Biochemistry Part II Biochemistry • The study of the chemicals associated with living things • How living things “work” on a molecular level • • • • 4 Basic Groups of Organic Compounds in Living Things Carbohydrates Lipids (fats, oils & waxes) Proteins Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA) Carbohydrates • Simple Sugars…the sweet stuff. Carbohydrates • Complex carbohydrates… • Include starch, cellulose Carbohydrate functions??? What do you know about this? • Sugars and starches provide shortterm energy storage… • Cellulose provides structure in plants. Carbohydrate Chemistry • General formula = CH2O…what does this mean? • Made of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen… 1:2:1 Glucose is a carbohydrate Monomer or Monosaccharide • You will see this simple sugar many times…so lets learn its formula now. • Glucose = C6H12O6 Glucose structure • Do you see six carbon atoms? • Can you describe the shape? Complex Carbohydrates are polymers… Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose (table sugar; disaccharide) Polysaccharides: • How do carbohydrate polymers form? • Water is removed from the 2 molecules by an enzyme to form a covalent bond! • This reaction to join monomers is called DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS! • Animation: • http://nhscience.lonestar.edu /biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html Carbohydrates, cont. • How does our body use complex carbohydrates? • Enzymes break the covalent bonds in the polymer (starch, glycogen) to release the MONOMERS (glucose) to use for energy What do you do when you add water to your body? Hydrate! • This type reaction is called HYDROLYSIS!! • http://nhscience.lonestar.edu /biol/dehydrat/dehydrat.html KEY TERMS! • Use your notes to define the KEY TERMS on the board to use for the… MATCHING GAME!