Morgan at Maracaibo • Morgan retuned to Jamaica – instructed by Modyford to cease and desist • Peace had been declared once more – In the Caribbean at least • However, back in Europe things were also changing • King of Spain ordered all out war with the English in the Indies • Something the British in the Caribbean were not aware of Manoel Rivera Pardal • And it is I, Manuel Rivera Pardal who has come upon this shore and looted and burned your plantations, your coastal villages, and indeed, do intend to continue, least I tempt one Admiral Henry Morgan out of his cowardice hiding, along with his band of filthy pirates, and bring him upon the coast to meet with I, Manuel Rivera Pardal, and to show him the true valor of the Spanish, and to bring justice upon his scurvy head as to up hold the will of my King, which God preserves. • Modyford eventually responded to local merchants demands • commanded Morgan out once more, saying: –“Doe and performe all matter of Exployts which may tend to the Preservation and Quiett of Jamayca” • also suggested that Morgan stop torturing people • Morgan put out a call for volunteers, and practically every buccaneer in the West Indies came to his call – 2000+ men, mostly English and French • 33 Ships • Assembling the largest ever privateering fleet at the Isle de Vaca Morgan prepared to take his biggest prize yet •Panama The Battel Between the Spaniards and the Pyrats Morgan and the Raid on Panama • After assembling troops and ships at Isle de Vaca Morgan began final preparation • His main priorities were • Food – As Admiral of a privateer fleet, the feeding of the 2000 crew was his responsibility • Information – Did not want to leave without knowledge of what he would face Food • Dispatched a small fleet to gather food • Began well – Captured a merchant ship full of grain • Attacks on land less successful – Skirmished for 2-3 weeks – Gathered limited supplies • But attacks hurt Spain • Fleet was paid with food to leave them alone Information • Morgan’s skills as a leader were based in – Bravery – Audacity – Tactical skills • To enhance later needed to find someone who had knowledge of the isthmus and the city • First stop Spanish prison on St. Catalina • The idea being to storm the island • Find a captive who would trade knowledge for freedom • Arrived at St. Catalina – 20 December 1670 • St. Catalina Island was outnumbered • Initially defended itself well • But fear of the violence of English – Now myth like – And desire not suffer great loses • Led to an interesting solution • The governor of the island agreed to surrender – If Morgan made it look like he hadn’t • After mock battle, Morgan leaves along with • Three former Spanish captives – Also more food and more powder • Next stop: Fortress of San Larenzo, guarding the Chagres river- Gateway to Panama • First attack – Led by Joseph Bradley • 400 men- (an attempt at secrecy) – Privateers repulsed • Fort’s cannons proved deadly • Spanish taunted the fleeing men with • “Come on, you English dogs, you shall not get to Panama” • Second attack – at twilight – Again power of the cannon threatened to defeat English • Until one moment of reckless bravado turned the battle • Privateer was struck in the shoulder with an arrow • Pulled it out, wrapped the arrowhead with wadding, set it alight and fired it out of his musket • Hit a thatched roof • Others followed the example • Flaming arrows started a fire – exploded casks of gunpowder • Killed and stunned the Spaniards • Gave privateers the break they needed • Spanish moved cannon into breached parapet and fired into the attacking men • After a long and bloody fight the pirates were victorious • 400 Privateers – 100 dead, 60 wounded • 400 Spanish • 14 left alive • Morgan and rest of fleet arrived a few days later • Realized attack was not a secret • Decided to carry on anyway • Left 500 to guard fort – Lesson learned from Maracaibo • 150 onboard main ships • Took the remaining 1200 on canoes and flat bottomed boats and headed out to Panama Nine days of hell • The journey was torturous • With Prior knowledge the Spanish had set up ambushes • The River Chagres was unusually low causing problems • And food, or rather the lack of it, soon became a major problem • 2nd Day had to abandon boats proceed by foot and a few canoes – Quickly ran out of food • 4th Day came across an empty fort • Hoped for food – A.O. Esquemelin says, they hoped to find Spanish as well…. – …..in order to kill them and eat them. – This isn’t really true….probably. • No luck, fell to eating leather bags – Soaked it, beat it between rocks, scraped off hair, roasted it, cut