Unit * 3 Staffing and motivation

Unit – 3
Staffing and motivation
# Staffing means matching the jobs with people. It is
concerned with selection, placements growth and
development of people.
Main features of staffing –
Staffing involves people
Staffing is development oriented
Staffing is continuous
Staffing is a three step process – Hiring, developing
and creating favourable conditions to work.
Importance of staffing
# People are key to everything in the organization.
It helps in the following way• Key to other managerial functions
• Designing a sound organization structure
• Motivation to do outstanding work
Elements of staffing process
Human resource planning
Job analysis
Placement and orientation
Training and development
Performance appraisal
Scott defined as “Process of stimulating people to
action to accomplish desired goal”
Features of motivation –
• Motivation is internal feeling
• Produces goal directed behavior
• Contains system orientation
• Can be either positive or negative
• Motivation means bargaining
• Motivation is a complete process
• Motivation is different from job satisfaction
Importance of Motivation
Productive use of resources
Increased efficiency and output
Achievement of goals
Development of friendly relationships
Stability in work force
•Work hard
•Find another job
•Become union member and
pressure management
Tension reduction
The Motivation Framework
•Get a pay
Theories of motivation
Basically three types of theories:
1. Content theories - Insight into the needs of people in the
organization, that helps managers understand how needs can be
satisfied in the work place
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory
Alderfer’s ERG model
Hertzberg’r two factor theory
Achievement Motivation theory
Theory X and theory Y
Theory Z
2. Process theories: Focus on why people choose certain
behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their
satisfaction after they have satisfied these goals.
• Equity theory
• Vroom’s Expectancy theory
• Porter and Lawler model
• Goal Setting theory
3. Reinforcement theories: Focus on employee learning of
desired behaviors. Argue that the behavior that is rewarded is likely
to be repeated.
Maslow’s theory
Alderfer’s ERG Model
Physiological, Safety – Existence needs: Needs required to
preserve human life. They include all of what Maslow termed
as physiological needs relating to material safety.
Social Needs – Relatedness needs: They refer to all socially
intended needs. How people relate to their surrounding
social environment. Include need for meaningful social and
interpersonal relationships.
Esteem self actualization needs – Growth needs: Individual’s
desire to be self confident, productive and creative; desire to
engage in tasks that require the full utilization of abilities
and that develop additional capabilities and skills.
Hertzberg’s two factor theory
Also called dual factor theory or “Motivation - hygiene”
theory of motivation.
1. Company policy and administration 1. Achievement
2. Relationship with superiors
2. Recognition
3. Work conditions
3. Work itself
4. Salary
4. Responsibility
5. Relationship with peers
5. Advancement
6. Personal life
6. Growth
7. Relationship with subordinates
8. Status
9. Security
10. Supervision
Achievement Motivation Theory
David McClelland at Harvard University – proposed
achievement motivation theory and also called “three
needs theory”
Power need
• Affiliation need
• Achievement need
Theory X and theory Y
Douglas McGregor proposed two sets of assumptions
about what motivates people. One basically negative and
the other basically positive.
Theory X Assumptions
Theory Y assumptions
Employees inherently dislike work and •
will try to play
They must be coerced, controlled and
Exercise self direction and self control
Under proper conditions, they do not
avoid responsibility
Want security but also have other
needs such as self actualization
and esteem
Employees will shirk responsibilities
and seek direction whenever possible
Most employees want security above
all in their work and display little
Employees can view work as being as
natural as rest or avoid it
Theory Z
William Ouchi proposed this theory after studying
American and Japanese management practices.
Has following mixed/ hybrid system
Trust and openness
Organization – employee relationship
Employee participation
Structure less Organization
Holistic concern for employees.
Process theories
Equity theory
It is J. Stacey Adams who formulated the equity theory, based
on simple assumption that people want to be treated
Many employees concerned not only with satisfying their own
needs and compare with what others receive.
The theory defines equity as the belief that we are being
treated fairly in relation to others and inequity as the belief
that we are treated unfairly in relation to others.
Employees feel satisfied or dissatisfied with comparative
observation of their friends, neighbors and colleagues.
Adam describes the equity comparison process in terms of
input/output relation. Inputs are individual contribution to the
organization, such as persons training, education, skills,
experience, Ethic back ground, effort and loyalty.
Outputs are what he receives in turn. Individual may receive
positive and negative outcomes.
