Steps in Preparing Questionnaires - 1

Mother and Child Health:
Research Methods
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Oxford
University Press.
Steps in Preparing Questionnaires
• Define the topics with details of information
needed to answer research question
• Prepare a list of variables
• Think ahead about analyzing the information
and statistics to be used.
• Prepare first draft
• Revise. Change technical terms. Use short
Steps in Preparing Questionnaires
• Pre-test to find out how respondents
understand the questions
• Further sorting out of words and phrases.
• If possible, do a large pre-test.
• Administer the questionnaire
Format of Questions
• Type of response format has implication for
• Closed questions offer respondents a
number of defined response choices
• Open-ended questions allow respondents
freedom to respond in their own way.
Measuring Attitude
• There are two possible formats:
• The Likert Type ( 7- points format):
Strongly agree; agree; undecided; disagree;
strongly disagree.
• Forced Choice (4 - points format): Strongly
agree; agree; disagree; strongly disagree.
Pitfalls to Avoid
Long complex questions
Double-barreled questions
Leading questions
Double negatives
Jargon or abbreviations
Words with double meanings
Emotionally slanted questions
Administering the Questionnaire
• Objective is to gather
information without
error or bias
• Have standardized
interview procedure
from one subject to
• Probing procedure
should be uniform
• Interviewers should
have prior training for
a uniform approach
• Gestures and body
language should be
given particular