RHETORICAL DEVICES Daily Starter 23 “Life is like a coin. You can spend it any way you wish, but you can only spend it once” 1. 2. What does the quote mean? How can you personally relate to it? SAT Vocabulary 7 Cajole (v) to urge; coax Clemency (n) mercy Demure (adj) quiet, modest; reserved Hapless (adj) unlucky Iniquity (n) wickedness or sin Neophyte (n) someone who is young or inexperienced Rescind (v) to take back; repeal Vex (v) to annoy; confuse Surmise (v) to infer with little evidence Precocious (adj) advanced; developing ahead of time Rhetoric Rhetoric (n) the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing. When taking a position on a topic, one presents their argument. According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos Logos Pathos Ethos Ethos (Credibility), or ethical appeal, means convincing by the character of the author (Greek for 'character') refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Conveyed through tone and style of the message and through the way the writer or speaker refers to differing views Can be based on: the writer's reputation his or her expertise in the field his or her previous record or integrity Pathos Pathos (Emotional) means persuading by appealing to the reader's emotions (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') is often associated with emotional appeal. An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer's point of view feel what the writer feels most common way of conveying a pathetic appeal is through narrative or story Logos Logos (Logical) means persuading by the use of reasoning Logos (Greek for 'word') refers to: the clarity of the claim the logic of its reasons the consistency the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal. The Shorthand Version Ethos: the source's credibility, the speaker's/author's authority Logos: the logic used to support a claim (induction and deduction); can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument. Pathos: the emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details. My claim: All individuals who receive a college education will have a successful future. Ethos: (SHOW that YOU know what YOU are talking about!) I graduated the University of Pembroke in North Carolina and I have been an English teacher for 4 years. I have purchased my own home, have medical, dental, and life insurance, and am able to enjoy life’s pleasures with ease. Logos: (PROVE IT!) “Information from the U.S. Census Bureau 2009 report reinforces the value of a college education: workers 25 and over with a bachelor's degree earn an average of $58,762 a year, while those with a high school diploma earn $32,812” (University of Maryland). Pathos: (Make me FEEL IT!) Think of your future and understand that you and your future children deserve financial success. As Americans we are entitled to a life of happiness as our soldiers from every generation since George Washington’s reign have fought for it. My Claim: Preschool children need adequate sleep to properly learn and to socialize well Ethos: (Show that YOU know what YOU are talking about) As a preschool teacher and parent, I have experienced many melt-downs from preschoolers who are over tired and refuse to participate in class. These children often lash out at other children because they are tired and grumpy. Logos: (Prove It!) Sleep deprivation can lead to fatigue, learning and concentration difficulties and accidents. Children who do not get enough sleep may display symptoms including moodiness, tantrums and hyperactive behavior. (Better Health) Pathos: (Make me FEEL it!) If parents want their children to succeed, they must ensure they get adequate sleep. Children who lack sleep are in danger of becoming targeted by their peers because of poor behavior and labeled with attention deficit disorders and possibly prescribed medications. Daily Starter 24 “You miss 100% of the shots you don’t take” –Wayne Gretzky 1. 2. What does the quote mean? How can you personally relate? Be Aware Thesis Statement due Wed. Voc 7 Maps – due Thurs Current Event 7 – due Fri Oral Quiz Voc 7 – Fri Character Essay – due Mon 17th Progress Reports (100 pts) America in the 1800s Age of American Enlightenment Roughly dated 1765-1815 Key events beforehand Unique – revolutionary aspect European Enlightenment People became philosophers Focus less on religion and rulers Focus more on the rights of individuals Problems with Rulers Why the Delay in America? America had enjoyed life unchecked Britain’s Role Investor Protector French Seven Year War Britain incurred huge debts Entitled to repayment Navigation Act, Stamp Act, Sugar Act, Coercive Acts Enforcement was difficult Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death Given by Patrick Henry March 23, 1775 Speech before the second Virginia convention Response to the increasingly oppressive British rule Pages 147-149 Note: ethos, pathos, logos Discuss motivational appeals Found Poem Use Patrick Henry’s speech to find a poem You will need to find ethos, pathos, and logos Find words or phrases within the text and form a poem Phrases MUST be kept in the same order they are found Poem must be 15 lines 5 ethos, 5 pathos, 5 logos (keep these grouped together) Poem must be titled (something relevant to you! Daily Starter 25 “The only person you are destined to become is the person you decide to be” – Ralph Waldo Emerson 1. What does the quote mean? 2. How can you personally relate? Today Vocabulary maps Grammar Journals Sojourner Truth Introductory clauses Must be followed by a comma Usually adverbial (why, when, how) Sentence – The dog ran under the porch. When the car backfired, the