Motivation can be defined in a number of ways.
>Generally, it is defined as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior.
>In other words, motivation is a kind of internal energy which drives a person to
do something in order to achieve something.
------------By Richard Romando
>In simple terms, motivation is the process of boosting the morale of employees
to encourage them to willingly give their best in accomplishing assigned tasks.
Hygiene Factors
 Conditions
 Pay
 Status
 Security
 Company policies
Herzberg Two-factor theory
 Two-factor theory distinguishes between:
 Motivators (e.g., challenging work, recognition,
responsibility) that give positive satisfaction, arising
from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as
recognition, achievement, or personal growth,[4]and
 Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job
security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions) that
do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction
results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the
work itself, and include aspects such as company
policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary.
Motivation factors
 Achievement
 Recognition
 Growth/Advancement
 Interest in the job
Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor developed a philosophical view of humankind with
his Theory X and Theory Y in 1960.
His work is based upon Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, in that
he grouped the hierarchy into lower-order needs (Theory
X) and higher-order needs (Theory Y).
He suggested that management could use either set of needs
to motivate employees, but better results would be gained
by the use of Theory Y, rather than Theory X.
These two opposing perceptions theorized how people view
human behavior at work and organizational life:
Theory X
With Theory X assumptions, management's role is to coerce and control
>People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever
>People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with
punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives.
>People prefer to be directed, do not want responsibility, and have little
or no ambition.
>People seek security above all else.
Theory Y
With Theory Y assumptions, management's role is to develop the potential in
employees and help them to release that potential towards common goals.
>Work is as natural as play and rest.
>People will exercise self-direction if they are committed to the
objectives (they are NOT lazy).
>Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with
their achievement.
>People learn to accept and seek responsibility.
>Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the
population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational
>People have potential.
Vroom’s theory of Human Motivation
Vroom's theory assumes that behavior results from
conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it
is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. The key
elements to this theory are referred to as
Expectancy (E),
Instrumentality (I), and
Valence (V).
 Vroom's Expectancy Theory is based upon the following three beliefs:
1. Valence (Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect
to outcomes [rewards].
>The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion,
time-off, benefits] or basic [satisfaction] rewards). Management must
discover what employees value.
2. Expectancy (Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence
about what they are capable of doing).
>Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision
employees need.
3. Instrumentality (The perception of employees whether they will actually get
what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager).
>Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that
employees are aware of that.
[Motivation = Valance × Expectancy(Instrumentality)]