Heading West and Creating the National Economy


Heading West and Creating the

National Economy


U N I T 4 : 1 8 2 4 - 1 8 6 0

Analyze this Photograph

Manifest Destiny

 The belief that God had given us the right to expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.

 Used as a rationale for removing Natives and expansion throughout the 19 th century.

Heading West

Tobacco farmers exhaust the land

Fur trading/trapping:

Rocky Mountains

Extinction of Bison and

Sea Otters

George Catlin

First attempt at preservation

National Parks

Yellowstone: 1872

Immigration to United States

Europe running out of room

Refugees from caste system, freedom of religion, land availability (in west)

Letters to families in Europe describing

Low taxes, no compulsory military service, food in abundance

United States receives a wider array of immigrants than any other country

Mid 1840’s: Potato famine

Boston and NY

Crammed into slums

Hated by “natives”

Competed for jobs

Roman Catholic

The Irish

The Germans: 1848

Crop failures

Political refugees seeking democracy

Mostly settled in Wisconsin

Cultural influences:

Conestoga wagons

Kentucky rifle

Christmas Trees

Bier (beer)

Supported public schools

Art and music

Enemies of slavery

“Natives” Against Immigrants


High prejudice against immigrants

Know-Nothing Party 1849

Restrictions on immigration

Deportation of immigrant homeless (paupers)

Secret societies in major cities

“I know nothing”.

Mass violence on Catholic

Cathedrals and homes of immigrants

Industrial Revolution: The Beginning

1750’s: Great Britain

Developed textile machines

Mass production of manufactured goods

Why was America so slow to catch on?

Land in the U.S. was available and cheap: More farmers

Labor was scarce for factory work

Extra money for capital investment was scarce

Lack of infrastructure

Raw materials unused, undiscovered (Coal in W.V.)

Competition with cheap goods from G.B.

Jumpstarting American Industry

Samuel Slater: “Father of the Factory System”

Skilled British mechanic

Memorized plans for his machines in G.B.

Immigrated to United States

From memory, built the first cotton spinning machine in


Where were they going to get the cotton to use in this first American textile factory?

Innovations in Agriculture

Eli Whitney invents the

Cotton Gin: 1793

50x more efficient than hand picking seeds from cotton

Cotton agriculture booms in the South

Causes increase in demand for slave labor

North and South prospered

Factories in New England

Rocky soil (no ag.), dense population (labor), natural harbors for shipping exports and receiving imports of raw materials.

Rapid rivers for water power

Innovations in Agriculture continued…

John Deere: Illinois: 1837:

Steel Plow

Enabled farmers in the west to break ground easily

Cyrus McCormick: 1830’s:

Mechanical Reaper

Increases large wheat plantations. Could do the work of 6 men using one machine. Harvests increased, dropped prices.

Cash-crop agriculture boom.

Innovations in Manufacturing

Early 1800’s

Embargo, non-intercourse act, and war of 1812 influenced rise of American industrial growth

Nationalism: “Buy American”,

“Wear American”

Eli Whitney: Interchangeable Parts


Mass production of rifles for US Army

Benefited North, brought down prices of goods

Influenced eventual assembly line work

Samuel Colt: Revolver fire arm

Elias Howe and Isaac Singer:

Sewing Machine

Revolutionized the textile industry in the North

Charles Goodyear: Rubber Goods

(Akron, Oh.)

Innovations in Communication and Business

Samuel F. B. Morse

Telegraph: 1844

40 Mile test: From Baltimore to

Washington D.C.

Wired out: “What hath God Wrought?”

Connected the nation from one end to the other

Most lines in the North

Cyrus Field

Stretch a cable from Newfoundland to

Ireland linking North America to


Limited Liability

Influenced capital investment into companies

Investors could not lose more money or be held liable if the company went

Bankrupt or was sued.

Factories in the North: Wage Slaves

Long hours (12-14); low wages (pennies/day); small meals and short breaks

Unsanitary/dangerous working conditions, poorly ventilated

Poor heat in the winter, poor lighting (dangerous)

Child labor (most ages 7-

12) “Whipping rooms”

Labor Unions outlawed until 1842

1830’s-1840’s: Labor Strikes

The Lady’s Place….

“Factory Girls” : “Lowell


Lowell, Ma. : Textile factories

6 days a week, 12-13 hour days

Most girls were single: ages

9-14 or until married

Other female jobs: nursing, domestic work, teachers

“Cult of Domesticity”: cultural creed of women of the time as the homemaker, moral examples for families.

Industrial Revolution influences the Home

Women now working out of the home

More independence in various aspects

Making decisions for the home

Choosing who they would marry out of love rather than arranged by parents

Families become smaller, closer knit

“Domestic Feminism”: women attain more influence on making decisions for the home.

Transportation Innovations

Turnpike: 1790’s

Lancaster Turnpike: 62 miles from Philly to Lancaster

1811: National Road (Cumberland


Md. to Ill. : 591 miles in 1839


Robert Fulton: steam engine

River navigation upstream possible


Erie Canal: New York: Gov.

DeWitt Clinton: 1817-1825:

363 Miles: Connects Great Lakes to Hudson River (Atlantic)

New Cities: Rochester, Syracuse,

Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago

Transportation continued….

Most significant: The Train

Faster, more reliable, cheaper than canals

First RR in America: 1828

By 1860: 30,000 miles of track

¾ of the tracks were in the


Clipper Ships:1840’s-1850’s

Long, narrow, faster. Huge profits in shipping exports/imports

Pony Express: 1860: Mail system

2,000 mile journey could be done in 10 days on horseback

Revolutions in Society

Transportation Revolution

Continental economy had emerged

Raw materials from south and west transported to east and northern industries to be manufactured into finished products

South: cotton, West: grain/livestock, East/North: factories

Market Revolution: Antebellum Era

(pre-Civil War)

From Subsistence agriculture and small workshops to plantation cashcrop agriculture and factories

Monopolies developed

Gap between the rich and the poor becomes wider

Social mobility did exist but rags-toriches stories were far and few