Comparisons made as below:
Person’s Outcomes
Person’s Inputs
Other’s outcomes
Other’s Inputs
If equal, it is equity
If more, Positive inequity
If less, Negative inequity.
Individual perceives inequity
Individual experiences tension
Individual wants to reduce tension
Individual takes action
Change inputs
Change outcomes
Alter perceptions of self
Alter perception of other
Change comparisons
Leave situation
Inequity as motivation force
Expectancy Theory:
Victor Vroom Made an important contribution to the
understanding of the motivation and the decision process that
people use to determine how much effort they should expend
on the job.
Person’s motivation for an action any time would be
determined by Individual’s perception that certain type of
action would lead to a specific outcome and his personal
preference for this outcome.
There are three variables in Vroom’s model –
Motivation = Valence X Expectancy X Instrumentality
1. Valence: Valence means attraction or repulsion for an
outcome to an individual. Whenever an individual has
preference for a reward, valence is strength of that preference.
Valence is zero if individual is indifferent to outcome. It is
negative if individual prefers not attaining outcome.
2. Expectancy: It is referred to Effort – Performance
probability. It refers to the extent to which person believes his
effort will lead to the first level outcome( Completion of task).
Expectancy is the probability that a particular action will lead
to the outcome. If the probability is higher he will put more
efforts to achieve the desired outcome.
3. Instrumentality: Instrumentality refers to belief and
expectation of a person that his performance will lead to
particular desired reward.
Porter and Lawler theory:
This is a multi variate model which explains the
relationship that exists between job attitude and job
Based on four basic assumptions 1. Individual behavior is determined by a combination of
factors in the individual and in the environment.
2. Individuals are assumed to be rational human beings
who make conscious decisions about their behavior in
the organization.
3. Individuals have different needs, desires and goals.
4. On the basis of their expectation, individuals decide
between alternate behaviors and such decided behavior
will lead to a desired outcome.
Value of
Ability and
Porter and Lawler Model of Motivation
Various elements are –
Effort – Efforts refer to amount of energy person exerts on a job
Value of reward – People try to figure out whether rewards will be
attractive to them. This is Vroom’s valence !
Perceived reward-effort possibility – People will assess the probability
of certain level of effort – performance and probability of performance –
reward. Will then decide about level of effort.
Performance – Effort leads to performance. Expected level performance
will depend on amount of effort, abilities and traits of the individual and
his role perception. Abilities include knowledge, skills and intellectual
capacity. Traits which are important for many jobs are endurance,
perseverance and goal directedness. Thus abilities and traits will moderate
the effort performance relationship. In addition, people should have
accurate role perception.
Rewards: Performance leads to rewards. Two types of rewards –Extrinsic
and intrinsic.
Satisfaction: Satisfaction results from both. People compare actual
rewards with perceived rewards for satisfaction.
Goal Setting Theory: Propounded by Locke in 1981
Goals play an important role in motivating superior
People examine whether current behavior is sufficient to
achieve the goals. If not – they will either modify their
behavior or choose more realizable goals.
“Feeling of satisfaction comes from what one receives and
what he feels he should receive”.
Similarly, if managers translate organizational goals for
employees as worthwhile to accept and pursue, they can
harness a source of motivation to perform.
Reinforcement Theory
Four types of reinforcement –
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Improving Motivation
Recognize individual difference
Match people to jobs
Use goals
Individualize rewards
Link rewards to performance
Ensure system for equity
Don’t ignore money
Non-financial incentives
Pay and job performance:
• Should be designed to reward results and
• Introducing variable pay.
• Emphasis on team and individual rewards, with
employee sharing financially organization's
Quality of work life:
Personal Life & Work life – both influence each
Factors influencing work life• Employee compensation
• Physical working conditions
• Roles and responsibilities
• Culture and Values
• Company rules and facilities
• Employee treatment
Employee Morale
Mayo defined as:
“ Maintenance of cooperative living”
Dr. Leighton :
“ Capacity of a group of people to pull together
persistently and consistently in pursuit of common
Prof. Kossen: Links morale with employee attitude.
Components of morale:
Intrinsic job satisfaction
Satisfaction with company
Satisfaction with supervision
Satisfaction with rewards
Satisfaction with co-workers
Morale Building:
Job security
Job enrichment
Organization structure
Grievance redressal
Employee counselors
Sound leadership