States of Consciousness Chapter 7 1 History of Consciousness 1. Psychology began as a science of consciousness. 2. Behaviorists argued about alienating consciousness from psychology. 3. However, after 1960, mental concepts (consciousness) started reentering psychology. 2 Forms of Consciousness Consciousness: awareness of ourselves and our environment. 3 Neuroscience & Consciousness The Consciousness Lag: -awareness of events/behaviors lags behind the response (unconscious) Information Processing Unconscious mind: processes information simultaneously Conscious mind: processes information sequentially. Conscious mind Unconscious mind 4 Does the Menstrual Cycle Affect Moods? Biological Rhythms Biological rhythms are controlled by internal “biological clocks.” 1. Annual cycles: seasonal variations in appetite, sleep, and mood. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder people experience during dark winter months. 2. 28-day cycles: The female menstrual cycle averages 28 days. Research shows menstruation may not affect moods. 3. 24-hour cycles (Circadian Rhythms)Humans experience 24-hour cycles of varying alertness (sleep), body temperature, and growth hormone secretion. 4. 90-minute cycles: We go through various stages of sleep in 90minute cycles. 6 Rhythm of Sleep Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to activate pineal gland: Melatonin: -decrease (morning = wake) -increase (evening = sleep) 7 Sleep Stages Every 90 minutes, we cycle through 5 sleep stages. How do we know this? – Sleep studies 8 Awake & Alert During strong mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast, irregular beta waves . Fun Fact: A person involved in a conversation shows beta activity! Beta Waves 9 Brain Activity: Waves 10 Awake but Relaxed Brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves. Fun Fact: Alpha waves are present during meditation! 11 Sleep Stages 1-2 Early, light sleep (stages 1-2): high-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves . Fun Fact: Theta waves are present while daydreaming! Theta Waves 12 Sleep Stages 3-4 Deepest sleep (stages 3-4), brain activity slows down. Large-amplitude, slow delta waves. Fun Fact: If you talk or walk in your sleep, this is when you are likely to do so. 13 Stage 5: REM Sleep After reaching the deepest sleep stage (4), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1. Still asleep, the brain engages in low- amplitude, fast and regular beta waves much like awake-aroused state. -Muscles relaxed vs. increased brain activity, H.R., B.P. => Paradoxical -Rapid Eye Movement (REM) -REM Paralysis -Most vivid dreaming -Most learning takes place 14 90-Minute Cycles During Sleep With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and the duration of REM sleep increases. 15 Why do we sleep? We spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping…why? Ideas? Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./ Corbis 16 Sleep Theories 1. Sleep Protects: Sleeping in the darkness when predators loomed about kept our ancestors out of harm’s way. 2. Sleep Recuperates: Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue. 3. Sleep Helps Remembering: Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories. 4. Sleep and Growth: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less. 17 Accidents Frequency of accidents increase with loss of sleep Canadian traffic accidents (1991-92) 18 Sleep Deprivation 1. Fatigue and subsequent death. 2. Impaired concentration. 3. Emotional irritability. 4. Depressed immune system. 5. Greater vulnerability. All dream researchers believe we need REM sleep. When deprived of REM sleep and then allowed to sleep, we show increased REM sleep called REM Rebound. 19 Sleep Disorders 1. Insomnia: Persistent problem falling or staying asleep. 2. Somnambulism: Sleepwalking. 3. Nightmares: Frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM. 4. Night terrors: Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) 5. Narcolepsy: Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up. 6. Sleep apnea: Failure to breathe when asleep. 20 Dreams The link between REM sleep and dreaming has opened up a new era of dream research. What do you we dream about? Why? 21 What do we Dream? 1. Negative Emotional Content: 8 out of 10 dreams have negative emotional content. 2. Failure Dreams: People commonly dream about failure, being attacked, pursued, rejected, or struck with misfortune. 3. Sexual Dreams: Men:1 in 10 dreams are sexual; women 1 in 30. 4. Dreams of Gender: Women dream of men and women equally; men dream more about men than women. 22 Why do we dream? “Why do I dream?” “Well, there is NO DEFINITE ANSWER… BUT…there are a few theories…” 1. Freudian Theory / Wish Fulfillment: In The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) Sigmund Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings. Dream Content “What actually happens” Symbolic Transformation “What it means” (interpretation) hidden, unconscious desires & thoughts being expressed 23 Why do we dream? 2. Information Processing: Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories. -cramming w/o sleep = No REM sleep = No memorization!!! 3. Physiological Function: provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways. 24 Why do we dream? 4. Activation-Synthesis Theory: random neural activity => Dreams make sense of this activity. 5. Cognitive Development: brain maturation and cognitive development. - Babies need sleep! 25 Dream Theories Summary 26 Hypnosis: Origins Franz Anton Mesmer - credit for hypnosis “discovery” - mistakenly thought he discovered “animal magnetism.” - Some patients experienced a trancelike state and felt better upon waking up. Franz Mesmer (1734 - 1815) Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. 27 Aspects of Hypnosis 1. Posthypnotic Suggestion: Suggestion carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized. 2. Posthypnotic Amnesia: Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis. 28 Hypnosis: Fact or Fiction? Those who practice hypnosis agree that its power resides in the subject’s openness to suggestion. Can anyone experience hypnosis? Yes, to some extent. Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? No. Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? No. Can hypnosis be therapeutic? Can hypnosis alleviate pain? Yes. Self-suggestion can heal too. Yes. Breathing & concentration can do that too. 29 Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness? Two Theories: Divided Consciousness Theory: - Hypnosis = state of dissociated (divided) consciousness (Hilgard, 1986, 1992). Social Influence Theory: - Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a social role. 30 Yet another reason to say ‘NO’ to drugs: After 4 years of ‘meth’ Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (effects consciousness). 3 Types: Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens Terms you should know: - Tolerance - Withdrawal - Dependence (physical & psychological) 32 Drugs & Neurotransmission 33 Misconceptions about Addiction 1. Addictive drugs quickly corrupt. Odds of getting hooked: Marijuana: Alcohol: Cocaine: Heroin: Tobacco: 9% 15% 17% 23% 32% Source: National Academy of Science (2003) 2. 3. Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily. Is addiction a disease? Addiction is no different than repetitive pleasureseeking behaviors. But what’s the limit? 35 Influences on Drug Use The graph below shows the percentage of US highschool seniors reporting their use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine from the 70s to the late 90s. 36 Influences on Drug Use Drug use = Biopsychosocial influences Biological Influences Psychological Influences Social-cultural Influences Drug Use 37 Marijuana Use The use of marijuana in teenagers is directly related to the “perceived risk” involved with the drug. 38 Steve Jobs Last Words (really): "Oh wow. Oh wow. Oh wow." 39 Near-Death Experiences Can the mind survive the dying body? Dualism: that mind (nonphysical) and body (physical) are two distinct entities that interact. -N.D.E. = human immortality (soul) 2. Monism: mind and body are different aspects of the same thing. -N.D.E. = brain stress => hallucinations (From “Hallucinations” by R.K. Siegel. Copyright © 1977 Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.) 1.