Year 5 and 6 Writing Age-related expectations of what your child should know by the end of Year 6 Explanations and ideas of how to help your child Transcription - Handwriting Write legibly, fluently and with increasing speed by: Choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters. Choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task. Help your child to sit correctly at a table and to hold a writing implement comfortably. Help them to join letters in accordance with the school’s agreed style. Help your child to practise handwriting at an increased pace for extended periods whilst retaining accuracy and neatness. Help them to realise that sometimes an unjoined style is more appropriate when labelling a diagram or writing an email address. Ensure that your child has lots of different things to write with e.g. a pencil for making notes and a pen for formal writing. Use different coloured pens for particular reasons, e.g. the word ‘warning’ could be written in red. Composition Plan their writing by: Identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing. Selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing. Noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary. In writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed. Using other similar writing as models for their own compositions. Help your child to identify the purposes for particular pieces of writing. This will help them make their writing appropriate for the audience. For example, how would an information leaflet for fellow pupils be different to one for adults. Encourage your child to use a favourite poem as a model for their own writing. Look at how different things are written, why they are written that way and who they are written for. Eg a football programme, a guide to a place you visit, leaflets and magazines Encourage your child to think aloud when recording ideas. Help them to record these ideas in different ways. E.g. notes, pictures and spider diagrams. Support them in using these ideas to enhance their writing. Help them to realise that they need to choose the ideas that have impact on the reader. Support your child to write in the style of a particular author. How would Roald Dahl compare to J.K Rowling? Could your child create a new character for one of their favourite stories? Could your child take one of their favourite characters and place them in a new exciting setting? Draft and write by: Selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning. Use a thesaurus with your child to build up banks of synonyms. E.g. different words for happy. Give you child different synonyms for the word tired e.g. sleepy, exhausted, worn out and fatigued and see how they affect a sentence. When writing about a subject you could help your child use specialist vocabulary so that it matches the topic. In narratives; Describing settings, characters and atmosphere. Prompt your child to use varied vocabulary choices and sentence structures to describe settings and characters. Your child could try to include: Expanded noun phrases - Noun phrases are groups of words that work together and contain a noun. e.g. “The girl…” Expanded noun phrases give extra detail. e.g. “The tall, young girl…” Adverbial phrases - An adverb is a word that describes a verb (an action or a doing word). He ate his breakfast quickly. The word quickly is an adverb. It tells us how he ate (the verb) his breakfast. Sometimes more than one word can do the adverb's job. This is called an adverbial phrase. He ate his lunch really quickly. Relative clauses – try adding a relative clause to a sentence. A relative clause is a special type of subordinate clause that modifies a noun. It often does this by using a relative pronoun such as who or that to refer back to that noun, though the relative pronoun that is often omitted. A relative clause may also be attached to a clause. In that case, the pronoun refers back to the whole clause, rather than referring back to a noun. In the examples, the relative clauses are underlined, and both the pronouns and the words they refer back to are in bold. That’s the boy who lives near school. [who refers back to boy] The prize that I won was a book. [that refers back to prize] The prize I won was a book. [the pronoun that is omitted] Tom broke the game, which annoyed Ali. [which refers back to the whole clause] Integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action. Précising longer passages. Using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs. Using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader [for example, headings, statements, underlining]. Starting sentences in different ways makes writing more interesting for the reader. Try starting sentences with words that end in ‘ly’ and ‘ing’. For example, Sitting on the mat, the cat purred happily. Silently, the cat slept on the fluffy mat. Integrating dialogue can help to develop a character. Think about what they say, why they are saying it and how they say it. Look in books to see how authors do this. Try to keep the dialogue meaningful so that it moves the story on. Help your child to include some non-standard English when writing a dialogue for a character. Help your child précis longer passages. Identify the key points and rewrite them in their own words. You could put the key points on a spider diagram first. Challenge your child to rewrite their favourite book in 100 words. Support your child to create a range of sentences about a particular topic. Help them to arrange them in a logical sequence. Help your child to start a sentence with a rhetorical question which is answered within the paragraph. Do you know the benefits of eating a healthy diet? Encourage your child to link paragraphs together. This can be done by repeating a key word or phrase in the final sentence of one paragraph and the opening sentence of the next. Using language like: firstly, next, moreover, furthermore will help your child to make links between paragraphs. Help them to open their writing with an introduction and to summarise with a conclusion at the end. Encourage your child to ask a question as a heading or a sub-heading and then answer it. Use bullet points to organise material. Integrate diagrams, charts or graphs. Link the closing paragraph to the opening paragraph. Include a glossary. Include a fact box. Could they include references and a bibliography? Evaluate and edit by: Assessing the effectiveness of their own and others' writing. Proposing changes to Vocabulary, Grammar & Punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning. Get your child to check their writing to see if it has impact and is suitable for the intended audience. Can they tell what is good about their writing and also suggest ways of how to improve it? Help your child to find words or phrases in their writing that they could improve. E.g. “You have used Proof-reading for spelling and punctuation errors. Ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing. Ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register. Performing their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear. but to join those two clauses. Could you think of a better way to join them?” Use a thesaurus to find better words. Challenge your child. “Could you write a sentence with a colon in?” Help your child to write in different tenses. Use the past tense for a narrative, present tense in a nonchronological report and the future tense to describe what they will do at the weekend. Could they write a story in two tenses with the use of ‘flashbacks’? Encourage your child to write for different audiences. A letter to a friend would have nonstandard colloquial language in whereas a letter to a supermarket manager asking for donations to a school raffle would be written in Standard English. Help your child with correct verb/subject agreement. Is ‘He walk to school’ correct? Is ‘We was washing the car’ correct? Celebrate your child’s finished pieces by asking them to read it to a family member. Encourage them to speak loudly and clearly and with expression. Check that they are pausing for punctuation and changing their voice for question and exclamation marks. Perhaps they could alter the volume to capture the audience attention. You could even film them doing this and bring it into school for the teacher to see.