Week 5

Morgan at Maracaibo
• Morgan retuned to Jamaica
– instructed by Modyford to cease and desist
• Peace had been declared once more
– In the Caribbean at least
• However, back in Europe things were
also changing
• King of Spain ordered all out war with
the English in the Indies
• Something the British in the Caribbean
were not aware of
Manoel Rivera Pardal
• And it is I, Manuel Rivera Pardal who has
come upon this shore and looted and burned
your plantations, your coastal villages, and
indeed, do intend to continue, least I tempt one
Admiral Henry Morgan out of his cowardice
hiding, along with his band of filthy pirates,
and bring him upon the coast to meet with I,
Manuel Rivera Pardal, and to show him the
true valor of the Spanish, and to bring justice
upon his scurvy head as to up hold the will of
my King, which God preserves.
• Modyford eventually responded to
local merchants demands
• commanded Morgan out once
more, saying:
–“Doe and performe all matter of
Exployts which may tend to the
Preservation and Quiett of Jamayca”
• also suggested that Morgan stop
torturing people
• Morgan put out a call for volunteers, and
practically every buccaneer in the West
Indies came to his call
– 2000+ men, mostly English and French
• 33 Ships
• Assembling the largest ever privateering
fleet at the Isle de Vaca Morgan prepared
to take his biggest prize yet
The Battel Between the Spaniards
and the Pyrats
Morgan and the Raid on Panama
• After assembling troops and ships at Isle
de Vaca Morgan began final preparation
• His main priorities were
• Food
– As Admiral of a privateer fleet, the feeding
of the 2000 crew was his responsibility
• Information
– Did not want to leave without knowledge of
what he would face
• Dispatched a small fleet to gather food
• Began well
– Captured a merchant ship full of grain
• Attacks on land less successful
– Skirmished for 2-3 weeks
– Gathered limited supplies
• But attacks hurt Spain
• Fleet was paid with food to leave them
• Morgan’s skills as a leader were based in
– Bravery
– Audacity
– Tactical skills
• To enhance later needed to find someone who
had knowledge of the isthmus and the city
• First stop Spanish prison on St. Catalina
• The idea being to storm the island
• Find a captive who would trade knowledge for
• Arrived at St. Catalina
– 20 December 1670
• St. Catalina Island was outnumbered
• Initially defended itself well
• But fear of the violence of English
– Now myth like
– And desire not suffer great loses
• Led to an interesting solution
• The governor of the island agreed to
– If Morgan made it look like he hadn’t
• After mock battle, Morgan leaves along with
• Three former Spanish captives
– Also more food and more powder
• Next stop: Fortress of San Larenzo, guarding
the Chagres river- Gateway to Panama
• First attack – Led by Joseph Bradley
• 400 men- (an attempt at secrecy)
– Privateers repulsed
• Fort’s cannons proved deadly
• Spanish taunted the fleeing men with
• “Come on, you English dogs, you shall not get
to Panama”
• Second attack – at twilight
– Again power of the cannon threatened to defeat
• Until one moment of reckless bravado turned
the battle
• Privateer was struck in the shoulder with an
• Pulled it out, wrapped the arrowhead with
wadding, set it alight and fired it out of his
• Hit a thatched roof
• Others followed the example
• Flaming arrows started a fire
– exploded casks of gunpowder
• Killed and stunned the Spaniards
• Gave privateers the break they needed
• Spanish moved cannon into breached parapet
and fired into the attacking men
• After a long and bloody fight the pirates were
• 400 Privateers
– 100 dead, 60 wounded
• 400 Spanish
• 14 left alive
• Morgan and rest of fleet arrived a few
days later
• Realized attack was not a secret
• Decided to carry on anyway
• Left 500 to guard fort
– Lesson learned from Maracaibo
• 150 onboard main ships
• Took the remaining 1200 on canoes
and flat bottomed boats and headed
out to Panama
Nine days of hell
• The journey was torturous
• With Prior knowledge the Spanish
had set up ambushes
• The River Chagres was unusually
low causing problems
• And food, or rather the lack of it,
soon became a major problem
• 2nd Day had to abandon boats proceed by
foot and a few canoes
– Quickly ran out of food
• 4th Day came across an empty fort
• Hoped for food
– A.O. Esquemelin says, they hoped to find Spanish
as well….
– …..in order to kill them and eat them.
– This isn’t really true….probably.
