The Narrative Tenses storytelling The Present Tenses Present simple Used to describe facts or routine This is a photo of St Aubin’s bay. The school where I work is based there. I drive to work round the coast every morning, and do the same on the way home. Every day is different as the tide changes twice a day. The Present Tenses Present continuous (or progressive) Used to describe activity taking place at the moment. Or activity of a finite nature around now. Maisie is sitting in a puddle of sunlight. (This is true at the time of speaking, but will change when she gets up and moves away) The Past Tenses Past simple Used to describe an event/ fact which is finished. This tense works best with an indication of time. Last week was my birthday. My daughter bought me these lovely flowers as a surprise gift. I put them in water and displayed them on the mantelpiece. The Past Tenses Past Continuous Used to describe an activity which took place in the past. Lots of people were using the beach last weekend. The sun was shining and people were sunbathing and swimming. The Perfect Tenses Present Perfect Simple (Imagine having one foot in the past and the other in the present). This is used to describe : 1. Unfinished past facts :I have been in my job for many years. 1990s 2000s now 2. Past actions with a present consequence: I have cut my finger. 3. Experience: I have worked in France. The Perfect Tenses Present Perfect Continuous Used to talk about the continuous aspect of the connection between past and present. I have been working as a teacher for many years. working working working I have been baking. (It took me all afternoon to do this). The Perfect Tenses Past Perfect Simple Used to describe a fact which took place in the past, before another event. On my last holiday we visited Carnac. It was interesting to note that the stones had been there for thousands of years. The Perfect Tenses Past Perfect Continuous Used to describe the activity taking place at a time in the past, prior to another event in the past. Yesterday I disturbed the cat. She had been sleeping peacefully in her basket until that point. The Narrative Tenses Are you now able to label the rings? Present simple and Continuous How are they used together? Think about an article from the newspaper. Or a fairy-tale. Or an incident you would like to describe. It is likely that you will use some, or all, of these tenses. Once upon a time, there lived a young girl whose father was a woodcutter. Her grandmother lived in a little house in the forest where she had been for many years. One day the little girl decided to visit her grandmother, who had been feeling ill. She told her mother ‘I am going to granny’s house. Dad told me that she hasn’t been very well. Do you have anything for me to give her?’…. etc. As you can see, most of the tenses can be used in a narrative of this kind.