
• Vomiting after eating (bulimia)
• Using medications, laxatives or diet pills (bulimia)
• Chewing and then spitting out food
• Experiencing amenorrhea
• Having fear of gaining weight
• Being uncomfortable with comments regarding weight
(HealthCommunities.com, 2011)
• Weighing oneself often
• Experiencing mood changes after
eating/weighing
• Feeling dissatisfied with body
• Feeling fat even though they are thin
• Feeling loss of control when eating
• Being uncomfortable eating in front of others
(HealthCommunities.com, 2011)
Throughout the adolescent years, individuals experience sudden
variations in both their height and their weight. Girls can gain an
average of 40 pounds from age 11 to 14. Educators should be
concerned about the student who appears to be “perfect” or
strives for perfection. Be concerned and speak with an expert if a
student consistently shows one or more of the signs/symptoms
listed on the following slides.
(NEDA Toolkit for Educators, 2012)
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/uploads/file/ETK%20A
05%20signs%20symptoms.pdf
Emotional
• Expresses body image complaints/concerns: too fat; unable to
accept compliments; mood affected by perceived appearance;
compares self to others; refers to self negatively; overestimates
body size
• Talks about dieting
• Is overweight but eats small portions in front of others
• Is sad/depressed/anxious/feeling worthless
• Is target of weight/body bullying
• Spends increasing periods of time alone
• Is obsessed with maintaining low weight
• Reluctant to ask for help
(NEDA Toolkit for Educators, 2012)
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/uploads/file/ETK%20A05%20
signs%20symptoms.pdf
Physical
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sudden weight loss/gain/fluctuation
Abdominal pain
Feeling full/bloated
Feeling faint/cold/tired
Dry hair/skin
Dehydration
Blue hands/feet
Lanugo hair
(NEDA Toolkit for Educators, 2012)
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/uploads/file/ETK%20A05
%20signs%20symptoms.pdf
Behavioral
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Diets; pretends to eat; throws away food; skips meals
Exercises for long
Constantly talks about food
Frequent trips to bathroom
Wears baggy clothes
Fatigued
Dizzy
Avoids cafeteria
Shows some type of compulsive behavior
(NEDA Toolkit for Educators, 2012)
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/uploads/file/ETK%20A05%20signs%20symptoms.pdf
1. Keep focus on reality; that eating disorders result in:
-Inefficiency
-Misery
-Alienation
-Disturbance of the self and others
2. Don’t oversimplify.
3. Don’t imply that bulimia nervosa isless serious than anorexia
nervosa.
4. Don’t be judgmental
5. Don’t give advice about weight loss, exercise, or appearance.
6. Don’t confront the person as part of a group of people,
7. Don’t diagnose
8. Don’t become the person’s therapist, savior, or victim.
9. Don’t get into an argument or battle of wills. If the person
denies having a problem, simply and calmly:
-Repeat what you have observed
-Repeat your concern about their health and well-being
-Repeat your conviction that the circumstances should
be evaluated by a counselor or therapist
-End the conversation if it is going nowhere
-Take any actions necessary for you to carry out your
responsibilities or to protect yourself
-If possible, leave the door open for further
conversations
10. Don’t be inactive during an emergency: If the person is
throwing up several times per day, or passing out, or complaining
of chest pain, or is suicidal, get professional help immediately
(Levine & Smolak, 2005)
“The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) is a state of imbalance between diet
equilibrium, hormone regulation and bone density. And with only one of
these slightly out of sync the others will try to adjust often creating a
weakness such as going into a state of amenorrhea (menstruation ceases) or
getting bone stresses.”
All information on this slide retrieved on August 9, 2012 from
http://frostysfootsteps.wordpress.com/2011/07/05/female-athlete-triad-fat/
The following are tips for coaches who deal with adolescents at a risk of
developing an eating disorder.
1. Take warning signs of eating disorders seriously
2. Refer athletes who are chronically dieting to a health professional
3. Do not weigh athletes
4. Don’t assume reducing body fat or weight will enhance performance
5. Instruct other coaches and trainers to recognize signs and symptoms of
eating disorders and understand their role in prevention.
6. Provide athletes with accurate information regarding weight,
weight loss, body composition, nutrition, and sport
performance to reduce misinformation and to challenge
unhealthy practices
7. Emphasize the health risks of low weight
8. Understand why weight is such a sensitive and personal issue
for women. Eliminate derogatory comments or behaviors
about weight – no matter how slight.
9. Do not remove athletic participation if an athlete is found to
have eating problems, unless warranted by a medical condition
10. Coaches and trainers should explore their own values and
attitudes regarding weight, dieting, and body image, and how
their values and attitudes may inadvertently affect their athletes.
(Kratina, 2005)
Educational professionals in contact with adolescents who are
highly susceptible to acquiring an eating disorder need to be
aware of the signs and symptoms of both anorexia nervosa
and bulimia nervosa. They must also be aware that the body
image ideals that they have set for themselves are evident to
their students as are their biases and assumptions that they
make relating to appearances. When suspecting that a student
is suffering from an eating disorder, educational professionals
need to be present for their student while ensuring that they
are following necessary professional conduct required of their
job and refer that student to a medical professional when it
becomes evident that the situation requires medical attention.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed,
text). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Eating Disorder Community. (2012). Life with an eating disorder. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/prettythin/6761603239/
HealthCommunities.com (2011). Eating disorders. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from
http://www.healthcommunities.com/eating-disorders/anorexia-bulimia-symptoms.shtml
Heart, A. (2010). Self: and you’re my obsession, I love you to the bones. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/soundlessfall/4713541894/
Helm, D. (2009). Comparison. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/daniellehelm/3963668758/
Kauffman, J.M., & Landrum, T.J. (2013). Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of
children and youth (10th ed.). (pp 281-283). Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
Kratina, K. (2005). Tips for coaches: Preventing eating disorders in athletes. Retrieved August 9, 2012
from http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/nedaDir/files/documents/
handouts/TipCoach.pdf
Levine, M. & Smolka, L. (2005). The role of the educator: Some “don’ts” for educators and others
concerned about a person with an eating disorder. Retrieved August 9,2012 from
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/uploads/file/informationresources/The%20Role%20of%20the%20EducatorSome%20Don'ts%20for%20Educators%20and%20Others.pdf
Macera, M.H., & Mizes, J.S. (2006). Eating disorders. In M. Hersen (Ed.), Clinician’s handbook of child
behavioral assessment (pp. 437-457). Boston: Academic.
National Eating Disorders Association. (2012). Information and Resources. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from
http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/information-resources/
Robb, A.S., & Dadson, M.J. (2002). Eating disorders in males. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of north
america, 11, 399-418.
Upside of inertia. (2010). Masters-apprentice. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from
http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5233947439
Wilson, G.T., Becker, C.B., & Heffernan, K. (2003). Eating disorders. In E.J. Mash & R.A. Barkley
(eds.).Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp 687-715). New York: Guilford
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