• No luck, fell to eating leather bags
– Soaked it, beat it between rocks, scraped off hair,
roasted it, cut it into small pieces and ate it with
out chewing
• 5th Day found small amount of food
– Morgan gave it to the weakest
• 6th Day ate leaves and grass
• Later on 6th found a barn full of corn
– Ate it without cooking
– Many fell ill
• 7th Day had to abandon canoes
• everyone had to walk and hack through the
• 8th Day ran into first real resistance
– The myth had scarred away most
– 8 dead and more wounded in skirmish
• 9th Day came within sight of a large plain
filled with cattle
– Major feast
• 10th Day prepared to attack the city
• Many still with blood covering their
faces and clothes
• They could see they were
• They faced:
• 4 infantry battalions
– Spread out across the field in front of city
• 2 squadrons of cavalry
• 2000 cattle
Henry Morgan at Panama
• The Spanish forces were undisciplined
• Many Buccaneers trained in Cromwell’s New Model Army
• Morgan spotting a weakness
– A high spot on the left flank
– Sent part of his force there
• An overeager cavalry officer attacked, rode
straight into a swamp
• Privateers picked off numerous Cavalry
members before they could get free
– They bolted
– Then, the cattle stampeded
• The infantry shot their guns, dropped them,
and ran
• Privateers defeated a force twice their size
left more than 600 dead on the field
• Retreating Spanish regrouped threw up
barricades and canons in city streets
• After a pitch battle the city in the hands of
• Small groups headed out to hunt for treasure
– Remaining Spanish began picking off members of
smaller groups
• City Burned
• Possible retaliation by Buccaneers
• Possibly by Spanish to deny it to Buccaneers
– A.O. Esquemelin suggests this
• Morgan ordered harbor secured and
boats searched
• Officer instead drank, feasted and
• Treasure galleon managed to escape
• Morgan furious
• Privateers spent 3 weeks in Panama
extracting every last bit of booty
• Some of men planned to grab a boat and
the booty and take off into the Pacific
• Morgan found out disabled all ships
• The privateers were not the only double
dealers around
• As Morgan left he took multiple women and
• To be ransomed
• Included the daughter of a wealthy
• In fact money was sent
• Monks who had been entrusted with money
• Used it to free other monks
• Once back at Atlantic
• Morgan ordered everyone searched
– Result of plan in Panama?
• Shared out the booty
• Simultaneously planned his own departure
• Returned to Jamaica as a hero once again
• Constant suspicion he had taken more
than his share
• As peace had by now been declared
• Morgan ordered back to England 1672
• King Charles II, rather than show
annoyance or anger
• Knighted Morgan and sent him back to
Jamaica as Lieutenant Governor
– With orders to suppress privateers
• Admiral Sir Henry Morgan lived out the
remainder of his life in luxury in Jamaica
– As a wealthy Plantation owner. Sugar
– From whence comes…..RUM
• Not the only Privateer to retire to a better
life, but perhaps the best known
Privateering ended with Morgan
1688 Glorious Revolution
William and Mary
England committed to war against France
Peace/truce 1697 for 5 years
Queen Anne’s War 1702 – 1713
(eventually, Queen Anne would have her Revenge)
(But THAT’s another story)
• Spend time in Colonial
Study elsewhere
This week
– Captain Kidd
• Next week
– No class – Mon
– Captain Kidd – Wed
• Following Monday
– Captain Kidd Movie
• Kidd Book finished
• Themes
• Empire
– Greece
– Rome
– Vikings
– Barbary
– England
• Popular Culture
– Why do we
love pirates
– What was
taken from
story and why
The Infamous Captain Kidd
• Born c. 1645
• Greenock,
• On Firth of Clyde
• Son of a Calvinist
• Suggested that the combination of
• Birth in a port city and a strict
upbringing led Kidd to rebel and run
away to sea
• How and when is a mystery
• 1689 part of a French/British Pirate ship
• Led revolt of British and took the ship
–Act of war or piracy?
