A Call to Arms powerpoint

A Call to Arms
Chapter 5 Lesson 3
Essential Question
What motivates people to act?
• Identify the Founders and recognize
their contributions
• Evaluate the battles of Lexington and
• Compare points of view held by Patriots
and Loyalists
• Minutemen – during Revolutionary era,
civilian sworn to be ready to fight with
only one minute’s notice
• Loyalist – American colonist who
remained loyal to Britain and opposed
the war for independence
• Patriot - American colonist who
favored American independence
A Meeting in Philadelphia 1774
• 55 people gathered in
• Formed Continental Congress
to challenge British control
• 12/13 colonies sent at least 1
• Georgia was the only state
not to send at least 1 person
*Massachusetts – Samuel Adams, John Adams
*New York – John Jay
*Virginia – George Washington, Richard Henry Lee, and Patrick Henry
• Samuel Adams – Sons of Liberty
• Patrick Henry – Virginia House of
• John Adams (lawyer) – Trial of the
Boston Massacre
The Delegates Vote
• Delegates called
for a repeal of 13
acts of Parliament
• Voted to boycott
British trade
• Began organizing
militias or “groups
of civilian soldiers”
The Colonial Militias
• Members of a militia were
an important part of each
town’s defense
• Trained and had drills with
other soldiers
• Provided their own weapon
(musket) and ammunition
• As tensions grew, towns
began to gather and store
military supplies
Fighting Begins
• Colonists believed that if there was going to
be a fight, it would be in New England
• Minutemen held drills, made bullets and
stored weapons
Great Britain Sends Troops
• King George told Parliament
that the colonies were “in a
state of rebellion” and “blows
must decide” who would
control America
• British general Thomas Gage
had orders to seize the
weapons from Massachusetts
militia and arrest their leaders
• He learned they were storing
arms and ammunition in
Concord and ordered to have it
all destroyed
The British on the Move
• April 8th 1775 colonial
protest leader Dr. Joseph
Warren walked through
Boston and saw troops
marching towards the city
• Warren alerted Paul Revere
and William Dawes and they
went to Lexington to spread
the word
• Revere and Dawes were
later captured by the British
Lexington (map on page 123)
• At dawn 700 redcoats
approached Lexington
and ran into 70
• Just as the minutemen
were going to give up,
a shot was fired (“Shot
heard ‘round the
• Both sides started
firing; 8 minutemen
were killed
• British ran into a group of men
waiting at North Bridge
• In a short battle the British suffered
many losses
• They headed back to Boston and
were attacked by colonists hiding
behind trees
• When they got to Boston 73 British
soldiers were dead and 174 were
• The battle for independence had
The Battle of Bunker Hill
• Volunteers joined the colonial
militias after the battles at
Lexington and Concord
• On June 16th 1775 William
Prescott set up posts on Bunker
Hill across from Boston harbor
• British soldiers were low on
• “Don’t fire until you see the whites
in their eyes”
Who is on the top of the hill?
How can you differentiate the British soldiers from the colonists?
What is the British commander advising his troops to do?
The Battle of Bunker Hill
• American’s open fired on
the British forcing them to
• They charged two more
times; lost many soldiers
• Colonists ran out of
gunpowder and had to
• British Victory
Choosing Sides
• Loyalists – those who sided with
– Did not feel unfair tax laws
justified a rebellion
– Felt Britain would win the war and
did not want to be on the losing
• Patriots – supported the war
– Believed colonists should have the
right to govern themselves
– American Revolution was a war
between America and Britain as
well as a civil war (Patriots vs.
Patriots vs. Loyalists: Who said it?
1. King George III is doing the best he can with a difficult situation. He is
not a cruel or unjust ruler.
2. No one should have to pay a tax unless they choose the
representative who helps determine that tax.
3. England has refused us our God-given rights.
4. Since England does not have the right to tax us, then they also do not
have the right to make other laws that affect us.
5. We should pay our fair share to England. We have wealth, religious
freedom, and opportunity for all. We are far better off than other
6. We need the protection that England can give us. They protected us in
the French and Indian war. They can also protect us in future
7. England and the colonies all have the same roots. A war against
England is like having a war against our own family.
8. Morally, we are better than England. We know the difference between
right and wrong. England's government is corrupt.
What’s next?
• Get out a sheet of paper
• Write me a paper in which you tell me
whether you’re a Patriot, Loyalist or
Neutralist. You must provide a minimum of
four reasons for your choice.
• The paper must be 1-2 pages.
• This counts as a grade.
• Each paper needs an intro, body,
• Which colony was not represented at the First
Continental Congress?
• Who were some of the important delegates?
• What was the purpose of the Continental
• Why did the British march to Concord?
• What did the British learn from the Battle of
Bunker Hill?
• What’s the name of the group that supported
the idea of separating from Britain?
• What’s the name of the group that wanted to
stay with Britain?
Close and Reflect
• The American Revolution was not only a war
of Americans against the British, but it was
also a civil war of Americans
• Patriots vs. Loyalists
• How do you think this affected families and