A Call to Arms Chapter 5 Lesson 3 Essential Question What motivates people to act? Objectives • Identify the Founders and recognize their contributions • Evaluate the battles of Lexington and Concord • Compare points of view held by Patriots and Loyalists Vocabulary • Minutemen – during Revolutionary era, civilian sworn to be ready to fight with only one minute’s notice • Loyalist – American colonist who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence • Patriot - American colonist who favored American independence A Meeting in Philadelphia 1774 • 55 people gathered in Philadelphia • Formed Continental Congress to challenge British control • 12/13 colonies sent at least 1 person • Georgia was the only state not to send at least 1 person *Massachusetts – Samuel Adams, John Adams *New York – John Jay *Virginia – George Washington, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry Involvement • Samuel Adams – Sons of Liberty • Patrick Henry – Virginia House of Burgesses • John Adams (lawyer) – Trial of the Boston Massacre The Delegates Vote • Delegates called for a repeal of 13 acts of Parliament • Voted to boycott British trade • Began organizing militias or “groups of civilian soldiers” The Colonial Militias • Members of a militia were an important part of each town’s defense • Trained and had drills with other soldiers • Provided their own weapon (musket) and ammunition • As tensions grew, towns began to gather and store military supplies Fighting Begins • Colonists believed that if there was going to be a fight, it would be in New England • Minutemen held drills, made bullets and stored weapons Great Britain Sends Troops • King George told Parliament that the colonies were “in a state of rebellion” and “blows must decide” who would control America • British general Thomas Gage had orders to seize the weapons from Massachusetts militia and arrest their leaders • He learned they were storing arms and ammunition in Concord and ordered to have it all destroyed The British on the Move • April 8th 1775 colonial protest leader Dr. Joseph Warren walked through Boston and saw troops marching towards the city • Warren alerted Paul Revere and William Dawes and they went to Lexington to spread the word • Revere and Dawes were later captured by the British Lexington (map on page 123) • At dawn 700 redcoats approached Lexington and ran into 70 minutemen • Just as the minutemen were going to give up, a shot was fired (“Shot heard ‘round the world”) • Both sides started firing; 8 minutemen were killed Concord • British ran into a group of men waiting at North Bridge • In a short battle the British suffered many losses • They headed back to Boston and were attacked by colonists hiding behind trees • When they got to Boston 73 British soldiers were dead and 174 were wounded • The battle for independence had begun The Battle of Bunker Hill • Volunteers joined the colonial militias after the battles at Lexington and Concord • On June 16th 1775 William Prescott set up posts on Bunker Hill across from Boston harbor • British soldiers were low on ammunition • “Don’t fire until you see the whites in their eyes” Who is on the top of the hill? How can you differentiate the British soldiers from the colonists? What is the British commander advising his troops to do? The Battle of Bunker Hill • American’s open fired on the British forcing them to retreat • They charged two more times; lost many soldiers • Colonists ran out of gunpowder and had to withdraw • British Victory Choosing Sides • Loyalists – those who sided with Britain – Did not feel unfair tax laws justified a rebellion – Felt Britain would win the war and did not want to be on the losing side • Patriots – supported the war – Believed colonists should have the right to govern themselves – American Revolution was a war between America and Britain as well as a civil war (Patriots vs. Loyalists Patriots vs. Loyalists: Who said it? 1. King George III is doing the best he can with a difficult situation. He is not a cruel or unjust ruler. 2. No one should have to pay a tax unless they choose the representative who helps determine that tax. 3. England has refused us our God-given rights. 4. Since England does not have the right to tax us, then they also do not have the right to make other laws that affect us. 5. We should pay our fair share to England. We have wealth, religious freedom, and opportunity for all. We are far better off than other countries. 6. We need the protection that England can give us. They protected us in the French and Indian war. They can also protect us in future conflicts. 7. England and the colonies all have the same roots. A war against England is like having a war against our own family. 8. Morally, we are better than England. We know the difference between right and wrong. England's government is corrupt. What’s next? • Get out a sheet of paper • Write me a paper in which you tell me whether you’re a Patriot, Loyalist or Neutralist. You must provide a minimum of four reasons for your choice. • The paper must be 1-2 pages. • This counts as a grade. • Each paper needs an intro, body, conclusion. Review • Which colony was not represented at the First Continental Congress? • Who were some of the important delegates? • What was the purpose of the Continental Congress? • Why did the British march to Concord? • What did the British learn from the Battle of Bunker Hill? Review • What’s the name of the group that supported the idea of separating from Britain? • What’s the name of the group that wanted to stay with Britain? Close and Reflect • The American Revolution was not only a war of Americans against the British, but it was also a civil war of Americans • Patriots vs. Loyalists • How do you think this affected families and friendships?