Chapter Three Section Two The Rulers of Egypt I. Egyptian Kingship

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Chapter Three

Section Two

The Rulers of Egypt

I. Egyptian Kingship

A. What is Pharaoh?

1. Title traditionally held by male kings

2. Control the wealth and power of the civilization

B. From Dynasty to Dynasty

1. Dynasty- series of rulers from the same family or ethnic groups

 31 dynasties

2. Three groupings Kingdoms

Old Kingdom

Middle Kingdom

New Kingdom

3. Ancient Egyptian rule was stable

C. Egypt is Unified

1. Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt

 Two Lands

 Memphis (Near present day Cairo)

2. Narmar (Pharaoh)- wore two crowns

White Crown- Upper Egypt

Red Crown- Lower Egypt

D. All Powerful Pharaohs

1. Absolute control over their people

2. Ma’at (Goddess of truth) or advisers helped with decisions

 Pharaohs made laws!

3. Ancient Egyptians believed pharaohs were god-kings

II. The Three Kingdoms

A. The Old Kingdom

1. Pharaohs traded with Nubia

2. Merchants traded in the Mediterranean for timber

3. Governors challenged Pharaohs government

 Unity crumbled

B. The Middle Kingdom

1. Early Pharaohs strengthened and restored order

 Spent money on construction and irrigation systems

2. Weaker pharaohs lost control of country to foreign invaders

C. The New Kingdom

1. Created huge armies of foot soldiers, mounted warriors, and charioteers

 Used bronze swords and body armor

2. King Tutankhamen- Ruler from age 9-18

 Tomb tells us much about Ancient Egypt

III. Rule During the New Kingdom

A. The Pharaoh Queen

1. Hatshepsut was named regent of stepson Thutmose II in 1504 B.C.

 Ruled for 15 years

2. Bold leader who created peace and economic success

3. Refused to give up throne to Thutmose

 Destroyed all statues when he took power

B. Thutmose III

1. One of the greatest pharaohs during the Middle Kingdom

2. Led his army in successful attacks

3. Treated those he defeated with mercy

C. Ancient Egypt after the New Kingdom

1. Civil War leaves Ancient Egypt weak

2. 332 B.C. Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquers Egypt

 Rule for 300 years

3. 51 B.C. - Queen Cleopatra VII was last Macedonian ruler

 Committed suicide to avoid being paraded around by the

Romans

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