History of Mass Media Printing Press: Johannes Guttenberg 1440

History of Mass Media
Printing Press:
Johannes Guttenberg
1440 – made of wood
Bible – 200 Copies
Early Newspaper:
First American newspaper, Publick Occurences
Corantos – Early newspaper in form of pamphlets
First printed newspaper appeared in Germany
First English newspaper, London Gazette
William Randolph Hearst:
Went to Harvard
Took over the San Francisco Examiner from his father
Owned 18 mags and 28 newspapers
Yellow Journalism: use promotional schemes and sensational stories
Started Spanish American War
Gulglielmo Marconi:
Marconi sent the 1st wireless signal over the English channel
Won the nobel peace prize in 1909
First wireless telegraph
Used wireless telegraph on the titanic
History of Radio:
Heinrich Hertz discovered radio waves
Nikola Tesla was the first person to make public demo with radio
1st radio transmission only went about a mile
Tesla was the first person to patent radio technology
FM – Frequency Modulated
Orson Welles:
Original short story by HG Wells
Radio drama “War of the Worlds”
Put entire nation in panic
Invented by William George Horner
Daedalum – wheel of the devil, renamed “Wheel of Life”
It led to animation (stop motion)
A toy developed for entertainment
History of Film:
Eadweard Muybridge – invented projection device – zoopraxiscope
Birth of the Nation – Silent Film, racist undertones
Jazz Singer – First sound movie full length feature film
“Horse in Motion” first film Also known as Sallie Gardner
“Great Train Robbery”
The Nicklelodeon – first theatre
Mud slinging – the action of searching out and publizining scandoulous info about
famous people in an underhanded way (tarnishing character)
Mostly journalist, novelist, critics, press
Famous muckracker – Upton Sinclair and Samuel Hopkins Adams
History of TV:
New York City worlds fair – first television broadcast
RCA first mass market manufacturer of TV
Philo Farnsworth:
Father of TV
Early invention – Image Dissector
Broadcast the $
Baird and him were both developing TV at the same time in different countries
Created working TV at 21
John Logie Baird:
Broadcast the cross
1925 broadcast a human face
Vladimir Zworykin:
First colored model was developed by Vladimir Zworykin
Developed the cathode ray tube
Iconoscope called the electric eye
Transition Radio to TV:
Major conflict between tv and radio at first. TV took a while to take off
1933 2/3 of households had 1 TV
1920’s – radio dominated
1950’s – Golden age of TV
TV News:
1st National Newscast was on CBS
In 1940’s NBC, ABC, CBS aired in New York
Big 3 – NBC, CBS, ABC
Edward Murrow Pioneer of Broadcast Journalism
Murrow challenged Senator McCarthy on air about Communism in America
Show was called “See it Now” – over 5000 broadcasts
Barbara Walters – first female news co-anchor
Kennedy assassination sparked TV news interest
1980 – Ted Turner – CNN
Satellite and Cable TV:
Coaxil cable – high speed transmission cable that provided cable tv service
Mountains made cable TV hard to receive
60’s – 800 cable systems serving almost 1 million people
Sat TV – First broadcast in 1978 from Syncom 2
Direct to home sat services in 80’s
Cable dominated satellite at first
HBO – Charles Dolan
Color TV Systems:
First colored tv released in 1946
Peter Goldmark inventor of color tv
A colored broadcast is created by broadcasting 3 monochrome image, one each in
red, green, and blue.
Birth of the Internet:
First internet network called Arpanet
Initially used for military purposes – cold war
1989 – WWW introduced
TCP = Transmission Control Protocol
ICP = Internet Protocol
Sat and Internet radio: (Didn’t cover)
XM and Sirius
S band was given for broadcasting satellite radio services
FCC started DARS – Digital Audio Radio Services
First internet radio station = internet talk radio
First internet only radio station = IMS (Internet Mulitcasting Service)
Created by the Communication ACT of 1934
Combined telephone, telegraph, and radio communications
Established by Roosevelt’s “New Deal”
It regulates radio, tv, wire, sat, and cable
Federal Communication Commission
Safe harbor hours – 10pm – 6am - keeps kids from being exposed to obscene