Keys to the Document Based Question Essay

Keys to the
Continuity/Change Over
Time Essay
Changes & Continuities in Life
 Analyze the Changes and Continuities in
American Life from 1990-2012.
– What has changed? What has continued?
– What events triggered the changes?
• What important events have occurred?
• Did they impact the changes/continuities?
What is the CCOT essay?
 An essay discussing characteristics that
changed and stayed the same in a given
region between two time periods.
(Comparison essay, but across time rather
than region)
 Know the required tasks & how they’re
– the rubric
Changes & Continuities in Life
 Ideas to help you Write:
– Look for the Theme (labor, rights, economic
growth, military expansion, societal roles)
– Identify the region!
– Look for any significance at the given dates
– Don’t just describe a thing; must be compared
with the past (change/continuity)
– Consider processes that helped/impacted change
– Did you answer Why/How change occurred?
– Did you mention a beginning/middle/end within
the time period?
Fundamentals of CCOT
 Answering the question:
– Remember continuities, not just changes
– Establish a baseline before describing the
changes that occur
 Thesis
– Establish time period boundaries & address
entire period
 Substantiating Thesis:
– Give specific examples to support thesis claims
(requires that you know history)
Complexities of CCOT
 Analyzing process of change:
– What are some common triggers for change:
– Consider that change happens unevenly in places
and overtime…often speeding up & slowing
– Are there steps to the change?
• Intermediate points between the beginning &
end of period are important
Complexities of CCOT
 Historical context
– Remember that changes & continuities in a
particular region do not happen in a vacuum
– Use varying scope – global trends v. regional v.
• Don’t be afraid to note exceptions to a trend
Ways to Structure CCOT - #1
1. Beginning Situation (start date)
2. Cause of Change
A. There might be a specific date of the cause, or “turning
B. a specific date when the change is observable, or “tipping
point,” but the cause of the change was gradual with no
specific date of onset, or
C. a series of factors leading to change, each with different
onset dates or no clear onset date of all, which caused
gradual change in an un-dramatic fashion.
3. Date by which Change is Observable (end date)
A. What were the changes in contrast with the Beginning
B. What were the continuities from the Beginning Situation
 Prompt:
• Analyze the changes brought by
migration in ONE of the following
regions between 1500 BCE and 1000 CE.
Africa, Asia, Europe, Middle East
– Be sure to include a discussion of migration
in 1500 BCE
What is the prompt asking us
to do?
 Analyze the CHANGES migration
created in ONE region
– South Asia
• Ancient India – Classical Period (Ch. 3)
– Focus on Aryan migrations, Dravidians, Upanishads, etc.
– Sub-Saharan Africa
• African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam - PostClassical Era (Ch. 8)
– Focus on Bantu-speaking peoples migration, statelesssocieties, and their transition to regional kingdoms
South-East Asia
 South Asia
- Aryan migrations (a branch of the Indo-European
migrations) moving through Khyber Pass into S. Asia
about 1500 BCE
- Upanishads – beliefs about reincarnation/karma [from
Aryan and Dravidian interaction]
- After conquering the agricultural peoples of the Indus
valley, the nomadic Aryans imposed their class system
based on skin color
• This class system would develop into the Hindu caste system
• Aryan literature (the Vedas) became basic for Hindu belief
• Following Aryan traditions, cattle became symbols of wealth
Sub-Saharan Africa
 Around 1500 BCE, small numbers of Bantu-
speaking peoples had begun to migrate from
present-day Nigeria (due to population pressures)
– Carried agriculture and ironworking tech.
 Migrations of Bantu-speaking people moved
around 700-500 BCE, southward and eastward
– Farmed along riverbanks (Congo)
– Transmitted knowledge of agriculture and ironworking
to cattle herders, learning cattle-herding in return
 Swahili language formed through contact with
Arabic traders in E. Africa
 From stateless societies emerged regional kingdoms