MR. RICHARDS JOKE OF THE DAY!! Q: If April showers bring May flowers, what do May flowers bring? JOKES ARE FUN Pilgrims! PLANTS, WHAT ARE THEY? Key Terms: Cuticle Spore Sporophyte gametophyte PLANTS, WHO CARES?? Humans depend on plants in many ways. All types of plant parts are eaten as food. Without plants many other organisms could not exist. WHAT IS A PLANT? Plants are the dominant group of organisms on land based on mass!!! Individual plants range from less than 2mm tall up to 328 feet tall!! HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU ARE A PLANT? Plants are: 1. Multicellular 2. Eukaryotic 3. Their Cells have cell walls 4. Autotrophs that produce their own food through photosynthesis. PHOTOSYNTHESIS You are experts at this point on photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants make organic materials from inorganic materials. The do this by using energy from the sun and carbon dioxide. WHERE DID PLANTS COME FROM? Plants evolved from multicellular green algae. On land minerals, light and carbon dioxide are readily available at the soil surface. What may be in short supply that plants need to survive? PHOTOSYNTHESIS Where in a plant cell does photosynthesis occur? What do plants need to survive? PLANTS THE NEW KIDS ON THE BLOCK Water! Water is the answer Good job Tayshon QUESTION What are the four key characteristics of a plant? What do you need for photosynthesis? NON VASCULAR PLANTS Do not have a xylem or phloem. These plants will grow close to the soil surface. They photosynthesize only when water is available. NON VASCULAR PLANTS These plants will stop photosynthesis when the soil surface dries out. They can survive losing most of the water from their bodies and can quickly resume photosynthesis when water returns VASCULAR PLANTS These are the plants that you are more familiar with. Vascular plants can photosynthesize even when the soil surface is dry. These plants have roots that obtain water from the soil and have specialized tissue to transport this water to the rest of the plant. VASCULAR PLANTS This same vascular tissue ( xylem and Phloem) also transport organic molecules produced by photosynthesis from the leaves to the roots. SO WHY COULD PLANTS MAKE IT ON LAND? To make it own land plants had to be able : 1.to absorb nutrients from their surroundings 2. avoid drying out 3. have a way of dispersal that did not require water. ABSORBING NUTRIENTS On land most vascular plants absorb nutrients through their roots. What is the mutualistic relationship between a plants roots and a fungus? PREVENTING WATER LOSS Plants have a water tight covering that reduces water loss. This made it possible for plants to live in dry habitats. This covering is called a cuticle. CUTICLE HELPS PLANTS SURVIVE A cuticle is a waxy layer that covers the above ground parts of most plants. Roots obtain water from the soil and the cuticle helps to keep the water in. DISPERSAL ON LAND Aquatic algae released cells that drifted in water currents. The earliest plants produced single cells called spores. How are spores dispersed? DISPERSAL Some plants still produce spores. Seed plants produce a special kind of spore called pollen. Pollen transports sperm to eggs. WERE YOU LISTENING? What is the waxy layer on parts of plants called that helps prevent water loss? What is the mutualistic relationship between plant roots and a fungus? Write down three factors that allowed for the survival of plants on land! PLANT LIFE CYCLES Remember plants evolved from multicellular green algae. What is a Sporophyte? What is a gametophyte? MR. RICHARDS JOKE OF THE DAY If fruit comes from a fruit tree, where does chicken come from? JOKES ARE FUN A poul-tree! WHAT ARE FOUR THINGS THAT MAKE YOU A PLANT? HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU ARE A PLANT? Plants are: 1. Multicellular 2. Eukaryotic 3. Their Cells have cell walls 4. Autotrophs that produce their own food through photosynthesis. What are three things that made plants able to survive on land? SO WHY COULD PLANTS MAKE IT ON LAND? To make it own land plants had to be able : 1.to absorb nutrients from their surroundings 2. avoid drying out 3. have a way of dispersal that did not require water. SEEDLESS PLANTS When you think of a plant what is the first thing that comes to mind?... NONVASCULAR PLANTS Remember nonvascular plants do not have a xylem or phloem and grow close to the ground. Can you think of an example of a non vascular plant. NONVASCULAR PLANTS Moss is a type of nonvascular plant. Non vascular plants are small plants that reproduce by using spores. They lack true roots stems and leaves. These are complex structures that contain vascular or conducting material ( xylem and phloem) NON VASCULAR PLANTS So non vascular plants have no complex conducting structures ( xylem and phloem), how do they get water and nutrients from one place to another? NON VASCULAR PLANTS In non vascular plants water and nutrients move from one part of the plant to another through osmosis and diffusion. This is why these plants are small and close to the ground. Water and nutrients can only be moved short distances through these methods. MOSSES These are probably the nonvascular plants that everyone is the most familiar with. The leafy green plants that you recognize as mosses are gametophytes. This means they are Haploid or Diploid Circle one MOSSES Mosses consist of a cuticle, stomata, and simple conducting cells. Because these cells carry water only short distances mosses never get very large LIVERWORTS Like mosses liverworts grow in mats of many individual plants LIVERWORTS Liverworts have no cuticles, no stomata and no conducting cells. HORNWORTS HORNWORTS Hornwots are a small group of nonvascular plants. They lack conducting cells of any kind. They do however posses both a cuticle and a stomata. DID YOU LEARN WHAT YOU NEED TO I have no conducting cells, no stomata and no cuticle….. Who am I? DID YOU LEARN WHAT YOU NEED TO I have a cuticle , stomata, and conducting cells….. Who am I? DID YOU LEARN WHAT YOU NEED TO I have no conducting cells but have both a cuticle and stomata…. Who am I? REPRODUCTION IN NONVASCULAR PLANTS Like all plants, nonvascular plants have a life cycle characterized by alternation of generation REPRODUCTION In the life cycle the gametophyte is the dominant generation. Gametophytes are haploid or diploid Circle one REPRODUCTION Gametophytes must be covered by a film of water in order for fertilization to occur. Gametophytes produce gametes in two separate structures. REPRODUCTION The structure that produces eggs is called archegonium (ahr kuh GOH nee uhm) The structure that produces sperm is called antheridium (An thur Id ee uhm) LIFE CYCLE OF A MOSS LIFE CYCLE OF A MOSS As you can see from the diagram a moss sporophyte grows from a gametophyte. The sporophyte consists of a bare stalk with a spore capsule or sporangium at its tip There fore the spores are produced are haploid or diploid circle one LIFE CYCLE OF A MOSS The spores are released and carried away by the wind. When the spores land on the ground it germinates and grows into a leafy looking green gametophyte. The moss grow in tightly packed clumps. When water covers the ground sperm can swim to nearby Archegonium and fertilize the eggs inside. TIME FOR AN OPEN NOTE QUIZ 1. How is water transported in nonvascular plants? 2. Why are nonvascular plants usually small? 3. Which of the three nonvascular plants you learned have no cuticle no stomata and no conducting cells? 4. Which structure produces the male sex cells in nonvascular plants? 5. Which structure produces the male sex cells in nonvascular plants? SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Vascular plants that do not produce seeds are called seedless vascular plants Sporophytes of seedless vascular plants have vascular tissue but gametophytes do not. SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Because they have vascular tissue it will allow the sporophyte generation of seedless vascular plants to grow_________________________ Also these plants develop roots stems and leaves SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS The much smaller gametophyte of seedless vascular plants do not have a vascular system and therefore will grow on or below the ground Just like nonvascular plants seedless vascular plants will require water for fertilization to occur. When enough water is covering the plant the sperm can swim to the egg. 2 TYPES OF SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS 1. Club mosses 2 TYPES OF SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS 2. Fern and fern relatives CLUB MOSSES Unlike true mosses ( which are nonvascular) Club mosses have roots, stems and leaves. Their leafy green stems branch from an underground rhizome. JOKES OF THE DAY What do you give to a sick lemon? JOKES ARE FUN Lemon aid! CLUB MOSSES A rhizome is a horizontal underground stem. FERN AND FERN RELATIVES These are the most common and familiar seedless vascular plants. The plants that we all recognize as ferns are sporophytes. STRUCTURE OF FERN SPOROPHYTE STRUCTURE The coiled young leaves of a fern are called fiddleheads Spores are produced in sporangia on the lower side of the fronds GAMETOPHYTE OF FERN Remember the gametophyte form of seedless vascular plants lack vascular tissue Therefore , the gamtophyte generation of a fern is usually less than 1 cm across. SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS ARE IMPORTANT About 300 million years ago seedless vascular plants were the most common plants on earth. Many of these were very large tree ferns. When these giant tree ferns died they became buried and formed carbon rich coal deposits. Coal is a very important fuel used today. This period in history was called the Carboniferous period. FERN LIFE CYCLE REPRODUCTION IN SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Like nonvascular plants, seedless vascular plants can reproduce sexually only when a film of water covers the gametophyte. REPRODUCTION IN SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Some ferns may have a sporophyte that is as large as a tree while the gametophyte of ferns is less than 1 cm across. The archegonia and antheridia develop on the lower sideof the gametophytes. In most species of seedless vascular plants the egg and sperm are produced on the same individual. JOKES OF THE DAY What did the baby corn say to the mama corn? JOKES ARE FUN Where’s POP? SEED PLANTS, THIS IS WHAT YOU LEARN! What are two groups in which seed plants are classified? What characterizes reproduction in seed plants? What are four major groups of living gymnosperms? What characterizes reproduction in a conifer? SEED PLANTS Most plants living today are seed plants. Seeds helped with dispersal and survival in land plants. KINDS OF SEED PLANTS The first seed plants appeared on the scene 380 million years ago Seed plants are broken up into two groups: • Gymnosperms •Angiosperms GYMNOSPERMS Gymnosperms are seed plants who’s seeds do not develop within a fruit. Gymnosperm comes from the greek words gymnos meaning naked and sperma meaning seed. GYMNOSPERMS The seeds of most gymnosperms develop within a cone. Who can think of an example of a gymnosperm? ANGIOSPERM Angiosperms are seed plants who’s seed are enclosed with a fruit. The word angiosperm comes from the greek words angeion meaning case and sperma meaning ________________________. ANGIOSPERM Fruit develops from a part of a flower. Therefore, angiosperms are flowering plants! SEED PLANTS What is the difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms in terms of seed production? REPRODUCTION IN SEED PLANTS Reproduction in seed plants is very different form that of seedless plants. Remember seedless plants require water to reproduce sexually. REPRODUCTION IN SEED PLANTS Reproduction in seed plants is characterized by a dominant sporophyte generation and a small gametophyte generation. The gametophyte of most seed plants is so small you often need a microscope to see them. REPRODUCTION IN SEED PLANTS Sporophytes produce two kinds of spores that develop into two kinds of gametes: Female gametes that produce eggs Male gametes that produce sperm. FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE The female gametophyte develops inside an ovule. An ovule is a structure of a seed plant that contains a female gametophyte and develops into a seed after fertilization. MALE GAMETOPHYTE The male gametophyte develop inside of a pollen grain POLLINATION Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the male reproductive structures of a plant to the female reproductive structures. Wind or animals transport pollen grains to the structures that contain ovules. FERTILIZATION When a pollen grain reaches a compatible female reproductive structure a tube emerges from the pollen grain. This tube is called a Pollen Tube. The pollen tube grows to the female gametophyte inside the ovule and enables sperm to pass directly to the egg. The fusion of an egg and sperm is called fertilization. WERE YOU LISTENING Where do gametophytes develop in seed plants? SEED FORMATION After fertilization the ovule becomes a seed and contains an embryo. A seed is a complex structure. SEED STRUCTURE The outer layer of the seed is called the seed coat. The seed coat is a tough shell that protects the seed from injury and the environment. The seeds also contain tissue that provides nutrients to the embryo. This tissue is called endosperm. SEED DISPERSAL Seeds are dispersed or scattered from the parent plant to locations where the embryos in the seed develop into new sporophytes. Dispersal may prevent competition for water, nutrient and living space between the parent and offspring. Many seeds have structures that help wind water or animals carry them away. TIME TO THINK! What are some ways that plants are able to get the seeds to greater distances ? (think about different seeds you have seen) GONE WITH THE WIND Many conifer seeds have wing like structures that act like propellers as the seeds fall to the ground. Fruits of maple trees also have wings!! THE WIND Dandelions have a parachute like structure that helps their seeds float through the air. DISPERSAL BY ANIMALS What are ways that animals may move seeds? You can probably think of at least two HERE IS THE ANSWER. I’VE GOT QUESTIONS How does seed dispersal benefit plants? GYMNOSPERMS Remember gymnosperm means naked seed. So no fruit. There are four major groups of Gymnosperms: 1. Conifers 2. Cycads 3. Ginkgoes 4. Gnetophytes CONIFERS These are the most familiar gymnosperms. • Conifers have needle like leaves. • They are some of the tallest and oldest plants. • Pine trees. • Pollen is dispersed by wind CYCADS Cycads have short stems and palm like leaves. They are widespread throughout the tropics. The pollen of most cycads are dispersed by wind. CYCADS GINKGOES There is only one living species of ginkgo tree. It has fan shaped leaves. The male and female gametophyte develops on separate trees. Ginkgo seeds do not develop within a cone Pollen is dispersed by wind GINKGO When the seed of a ginkgo tree falls off it smells like rancid butter or vomit. This is why it is very important to know whether you are getting a female or male tree. Which would you want in your yard, male or female? GNETOPHYTES The gnetophytes is a diverse group of trees, shrubs, and vines that produce seeds in cones. Example: Welwitischia. MORE QUESTIONS!!!!! Which of the four gymnosperms have seeds that do not develop in a cone? How is pollen of most gymnosperms dispersed? What about the pollen of Cycads?