• Sailed to Nevis refitted and took on
board a crew of 80
• ‘Blessed William’
• Part of a group of ships attacking French
at Marieagalante
• Plunder for pay – went well
• 2nd voyage rescue – traditional warfare
• Nevis
• Kidd has £2000 and respect
• Crew left with boat and cash
• Awarded captured French vessel by
Governor of Nevis
Lesson Learned – But to what
• Gift of the ship
– patronage of powerful people could
produce surprising opportunities
• Patronage was the system that made
politics work
• In time he discovered dangers of this
system also
• Chases old ship to NY
• Spends time their working for
local Government
– Making important friends
• Marries well
– Sarah Bradley Cox Ort
• 1695 bored
• Heads to England on trading
• And to gain privateer license
• Kidd the powerful man in NY
– Had letter of intro to Sir William Blathwayt
• Was nothing in London
• Turned to Robert Livingston
– Friend from NY who was in London
• Conflict with France had led the
Admiralty to stop issuing Letters of
– Needed all available men
• Political conflicts in
– In part over the debate over the
war led to the Whig party taking
• Problem Blathwayt was
not a Whig
• By luck Livingston met
a man called William
• introduced him to
Richard Coote
– Earl of Bellomont
• Through political maneuvering
– With help of Kidd and his Friends
• Attacked the Governor of New York
– A Non Whig
• Bellomont moves further up the
ladder of power
• With a new patron
– Kidd began campaign to gain a privateers
• Kidd was to go ‘speedily’ to where
the pirates were
• Capture them and return to Boston
– Where Bellomont would be Governor
• Got Privateering License from
Admilitary on December 11, 1695
• Eventually got a permit to hunt
pirates from Lord Keeper of Great
– Full investor in expedition
• Adventure Galley
– Hybrid
• Got a small crew in
• Headed to New York
– Filled up crew
– September 6 1696 left
New York
• Destination Indian
Madagascar and the Indian Ocean
• 250 miles to the east of Africa
– Slightly smaller than California
– High plateaus and arid plains
• Cyclones hit island over winter and
early spring
– Depositing rain that allowed south enough
rain to support cattle herds
• Beef from cattle formed food staple
– along with rice grown on the island
• Populated initially by Indonesians
and Africans
– c1500
• Diego Dias coasted the edge of
– Known as Saint Lawrence
• Geographical location important
–Lack of suitable ports on African
coast makes it a stop in between
west and east
• 1644 British attempt colonization
• 2 British Merchants sponsored settlement
– The new all improved Virginia
• Abandoned after great loss of life
– Survivors flee to India
• French attempt
– Fort Dauphin
• Collapses in 1674
– Lack of supplies and attacks from native
• Around 1660s
• European merchants begin to turn up for
– Occasional American ship also
• Longer voyage the West Africa but slave costs
– Lacked organization
• In step buccaneers/pirates
– Arrived around 1685
• Some followed Drakes lead
– Not always by plan
– Others headed east from Caribbean
• Pirates chose Madagascar for a number of
– No other friendly ports
• East India company built fort-ports
– Locals didn’t need goods
– Rulers didn’t need mercenaries
• No major power on Island
– Pirates supplied military support in local conflicts
• Knowledge of terrain and people – along
with European background
– Put pirates as middle men
Slave King of Madagascar
• Abraham Samuel
• Slave on the French island of Madagascar
– Escapee
• Joined pirate ship led by Jim Hoar
– John and Rebecca
• Spent time in Arabian sea and Persian Gulf
– Headed to India
• Off coast of Surat took a large prize
• February 1697 ship retired to Saint Marie
• Local population attacked
• Samuel along with other survivors
fled to derelict Fort Dauphin
• A Native Princess/Queen Mother
claimed to recognize Samuel
– Child she had with French man who was
taken away at the abandonment of fort
• Samuel now Prince and Heir to the
• Samuel remained in power for years
– Dealt with both slavers and pirates
• 1700 Captain Littleton of the British
Royal Navy entertained Samuel on
board royal navy ship
• 1706 Dutch ship arrived to find
Samuel gone
– Dead at hand of enemies
– Gone back on Account
• Next Henry Avery but first a (bad) recap of
Henry Avery
• Second well known
pirate of Madagascar
• After working in the
• Set sail for Indian
– life blossomed
• leader of a vast and
powerful kingdom
• Wealth came from
capture of Islamic
pilgrim ship heading to
• Ship heavily loaded with
–But more importantly
• On board attractive
daughter of Mogul and
her retinue
• “The captain no sooner beheld the
Lady in Tears, but melted into
compassion . . . Pay’s Respect that
was due to her high Birth”
“It seems the riches of the ship was
design’d as a portion for the
Princess, and was sent as a Present
to a Persian Potentate, who never
had the Fortune to enjoy the
glittering Cargo”
• “nor his intended ’Spouse; for the
captain had plunder’d her of
something more pleasing than the
Jewels, though not without her own
consent, and being join’d in
• Avery returned to Madagascar
– invited to settle an become King of the
• Forming a “Republick of Pirates”
• Avery’s new wife
• “Found her self happily brought to Bed
of a Son”
“While the female part of her Retinue
were no less backward in presenting
their Husbands of their conjugal
“In a little time Fame so assisted their
Intentions, that several pirates of all
Nations came to settle themselves under
his protection”
• Eventually French led rebellion threatens
Avery’s rule
– luck holds and a traitor in the rebels camp betrays
their intentions
• Life on the island becomes structured and
• Avery then sent word, via the East Indian
Company, to London
• Asking to return home a free man
• Suggesting that a “Proposal of some Millions of
Money” may be “not altogether unacceptable”
• Avery never heard back from
• But he was a wise ruler
• Remembering attempted mutiny
• Constructed loyal militia to protect
him and control the Island
–exiled all French on the Island
• Details of final years are scarce as
• “To go farther than this, would be to
impose upon the veracity . . . as well
as the Belief of the Reader”
“because the Person that gives . . .
