Cold War Study Guide

Name___________________________ Date________________ #____
Parent’s signature___________________
Study Guide-SS5H7-The Cold War, SS5H8-Key people and events from 1950-1975
Vocabulary terms to know:
1. communism- an economic system in which the government controls production and
owns the nation’s natural resources
2. civil rights- the right that countries guarantee their citizens
3. segregation- separation of people by racial or ethnic group
4. boycott- to stop buying or using something as a means of protest
5. integration- the act of bringing racial groups together in a community
6. space race- a competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to sent
people into outer space
7. assassinate- to murder a government leader, usually for political reasons
8. terrorism- the use of force and threats to frighten people into obeying
People to know:
9. Joseph McCarthy-1950 senator who accused U.S. state department officials of being
10. Nikita Khrushchev-leader of the Soviet Communist Party who said in a 1956 speech to
Western countries said, “History is on our side. We will bury you!” This led to the arms race.
11. Thurgood Marshall- first African American Supreme Court Justice who argued and won the
Brown vs Board of Education case
12. Rosa Parks-responsible for starting the Montgomery Bus Boycott because she refused to
give up her seat on a bus to a white man
13. Martin Luther King, Jr.-lead the Civil Rights Movement based on nonviolence. He was the
leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
14.John F. Kennedy- U.S. President who supported civil rights and aid for the poor. He sent the
largest Civil Rights Bill in 1963. He was later assassinated.
15. Robert F. Kennedy-served as the Attorney General under President Lyndon B. Johnson and
was the younger brother of JFK. He was later assassinated.
Important facts to know:
16. What was the Cold War? The Cold War is a term used to describe the state of tension
between the U.S. and the Soviet Union after WWII. They had different beliefs and political
17. What does the term “iron curtain” mean? This was a term stated by Winston Churchill that
said Europe was divided by an “iron curtain.” The iron curtain symbolized the differences
between the communist and noncommunist countries.
18. What was the Berlin Airlift? The U.S. and Allied airplanes dropped food and supplies to the
people of West Berlin when the Soviet Union blocked the roads and railroads.
19. What is NATO? North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an alliance formed by the U.S. and
European countries to protect the spread of communism.
20. What was the Korean War? The Korean War started when communist North Korean invaded
noncommunist South Korea. President Truman sent troops to support South Korea. This was
ended in a stalemate (no winner).
21. What was the Vietnam War? This was a war between communist North Vietnam and
noncommunist South Vietnam. The U.S. joined the war to help South Vietnam and stop the
spread of Communism. The conflict ended in a cease-fire.
22. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis? The U.S. discovered that the Soviet Union was putting
powerful missiles in Cuba which is 90 miles from Florida. President Kennedy ordered the U.S.
Navy to block any Soviet ships carrying missiles into Cuba. The Soviet Union decided to remove
the missiles from Cuba, and the U.S. promised not to attack Cuba.
23. What was the outcome of Brown vs. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas? The
Supreme Court made segregation of schools illegal
24. What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964? This act prohibited discrimination based on color,
race, or religion in places like restaurants, hotels, and theaters. It ended segregation in public
25. What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 accomplish? This act banned literacy tests.
26. What steps did the U.S. space program take to catch up with the Soviets? Alan Shepard
became the first American to go into space. In 1962, John Glen became the first American to
orbit the earth.
27. What achievement put the United States ahead of the Soviet Union in the space race? In
1969, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon.