Systems Architecture, Fifth Edition

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SCSC 311 Information Systems:
hardware and software
Chapter Objectives
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The history of computing
Computer system capabilities and components
Computer system classification
Software
Economics of System and Application
Development Software
Computer networks
2
Topic 1 History of Computing
What is a computer?
3
Topic 1 History of Computing

Originally, the term
"computer" referred to a
person who performed
numerical calculations
(a human computer ?!)


often with the aid of a
mechanical calculating
device.
Examples of early
mechanical computing
devices included the abacus,
the slide rule, etc.
4
Topic 1 History of Computing

However, none of those devices fit the modern
definition of a computer. Why?

What is the first computer by the modern
definition?
5
Mechanical Computers

Jacquard loom Joseph Jacquard
design punched paper cards as a
template to allow his textile loom to
weave intricate patterns automatically.
(1801)

the use of punched cards to define woven
patterns can be viewed as an early form of
programmability.
6
Difference Engine


Charles Babbage saw high error rate of the people
computing the tables, thus started his life’s work in
trying to calculate the tables mechanically,
removing all human error.
He began in 1822 with what he called the
difference engine, made to compute values of
polynomial functions.


around 25,000 parts, fifteen tons, eight feet high.
Charles did not complete it. but difference engine was
built using his plans in 1991.
7
Analytical Engine

Babbage started designing a different,
more complex machine called Analytical
Engine would be able to perform all four
arithmetical operations, plus comparisons
and square roots.




was to be powered by a steam engine, 30 m x
10 m
The input (programs and data) was to be
provided to the machine via punch cards, was
to be a store capable of holding 1,000 numbers
of 50 digits each.
Unfortunately …
Limitations of mechanical computers



Complex design and construction
Wear, breakdown, and maintenance of parts
Low operating speed
8
Electronic Computers (1)
Two very important scientific
Achievements in 20th century

The use of digital electronics


largely invented by Claude Shannon
in 1937
A more flexible programmability
model - von Neumann architecture



uses a single storage structure to
hold both instructions and data.
The separation of storage from the
processing unit is implicit in the von
Neumann architecture.
The term describes such a computer,
which implements a Universal
Turing machine.
9
Electronic Computers (2)
ENIAC (1945—1955)
 the first large-scale, electronic, digital computer capable of being
reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems
 weighed 30 tons, and consumed two hundred kilowatts of power.
10
Electronic Computers (3)
Faster, more reliable electronic computers
11
Optical Computers
Optical Computers: uses light, instead of
electricity, to perform computations



Represents data as pulses of light stored directly or
indirectly by materials that reflect or don’t reflect light.
Optical Computers are not realized yet
Now optical technology is common in


Optical fiber networks
Optical storages – CD, DVD
The future: optical computer, quantum computer
(Technology Focus P25)
12
Index
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The history of computing
Computer system capabilities and
components
Computer system classification
Software
Economics of System and Application
Development Software
Computer networks
13
Topic 2 Systems Architecture and
Capabilities

Systems Architecture
describes structure,
interaction, and technology of
computer system components

Capabilities of a computer



Storage: accept numeric inputs
Processing: perform
computational functions
Communication: communicate
results
the Von Neumann machine
14
Processor

A processor is a device that performs data manipulation
and transformation functions



(will be covered in Ch 4)
Computation and Comparison
Control data movement among memory, mass storage, and
input/output devices
Terms (p27 – 29)
 Instruction, Program
 General-purpose processor vs. special-purpose processor
 Formulas, algorithms

Comparisons, branching
15
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
General-purpose processor


Executes all instructions (computation and comparison
functions)
Directs all data movement
16
CPU Components
Arithmetic
logic unit
(ALU)

Contains electrical circuits that
implement each instruction
Registers

Internal storage locations that can
each hold a single instruction or data
item
Control unit

Controls movement of data to and
from CPU
 Accesses program instructions and
issues appropriate commands to ALU
17
Storage

Types of information to be stored




(will be covered in Ch 5)
Intermediate processing results
Data
Programs
Characteristics of storage devices vary widely



Cost
Access speed
Reliability
18
Storage Types
19
Primary and Secondary Storage

Primary Storage holds program instructions and data
for currently executing programs




Implemented with random access memory (RAM)
Provides access speed and allows CPU to read or write to
specific memory locations
Volatile; does not provide permanent storage
Secondary Storage is composed of high-capacity
nonvolatile storage devices that hold



Programs not currently being executed
Data not needed by currently executing programs
Data needed by currently executing programs that does not
fit within available primary storage
20
System Bus

(will be covered in Ch 6)
Internal communication
channel that connects all other
hardware devices


Primary pathway for moving
data and instructions among
hardware components
Capacity is critical to
performance, secondary
storage, and I/O device
performance
21
Input/Output


Computers must encompass many communication modes
 Sound, text, and graphics
(for humans)
 Electronic or optical communication
(for other computers)
Input/Output Devices: implement external communication functions
 Human-oriented communication devices (e.g., keyboard, mouse,
printer)
 Computer-oriented communication devices (e.g., modem, network
interface unit)
22
Index
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The history of computing
Computer system capabilities and components
Computer system classification
Software
Economics of System and Application
Development Software
Computer networks
23
Topic 3 Computer System Classes
Microcomputer


Meets information processing needs of single
user
Examples: PCs, network computers
Midrange
computer

Supports many programs and users
simultaneously
Mainframe

Handles information processing needs of large
number of users and applications
Designed for large amounts of data storage and
access

Supercomputer

Designed for rapid mathematical computation
24
Multicomputer Configurations

Any organization of multiple computers to
support a specific set of services or applications

Common configurations



Cluster
Blade
Grid
What are the differences among them?
25
1. Cluster

Cluster: a group of similar or identical computers
that cooperate to provide services or execute a
common application
 Advantages: scalability and fault tolerance
 Disadvantages: complex configuration and
administration
26
2. Blade

Blade: circuit board that contains most of a server
computer; Is a specialized cluster

Blade vs. Cluster
 Blade concentrates more computing power in less space
 Blade is simpler to modify
27
3. Grid

Grid computing: a group of dissimilar computer
systems, connected by high-speed network, that
cooperate to provide services or execute a common
application.



Computers may be in separate rooms, buildings, or
continents
Computers work cooperatively at some times,
independently at others
Grid vs. cluster


grids connect collections of computers which do not fully
trust each other, and hence operate more like a computing
utility than like a single computer
grids typically support more heterogeneous collections
28
Grid Computing
29
Bigger Isn’t Always Better

Grosch's law is the observation about computer
performance made by Herb Grosch in 1965:



Computer performance increases as the square of the cost.
can also be interpreted as meaning that computers present
economies of scale: Bigger computers are more economical.
The relevance of Grosch's law today is a debated
subject. It has been rewritten due to:



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

Multiple classes of computers
Expanded abilities to configure computers for specific purposes
Increased software costs relative to hardware costs
Large computer databases
Widespread adoption of graphical user interfaces
Multicomputer configurations
30
Index
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The history of computing
Computer system capabilities and components
Computer system classification
Software
Economics of System and Application
Development Software
Computer networks
31
Topic 4 Software


Software translates user requests into machine
instructions
Software performs complex translation process that
bridges two gaps:


Human language to machine language (binary)
High-level abstraction to low-level detail
32
Software Types
Application
program


Utility
program


System
software




Stored set of instructions for responding to a
specific information-processing tasks
Used directly by end users
Contains instructions for performing generalpurpose tasks
Usually operates invisibly in the background
Implements utility functions needed by many
application programs
Allocates computer resources to application
programs
Manages computer resources
Does not interact with end users
33
The Interaction between the user, application
software, system software, and hardware
34
System Software and Operating Systems

OS is the most important system software
component
(will be covered in Ch 11)

Main Functions of OS:




Program storage, loading, and execution
File manipulation and access
Secondary storage management
Network and interactive user interfaces
35
Application Development Software

Application development software are programs used to
develop other programs

Types:





Program editors
Program translators
Debugging tools
System development tools
Integrated Development Environment (IDE): is visual
development tool, integrated with the compiler or
application server, and may include tools for debugging,
refactoring, version control, and so forth.
Do you know Any IDE?
36
Index
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
The history of computing
Computer system capabilities and components
Computer system classification
Software
Economics of System and Application
Development Software
Computer networks
37
Topic 5 Economics of System and
Application Development Software



System software consumes hardware resources
Cost per unit of computing power has rapidly decreased
Software is more cost-effective when reused many times
38
Topic 6 Computer Networks
(will be covered in Ch 9)
Computer networks: set of hardware and software components that
enable multiple users and computer systems to share information,
software, and hardware resources
39
Network Hardware

Network communication devices



Simpler than I/O devices; do not need to convert data
represented electronically into another form
Support communication at high speeds
Physical network
Complex combination of communication protocols,
methods of data transmission, and network hardware
devices
40
Network Software




Finds requested resources on the network
Negotiates resource access with distant
resource allocation software
Receives and delivers resources to requesting
user or program
May also listen for and validate resource
requests, and deliver resources via the network
41
In Conclusion:

Basic elements of computer system architecture




Hardware
Software
Networks
Importance of knowing how all components of a
computer system interrelate as well as their
internal workings
42
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