These memoirs, left the Captain when
he first made overtures for Pardon”
• All indications suggest he died
peacefully years later
• Clearly see blurring of lines between
fact and fiction in the histories of this
– Majority of what I have told you so far is pure
• Avery existed
– was a figure of popularity in England
• With a play being written about him
– The Successful Pyrate
– By Charles Johnson
– not the same person who wrote the
History of Pirates
• Avery was in many ways as
successful and enigmatic as the
fictional portrayal
• Thought to have been born near
Plymouth in Devonshire
– At some stage he travelled to the West
• Where the Governor of Bermuda
reputedly gave him work as a
slaver on the “Guinea Coast”
• 1693 signed on as first mate
aboard the Charles II
–Owned by Sir John Houblon and
Captained by Charles Gibson
• Houlbon leased ship to the Spanish
• After 8 months of work the ship
put into the port of La Coruña in
–Plan to refit and head back to the
West Indies
• Crew received no pay upon return to
– Believed they never would
– Mutiny planned
• Captain Gibson had a love for the
• Waited for him to drink his fill and fall
• Then slipped out of the harbor
• When captain awoke
–Avery introduced himself as the new
–Offered Gibson and any crew member
the option of leaving the ship
• With Avery as Captain ship renamed
the Fancy
• Headed round Cape of Good Hope
for Madagascar
• Docked at Johanna, port on island
of Comoros
–A small island chain just off
• Took a French Corsair
• Avery then took an act that made
• A Hero to some
• A Pirate to others
• Avery left a letter to be taken to London
and printed in a newspaper
• Explained that
• He had taken the Charles II (Fancy)
• Had not harmed any English or Dutch
– But would if perused
• Signed the letter
• p.s. there are 160 French corsairs
waiting at Mohilla
• Avery’s next move
• Attack Islamic Pilgrim Fleet
– This much was true
• Joined up with American pirates in
the Region
– From Rhode Island and New York
• Eventually found the fleet
• Almost missed it
– Caught only the tail end of the fleet
• The Ganj-i-Sawai – ‘exceeding
–Grand mogul’s treasure ship
• The Fath Mahamamadi
–Escort ship
• First attack and take escort
• Then take Treasure ship
• Men spend a week plundering ship
• In reality much of time spent raping
female passengers
• There was a Princess aboard
– An elderly aunt of the Mogul
• Avery protected her
• Avery, at the end of week, destroyed
sails and shot off main mast
– Ship limped back to Surat
• Grand Mogul furious
• Rounded up all East India Company
members in region
– chained and tortured
• After a full year Company was finally
able to convince the Mogul that they
had nothing to do with attack
– Surviving jailed company members
This was the Indian Ocean that
Kidd sailed into
• Avery sailed for America
• Bribed the governor of Rhode Island to land
and re-provision
• Changed name to Captain Bridgeman
– Sold the Fancy and bought a sloop
• Dropped sailors of in small groups so as not
to alert the authorities
• The East Indian Company was offering a
reward of £1000 for each individual
• Last crew member disembarked in Boston
– Some eventually captured
•Total haul of
Jewels and Gold
•Avery never
seen or heard
from again
This was the Indian Ocean that
Kidd sailed into
A brief reminder of Kidd….