it into small pieces and ate it with out chewing • 5th Day found small amount of food – Morgan gave it to the weakest • 6th Day ate leaves and grass • Later on 6th found a barn full of corn – Ate it without cooking – Many fell ill • 7th Day had to abandon canoes • everyone had to walk and hack through the jungle • 8th Day ran into first real resistance – The myth had scarred away most – 8 dead and more wounded in skirmish • 9th Day came within sight of a large plain filled with cattle – Major feast • 10th Day prepared to attack the city • Many still with blood covering their faces and clothes • They could see they were outnumbered • They faced: • 4 infantry battalions – Spread out across the field in front of city • 2 squadrons of cavalry • 2000 cattle Henry Morgan at Panama • The Spanish forces were undisciplined • Many Buccaneers trained in Cromwell’s New Model Army • Morgan spotting a weakness – A high spot on the left flank – Sent part of his force there • An overeager cavalry officer attacked, rode straight into a swamp • Privateers picked off numerous Cavalry members before they could get free – They bolted – Then, the cattle stampeded • The infantry shot their guns, dropped them, and ran • Privateers defeated a force twice their size left more than 600 dead on the field • Retreating Spanish regrouped threw up barricades and canons in city streets • After a pitch battle the city in the hands of Morgan • Small groups headed out to hunt for treasure – Remaining Spanish began picking off members of smaller groups • City Burned • Possible retaliation by Buccaneers • Possibly by Spanish to deny it to Buccaneers – A.O. Esquemelin suggests this • Morgan ordered harbor secured and boats searched • Officer instead drank, feasted and fornicated • Treasure galleon managed to escape • Morgan furious • Privateers spent 3 weeks in Panama extracting every last bit of booty • Some of men planned to grab a boat and the booty and take off into the Pacific • Morgan found out disabled all ships • The privateers were not the only double dealers around • As Morgan left he took multiple women and children • To be ransomed • Included the daughter of a wealthy Panamanian • In fact money was sent • Monks who had been entrusted with money • Used it to free other monks • Once back at Atlantic • Morgan ordered everyone searched – Result of plan in Panama? • Shared out the booty • Simultaneously planned his own departure • Returned to Jamaica as a hero once again • Constant suspicion he had taken more than his share • As peace had by now been declared • Morgan ordered back to England 1672 • King Charles II, rather than show annoyance or anger • Knighted Morgan and sent him back to Jamaica as Lieutenant Governor – With orders to suppress privateers • Admiral Sir Henry Morgan lived out the remainder of his life in luxury in Jamaica – As a wealthy Plantation owner. Sugar plantations. – From whence comes…..RUM • Not the only Privateer to retire to a better life, but perhaps the best known Privateering ended with Morgan (ish) 1688 Glorious Revolution William and Mary England committed to war against France Peace/truce 1697 for 5 years Queen Anne’s War 1702 – 1713 (eventually, Queen Anne would have her Revenge) (But THAT’s another story) Stuff • Spend time in Colonial • • • Williamsburg Study elsewhere Drake This week – Captain Kidd • Next week – No class – Mon – Captain Kidd – Wed • Following Monday – Captain Kidd Movie • Kidd Book finished • Themes • Empire – Greece – Rome – Vikings – Barbary – England • Popular Culture – Why do we love pirates – What was taken from story and why The Infamous Captain Kidd • Born c. 1645 • Greenock, Scotland • On Firth of Clyde • Son of a Calvinist Minister • Suggested that the combination of • Birth in a port city and a strict upbringing led Kidd to rebel and run away to sea • How and when is a mystery • 1689 part of a French/British Pirate ship • Led revolt of British and took the ship –Act of war or piracy? • Sailed to Nevis refitted and took on board a crew of 80 • ‘Blessed William’ • Part of a group of ships attacking French at Marieagalante • Plunder for pay – went well • 2nd voyage rescue – traditional warfare • Nevis • Kidd has £2000 and respect • Crew left with boat and cash • Awarded captured French vessel by Governor of Nevis Lesson Learned – But to what end? • Gift of the ship – patronage of powerful people could produce surprising opportunities • Patronage was the system that made politics work • In time he discovered dangers of this system also • Chases old ship to NY • Spends time their working for local Government – Making important friends • Marries well – Sarah Bradley Cox Ort • 1695 bored • Heads to England on trading voyage • And to gain privateer license • Kidd the powerful man in NY – Had letter of intro to Sir William Blathwayt • Was nothing in London • Turned to Robert Livingston – Friend from NY who was in London • Conflict with France had led the Admiralty to stop issuing Letters of marque – Needed all available men • Political conflicts in London – In part over the debate over the war led to the Whig party taking control • Problem Blathwayt was not a Whig • By luck Livingston met a man called William Carter • introduced him to Richard Coote – Earl of Bellomont • Through political maneuvering Bellomont – With help of Kidd and his Friends • Attacked the Governor of New York – A Non Whig • Bellomont moves further up the ladder of power • With a new patron – Kidd began campaign to gain a privateers license • Kidd was to go ‘speedily’ to where the pirates were • Capture them and return to Boston – Where Bellomont would be Governor • Got Privateering License from Admilitary on December 11, 1695 • Eventually got a permit to hunt pirates from Lord Keeper of Great Seal – Full investor in expedition • Adventure Galley – Hybrid • Got a small crew in London • Headed to New York – Filled up crew requirements – September 6 1696 left New York • Destination Indian Ocean Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Madagascar Madagascar • 250 miles to the east of Africa – Slightly smaller than California – High plateaus and arid plains • Cyclones hit island over winter and early spring – Depositing rain that allowed south enough rain to support cattle herds • Beef from cattle formed food staple – along with rice grown on the island • Populated initially by Indonesians and Africans – c1500 • Diego Dias coasted the edge of Island – Known as Saint Lawrence • Geographical location important –Lack of suitable ports on African coast makes it a stop in between west and east • 1644 British attempt colonization • 2 British Merchants sponsored settlement – The new all improved Virginia • Abandoned after great loss of life – Survivors flee to India • French attempt – Fort Dauphin • Collapses in 1674 – Lack of supplies and attacks from native population • Around 1660s • European merchants begin to turn up for slaves – Occasional American ship also • Longer voyage the West Africa but slave costs lower – Lacked organization • In step buccaneers/pirates – Arrived around 1685 • Some followed Drakes lead – Not always by plan – Others headed east from Caribbean • Pirates chose Madagascar for a number of reasons – No other friendly ports • East India company built fort-ports – Locals didn’t need goods – Rulers didn’t need mercenaries • No major power on Island – Pirates supplied military support in local conflicts • Knowledge of terrain and people – along with European background – Put pirates as middle men Slave King of Madagascar • Abraham Samuel • Slave on the French island of Madagascar – Escapee • Joined pirate ship led by Jim Hoar – John and Rebecca • Spent time in Arabian sea and Persian Gulf – Headed to India • Off coast of Surat took a large prize • February 1697 ship retired to Saint Marie • Local population attacked • Samuel along with other survivors fled to derelict Fort Dauphin • A Native Princess/Queen Mother claimed to recognize Samuel – Child she had with French man who was taken away at the abandonment of fort • Samuel now Prince and Heir to the kingdom • Samuel remained in power for years – Dealt with both slavers and pirates • 1700 Captain Littleton of the British Royal Navy entertained Samuel on board royal navy ship • 1706 Dutch ship arrived to find Samuel gone – Dead at hand of enemies – Gone back on Account • Next Henry Avery but first a (bad) recap of Kidd Henry Avery • Second well known pirate of Madagascar • After working in the Caribbean • Set sail for Indian Ocean – life blossomed • leader of a vast and powerful kingdom • Wealth came from capture of Islamic pilgrim ship heading to Mecca • Ship heavily loaded with booty –But more importantly • On board attractive daughter of Mogul and her retinue • “The captain no sooner beheld the • Lady in Tears, but melted into compassion . . . Pay’s Respect that was due to her high Birth” “It seems the riches of the ship was design’d as a portion for the Princess, and was sent as a Present to a Persian Potentate, who never had the Fortune to enjoy the glittering Cargo” • “nor his intended ’Spouse; for the captain had plunder’d her of something more pleasing than the Jewels, though not without her own consent, and being join’d in Marriage” • Avery