# matter notes - SchoolWorld an Edline Solution

Properties of Matter
Ch. 2
Quick Review
 Matter is anything that: a) has mass, and b) takes up
space
 Mass = a measure of the amount of “stuff” (or material)
the object contains (don’t confuse this with weight, a
measure of gravity)
 Volume = a measure of the space occupied by the object
States of Matter
1)
Solid- matter that can not flow (definite shape) and
has definite volume.
2)
Liquid- definite volume but takes the shape of its
container (flows).
3)
Gas- a substance without definite volume or shape
and can flow.

4)
Vapor- a substance that is currently a gas, but normally
is a liquid or solid at room temperature. (Which is
correct: “water gas”, or “water vapor”?)
Plasma- Ionized gas that contains positive ions and
electrons
Drawing the States of Matter
Solid
Liquid
Gas
States of Matter
Definite Definite
Volume? Shape?
Solid
Liquid
Gas
YES
YES
NO
Result of a
Temperature Will it
Compress?
Increase?
Small
Expansion
NO
NO
Small
Expansion
NO
NO
Large
Expansion
YES
YES
The 6 Phase Changes
1. Melting: Solid to Liquid
2. Freezing: Liquid to Solid
3. Evaporation: Liquid to Gas
4. Condensation: Gas to Liquid
5. Sublimation: Solid to Gas
6. Deposition: Gas to Solid
Describing Matter
Properties used to describe matter can be
classified as:
1) Extensive – depends on the amount
of matter in the sample
- Mass, volume, calories are examples
2) Intensive – depends on the type of
matter, not the amount present
- Hardness, Boiling Point
Is Density Intensive or
Extensive?
 Density: The ratio of the mass of an object to its
volume.
 How much “stuff” (particles) is packed or crowded
into a certain amount of space.
𝐷 =
𝑚
𝑉
 The density of Water is 1 g/mL or 1 g/cm3
Properties
Words that describe matter
Physical Properties- a property that
can be observed and measured
without changing the material’s
composition.
Examples- color, hardness, m.p.,
b.p.
Properties
Chemical Properties- a property that
can only be observed by changing
the composition of the material.
Examples- ability to burn,
decompose, ferment, react with,
etc.
Physical Change
Physical change will change the visible
appearance, without changing the
composition of the material.
Can be reversible, or irreversible
Boil, melt, cut, bend, split, crack
Is boiled water still water?
***ALL 6 PHASE CHANGES ARE
PHYSICAL CHANGES!***
Chemical Change
Chemical Change - a change where
a new form of matter is made.
Rust, burn, decompose, ferment
Signs of a Chemical Change
1. Gas production
2. Precipitate formation
3. Energy production (light, sound)
4. Change in Temperature
5. Change in color
6. Change in chemical or physical property
Chemical vs. Physical Change
Ask yourself: Is anything new being
3 Types of Matter
1. Elements
2. Compounds
3. Mixtures
a. Heterogeneous
b. Homogeneous (Solutions)
Pure Substances
 Pure substances can be either
 Elements
 Compounds
1. Elements
Simplest kind of matter
Cannot be broken down any
simpler and still have properties
of that element!
All one kind of atom.
Atoms– the smallest particle or
unit of an element that has the
properties of that element.
2. Compounds
Substances that can be broken
down only by chemical methods
When broken down, the pieces
have completely different
properties than the original
compound.
Made of two or more atoms,
chemically combined (not just a
physical blend!)
3. Mixtures
 Mixtures are a physical blend
of at least two substances;
have variable composition.
 Every part keeps it’s own
properties.
 They can be either:
3. Mixtures (cont.)
1) Heterogeneous – the
mixture is not uniform in
composition
soil.
3. Mixtures (cont.)
2) Homogeneous - same
composition throughout;
called “solutions”
• Kool-aid, air, salt water
More on Homogenous (solutions)
 Mixed molecule by molecule, thus too small to see the
different parts
 Can occur between any state of matter: gas in gas;
liquid in gas; gas in liquid; solid in liquid; solid in solid
(alloys), etc.
 Most common solutions consist of 1 or more substances
dissolved (the dissolved “stuff” is called the solute) in a
liquid (called the solvent)
 If the solvent is water—aqueous solution
 A true solution will never separate or settle out on its
own.
Ways of Separating Mixtures
 Differences in physical properties can be used to
separate mixtures.
1) Filtration - separates a solid from the liquid in a
heterogeneous mixture (by size)
2) Distillation – separates a solution by boiling points
There are other ways as well: magnets, evporation
chromotography
Law of Conservation of
Mass/Matter
During any chemical reaction, the
mass of the products (right side of
arrow) is always equal to the mass of
the reactants (left side of arrow).
All the mass can be accounted
for:
Burning of wood results in products that
appear to have less mass as ashes;
where is the rest?
Example Problem
When methane gas burns, and reacts and
combines with oxygen to produce carbon
dioxide and water vapor. If 4 grams of
methane reacts with 16 grams of oxygen to
produce 11 grams of carbon dioxide, how
much water vapor is produced?