dog ran under the porch. After the gun shot, the dog ran under the porch. To avoid the rain, the dog ran under the porch. Tucking its tail, the dog ran under the porch. With a sudden jolt, the dog ran under the porch. The Possibilities are Endless However, the dog ran under the porch. If the door slams, the dog ran under the porch. Although the cat stood it ground, the dog ran under the porch. Other introductory words: Because, since, yes, no, as, while, therefore, etc. Yes, the dog ran under the porch. Therefore, the dog ran under the porch. Anaphora Anaphora (Rhetoric) the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. As a literary device, anaphora serves the purpose of furnishing artistic effect to the passages of prose and poetry. As a rhetorical device, it is used to appeal to the emotions of the audience in order to persuade, inspire, motivate and encourage them. Example “A Tale of Two Cities” by Charles Dickens starts with following lines: “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair.” Have you ever been treated unfairly? Women were treated unfairly in 1851 “From the cradle to the grave [woman] is subject to the power and control of man. Father, guardian, or husband, one conveys her like some piece of merchandise over to the other” Ernestine Rose According to the Declaration of Independence of the United States, all men are created equal and endowed with inalienable Rights. Voting Concerns Women’s Right to Vote Women were faced with a long battle Rally the cause (Women’s Rights Conventions) Men felt women should not vote: (Just a few) Because they should focus on affairs at home Women could not physically compete with men Defense of the country Women indirectly influenced their men Education, local charities, etc Isn’t that good enough-same thing right? 1870-Right to vote cannot be denied because of race 1920-Women gained the right to vote (finally) Meet Sojourner Truth Background p.344 Watch her speech Stood at 6 ft. tall Deep Read it P. strong voice 346 Note any motivational appeals Rhetorical Questions Anaphora Questions to consider Does Truth ever directly say women should have equal rights? How many times does Truth repeat “and ain’t I a woman?” How does this repetition affect the proceeding statements? What does Truth mean when she says “If my cup won’t hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn’t you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full?” Address your personal injustices Go back to the time when you were treated unfairly Model a speech after Truth’s that addresses your injustice Use ethos, pathos, and logos Mark each area Use a rhetorical question (anaphora) to make your point Must be one page (double spaced for labeling) Be prepared to give them in class on Friday Daily Starter 26 “Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away” –Maya Angelou 1. 2. What does the quote mean? How can you personally relate? Be Aware Voc Maps 7- due Today. Oral quiz – Fri Current Event 7 – Fri (Engrade Link) Crucible Essay – due Mon Progress Reports (100 pts) Truth Speeches – due tomorrow Be prepared Breaking Free Review What was happening in America during the 1700s In 1776, the Second Continental Congress created a committee to draft a statement declaring independence from Britain. Headed by Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence Turn to page 169 Read intro. Pair and interpret the grievances The Break-up Dear John/Jane, Over the course of my life, I have realized it is sometimes necessary to rid myself of negative influences that hinder my growth as a person and affect my happiness. Everyone deserves happiness and the opportunity to evolve as a person. Unfortunately, I realize that our relationship prohibits both my happiness and growth. List of grievances Conclusion: What action I plan to take to remedy this problem. Consider for a moment How does Jefferson organize the Declaration? 3-parts Examples of ethos, pathos, logos Examples of anaphora Daily Starter 27 “Build your own dreams, or someone else will hire you to build theirs” – Farrah Gray 1. 2. What does the quote mean? How can you personally relate? Be Aware Current Event 7 due today Character Essay due Monday (Hard copies only) Today! Voc 7 quiz Truth Speeches Quick Review Who delivered “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death” speech? When and where did he give it? Patrick Henry March 23, 1775 at the second Virginia convention What are the three motivational appeals? What is ethos? What is pathos? What is logos? What is a rhetorical question? What is anaphora Speech Assignment: Take out a piece of paper, for each speaker: Write the name of each speaker Their rhetorical question Example of a motivational appeal To be turned-in at the end of class. Example- John – Do I look like your housekeeper? Pathos- Felt bad because he has so many chores. Commercial Appeal We are subjected to ethos, pathos, and logos through advertisements Commercial Appeal Old Spice | The Man Your Man Could Smell Like Allstate Mayhem Forbiden Apple 2013 Super Bowl Ad Allstate TV Ad: Back to Basics. Dannon Oikos Greek Yogurt - The Spill Budweiser Super Bowl XLVIII Commercial -- Puppy Love Best Nike Find Your Greatness Commercial - The Jogger P&Gamble Cholesterol Prize - Cheerios TV Commercial Verizon Commercial More Everything Plan 2014 CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.4 Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.6 Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness or beauty of the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.11-12.1.d Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.