returned to Madagascar – invited to settle an become King of the Island • Forming a “Republick of Pirates” • Avery’s new wife • “Found her self happily brought to Bed • • of a Son” “While the female part of her Retinue were no less backward in presenting their Husbands of their conjugal Endeavors” “In a little time Fame so assisted their Intentions, that several pirates of all Nations came to settle themselves under his protection” • Eventually French led rebellion threatens Avery’s rule – luck holds and a traitor in the rebels camp betrays their intentions • Life on the island becomes structured and organized • Avery then sent word, via the East Indian Company, to London • Asking to return home a free man • Suggesting that a “Proposal of some Millions of Money” may be “not altogether unacceptable” • Avery never heard back from England • But he was a wise ruler • Remembering attempted mutiny • Constructed loyal militia to protect him and control the Island –exiled all French on the Island • Details of final years are scarce as • “To go farther than this, would be to • impose upon the veracity . . . as well as the Belief of the Reader” “because the Person that gives . . . These memoirs, left the Captain when he first made overtures for Pardon” • All indications suggest he died peacefully years later • Clearly see blurring of lines between fact and fiction in the histories of this man – Majority of what I have told you so far is pure fabrication • Avery existed – was a figure of popularity in England • With a play being written about him – The Successful Pyrate – By Charles Johnson – not the same person who wrote the History of Pirates • Avery was in many ways as successful and enigmatic as the fictional portrayal • Thought to have been born near Plymouth in Devonshire – At some stage he travelled to the West Indies • Where the Governor of Bermuda reputedly gave him work as a slaver on the “Guinea Coast” • 1693 signed on as first mate aboard the Charles II –Owned by Sir John Houblon and Captained by Charles Gibson • Houlbon leased ship to the Spanish • After 8 months of work the ship put into the port of La Coruña in Spain –Plan to refit and head back to the West Indies • Crew received no pay upon return to Spain – Believed they never would – Mutiny planned • Captain Gibson had a love for the bottle • Waited for him to drink his fill and fall asleep • Then slipped out of the harbor • When captain awoke –Avery introduced himself as the new captain –Offered Gibson and any crew member the option of leaving the ship • With Avery as Captain ship renamed the Fancy • Headed round Cape of Good Hope for Madagascar • Docked at Johanna, port on island of Comoros –A small island chain just off Madagascar • Took a French Corsair • Avery then took an act that made him • A Hero to some • A Pirate to others • Avery left a letter to be taken to London and printed in a newspaper • Explained that • He had taken the Charles II (Fancy) • Had not harmed any English or Dutch – But would if perused • Signed the letter • p.s. there are 160 French corsairs waiting at Mohilla • Avery’s next move • Attack Islamic Pilgrim Fleet – This much was true • Joined up with American pirates in the Region – From Rhode Island and New York • Eventually found the fleet • Almost missed it – Caught only the tail end of the fleet • The Ganj-i-Sawai – ‘exceeding treasure’ –Grand mogul’s treasure ship • The Fath Mahamamadi –Escort ship • First attack and take escort • Then take Treasure ship • Men spend a week plundering ship • In reality much of time spent raping female passengers • There was a Princess aboard – An elderly aunt of the Mogul • Avery protected her • Avery, at the end of week, destroyed sails and shot off main mast – Ship limped back to Surat • Grand Mogul furious • Rounded up all East India Company members in region – chained and tortured • After a full year Company was finally able to convince the Mogul that they had nothing to do with attack – Surviving jailed company members released This was the Indian Ocean that Kidd sailed into • Avery sailed for America • Bribed the governor of Rhode Island to land and re-provision • Changed name to Captain Bridgeman – Sold the Fancy and bought a sloop • Dropped sailors of in small groups so as not to alert the authorities • The East Indian Company was offering a reward of £1000 for each individual involved • Last crew member disembarked in Boston – Some eventually captured •Total haul of Jewels and Gold •£600,000 •Approx. $96,000,000 •Avery never seen or heard from again Reminder This was the Indian Ocean that Kidd sailed into A brief reminder of Kidd….